57 found
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  1. The concept of observation in science and philosophy.Dudley Shapere - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):485-525.
    Through a study of a sophisticated contemporary scientific experiment, it is shown how and why use of the term 'observation' in reference to that experiment departs from ordinary and philosophical usages which associate observation epistemically with perception. The role of "background information" is examined, and general conclusions are arrived at regarding the use of descriptive language in and in talking about science. These conclusions bring out the reasoning by which science builds on what it has learned, and, further, how that (...)
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  2. The structure of scientific revolutions.Dudley Shapere - 1964 - Philosophical Review 73 (3):383-394.
  3.  26
    Reason and the Search for Knowledge.Dudley Shapere - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):310-312.
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  4. Meaning and scientific change.Dudley Shapere - 1966 - In R. Colodny (ed.), Mind and Cosmos: Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 41--85.
  5.  7
    Reason and the Search for Knowledge: Investigations in the Philosophy of Science.Dudley Shapere - 1983 - Springer.
    An impressive characteristic of Dudley Shapere's studies in the philosophy of the sciences has been his dogged reasonableness. He sorts things out, with logical care and mastery of the materials, and with an epistemological curiosity for the historical happenings which is both critical and respectful. Science changes, and the philosopher had better not link philosophical standards too tightly to either the latest orthodox or the provocative up start in scientific fashions; and yet, as critic, the philosopher must not only master (...)
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  6. Reason, reference, and the Quest for knowledge.Dudley Shapere - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (1):1-23.
    This paper examines the "causal theory of reference", according to which science aims at the discovery of "essences" which are the objects of reference of natural kind terms (among others). This theory has been advanced as an alternative to traditional views of "meaning", on which a number of philosophical accounts of science have relied, and which have been criticized earlier by the present author. However, this newer theory of reference is shown to be equally subject to fatal internal difficulties, and (...)
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  7.  65
    Galileo: A Philosophical Study.Dudley Shapere - 1974 - University of Chicago Press.
    An examination of Galileo's thought and work that focuses on his contributions to modern science.
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  8. Evolution and continuity in scientific change.Dudley Shapere - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):419-437.
    The alleged problem of "incommensurability" is examined, and attempts to explain scientific change in terms of concepts of meaning and reference are analyzed and rejected. A way of understanding scientific change through a properly developed concept of "reasons" is presented, and the issues of reasons, meaning, and reference are placed in the context of this broader interpretation of scientific change.
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  9. Astronomy and antirealism.Dudley Shapere - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (1):134-150.
    Relying on an analysis of the case of gravitational lensing, Hacking argues for a "modest antirealism" in astronomy. It is shown here that neither his scientific arguments nor his philosophical doctrines imply an antirealist conclusion. An alternative, realistic interpretation of gravitational lensing, and of the nature and history of astronomy more generally, is suggested.
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  10.  25
    Certain Philosophical Questions: Newton's Trinity Notebook.Dudley Shapere, J. E. McGuire & Martin Tamny - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (1):102.
  11.  12
    Method in the philosophy of science and epistemology.Dudley Shapere - 1987 - In Nancy J. Nersessian (ed.), The Process of Science: Contemporary Philosophical Approaches to Understanding Scientific Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  12.  76
    What Can the Theory of Knowledge Learn from the History of Knowledge?Dudley Shapere - 1977 - The Monist 60 (4):488-508.
    In recent years, philosophers of science have been increasingly concerned with questions about scientific change, and, in connection with those concerns, to rest their claims more and more on an examination of cases in the history of science. During the 1960s and early 1970s, those concerns tended to revolve around the question of whether scientific change, or at least major scientific change, is or is not “rational.” It seems to me, as I shall argue in what follows, that that question (...)
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  13.  45
    Doppelt crossed.Dudley Shapere - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (1):134-140.
    The chief objections raised by Doppelt (this issue, "The Philosophical Requirements for an Adequate Conception of Scientific Rationality") against my views fall into three groups: ones having to do with my concept of "success" (that I have provided no analysis of it, and that therefore my concept of "reason" in science is likewise unexplained; that it requires appeal to some universal criterion); ones having to do with the role of standards or criteria in science (how they are related to substantive (...)
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  14. Meaning and scientific change.Dudley Shapere - 1981 - In Ian Hacking (ed.), Scientific revolutions. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 28-59.
     
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  15.  53
    Objectivity, Rationality, and Scientific Change.Dudley Shapere - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:637 - 663.
    "Objectivity" and "rationality" of science do not depend on freedom from all "presuppositions", but are inextricably bound with the employment of background beliefs, so long as those background beliefs satisfy certain constraints. These latter have developed through application of the same kind of reasoning that they themselves dictate, and change in response to changes in the reasoning-patterns which they themselves generate. This interaction of constraints and reasoning does not eventuate in a vicious circle; rather, what results is a mutual reinforcement, (...)
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  16.  26
    Commentary: Part I.Ernst Mayr, Ernest Nagel, Dudley Shapere, Everett Mendelsohn & John Platt - 1969 - Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):123 - 147.
  17. Plausibility and justification in the development of science.Dudley Shapere - 1966 - Journal of Philosophy 63 (20):611-621.
  18.  49
    Editors' foreword.Everett Mendelsohn, Dudley Shapere & Garland E. Allen - 1969 - Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):195-197.
  19. On deciding what to believe and how to talk about nature.Dudley Shapere - 1991 - In Marcello Pera & William R. Shea (eds.), Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric. Science History Publications, Usa.
     
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  20.  34
    Biology and the unity of science.Dudley Shapere - 1969 - Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):3-18.
  21. Incommensurability.Dudley Shapere - 1998 - In Edward Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Genealogy to Iqbal. Routledge. pp. 732-6.
  22.  13
    12. On the Relations Between Compositional and Evolutionary Theories.Dudley Shapere - 1974 - In Francisco Jose Ayala & Theodosius Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the philosophy of biology: reduction and related problems. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 187.
  23.  45
    Reasons, radical change and incommensurability in science.Dudley Shapere - 2001 - In Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.), Incommensurability and Related Matters. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 181--206.
  24.  46
    The causal efficacy of space.Dudley Shapere - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (2):111-121.
    Through an analysis of conditions under which the question of spatial anisotropy can be raised, the present paper brings out intimate conceptual relationships between the scientific concept of space and the concepts of entities, behavior, and explanation specified by scientific theories. Thus scientific departures from ordinary usage (or from usage in other scientific theories) of the term "space" entail corresponding shifts in the use of other terms not generally seen to be connected. As a case study of the relations between (...)
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  25. Leplin on essentialism.Dudley Shapere - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (4):655-677.
    Jarrett Leplin has recently criticized a number of aspects of my views of the aims and goals of science, of the rationale of scientific change, and of the consequent relations between science and the philosophy of science, and in particular of the methodology of the latter (Leplin 1984, 1987, 1988a, 1988b). Here I will respond to those criticisms, and also reply to some related criticisms made by other writers.
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  26.  21
    A Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science, 1945-1981. Richard J. Blackwell.Dudley Shapere - 1984 - Isis 75 (3):566-567.
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  27.  55
    Building on What We Have Learned.Dudley Shapere - 1998 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 4 (2):142-151.
  28.  7
    Descartes and Plato.Dudley Shapere - 1963 - Journal of the History of Ideas 24 (4):572.
  29. Discussion of Rensch.Dudley Shapere - 1974 - In Francisco José Ayala & Theodosius Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems : [papers Presented at a Conference on Problems of Reduction in Biology Held in Villa Serbe, Bellagio, Italy 9-16 September 1972. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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  30.  31
    Discovery, Rationality, and Progress in Science: A Perspective in the Philosophy of Science.Dudley Shapere - 1972 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1972:407 - 419.
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  31. Empirismo y búsqueda de conocimiento.Dudley Shapere - 1982 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):5-26.
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  32. Leplin on essentialism-discussion.Dudley Shapere - 1991 - In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. MIT Press. pp. 58--4.
     
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  33.  42
    Mathematical ideals and metaphysical concepts.Dudley Shapere - 1960 - Philosophical Review 69 (3):376-385.
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  34.  26
    Modern Physics and the Philosophy of Science.Dudley Shapere - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:201-210.
    This paper examines some sources of the concepts of existence, explanation, and force in ancient thought, and shows how those ideas have been altered in fundamental ways in modem physics. Some lessons for the philosophy of science, in particular implications for its methodology, are considered.
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  35. Newton, Isaac in Paul Edwards.Dudley Shapere - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of philosophy. New York,: Macmillan. pp. 489--491.
     
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  36.  13
    Natural Science and the Future of Metaphysics.Dudley Shapere - 1974 - In R. S. Cohen & Marx W. Wartofsky (eds.), Methodological and historical essays in the natural and social sciences. Boston,: Reidel. pp. 161--171.
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  37.  28
    Philosophy and the analysis of language.Dudley Shapere - 1960 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 3 (1-4):29 – 48.
  38. Philosophical problems of natural science.Dudley Shapere - 1965 - New York,: Macmillan.
  39.  4
    Scientific Change.Dudley Shapere - 2017 - In W. H. Newton‐Smith (ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 413–422.
    Broadly, the problem of scientific change is to give an account of how scientific theories, propositions, concepts, and/or activities alter over history. Must such changes be accepted as brute products of guesses, blind conjectures, and genius? Or are there rules according to which at least some new ideas are introduced and ultimately accepted or rejected? Would such rules be codifiable into a coherent system, a theory of “the scientific method”? Are they more like rules of thumb, subject to exceptions whose (...)
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  40.  16
    Talking and Thinking about Nature Roots, Evolution, and Future Prospects.Dudley Shapere - 1992 - Dialectica 46 (3‐4):281-296.
    SummaryThe topic of this symposium gives rise to questions like these: How do we come to talk about nature in the way we do in science? In particular, what, precisely, are the relations between the “technical” language of science and the language we use in our everyday talk about the world and its contents? How, if at all, does the language of everyday life influence the language of science? In order to confront them, it is necessary first to clarify the (...)
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  41.  17
    The Influence of Knowledge on the Description of Facts.Dudley Shapere - 1976 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:281 - 298.
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  42.  37
    The Origin and Nature of Metaphysics.Dudley Shapere - 1990 - Philosophical Topics 18 (2):163-174.
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  43.  6
    The Origin and Nature of Metaphysics.Dudley Shapere - 1990 - Philosophical Topics 18 (2):163-174.
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  44.  14
    The origin and nature of time.Dudley Shapere - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (S1):197-220.
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  45.  16
    The universe of modern science and its philosophical exploration.Dudley Shapere - 1991 - In Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.), Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 87--202.
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  46.  29
    VII. "Scientific Thought".Dudley Shapere - 1977 - Teaching Philosophy 2 (2):130-134.
  47.  20
    VII. "Scientific Thought".Dudley Shapere - 1977 - Teaching Philosophy 2 (2):130-134.
  48. What is truth?Dudley Shapere - 1997 - Annals of Science 54 (3):305-309.
  49.  50
    The Scientific Methodology of Theodoric of Freiberg. William A. Wallace.Dudley Shapere - 1962 - Philosophy of Science 29 (1):101-102.
  50.  24
    Book review of Howard Sankey The Incommensurability Thesis. [REVIEW]Dudley Shapere - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (1):139-141.
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