This paper brings studies around the poetic dimension of language to approach the relationship between teaching in preschool education and the experience of being open and listening as an aesthesic way of coexisting in the world. The approximation of philosophy, arts and preschool education from the reunion between music and education highlights that listening refers to the sound of meaning, and not to the meaning of the sound to be interpreted. The dialog with the thinking of Jean-Luc Nancy, stating that (...) the sensible sense/meaning arouses the intelligible sense/meaning and in a constant movement that is not completed or finalized, producing signification or information, appears as a philosophical resistance to the privilege of the theoretical record founded upon the western prevalence of the optical model. To be open and listening implies the resonance as the sound of sense, as the body's first or last depth. The music as a play between sound and noise, as a poetic production of ordering sound senses provoked by resonance – as a gesture of listening to the listening, contributes to question the education of babies and small children based on a body that can play with the worlds' sounds to experience the poetics of making noise as the musical power of playing with sounds and noises. Children's sonic appetite calls them to make noise for the esthesia of listening to the world in the plurality of coexistence. The gesture of being open and listening in the teaching of babies and small children points out to educative actions that consider the experience constituted by resonances and reverberations of meanings implied in the sound, a feeling of feeling, as share and sharing of voices, signs, gestures, shapes, of the felt meaning and the sensible meaning that gather ones-with-others in human coexistence.key words: music; listenin; early childhood education; jean-luc nancy.estar à escuta: música e docência na educação infantilresumoO ensaio aproxima estudos em torno da dimensão poética da linguagem para abordar a relação entre docência na educação infantil e experiência de estar à escuta como modo estésico de coexistir no mundo. A aproximação entre filosofia, artes e educação infantil, desde o encontro entre e música e educação, sublinha que a escuta é o som do sentido e não o sentido do som a ser interpretado. A interlocução com o pensamento de Jean-Luc Nancy, ao permitir afirmar que o sentido sensível suscita o sentido sensato ou inteligível e o faz num movimento constante que não se completa ou finaliza produzindo uma significação ou uma informação, emerge como resistência filosófica ao privilégio do registro teórico fundado na primazia ocidental do modelo óptico. Estar à escuta implica a ressonância como o som do sentido, como profundidade primeira ou última do corpo. A música como jogo entre som e ruído, como produção poética de ordenação de sentidos sonoros provocados pela ressonância – como gesto de escutar a escuta, contribui para interrogar a educação de bebês e crianças pequenas a partir de um corpo que pode brincar com a sonoridade do mundo para viver a poética do barulhar como potência musical de jogar com sons e ruídos. O apetite sonoro das crianças as convocam a barulhar pela estesia de escutar o mundo na pluralidade da coexistência. O gesto de estar à escuta na docência com bebês e crianças pequenas aponta para ações educativas que consideram a experiência constituinte de ressonâncias e reverberações de sentidos imbricamos no som, um sentir se sentir, como partição e partilha das vozes, dos signos, dos gestos, das formas, do sentido sentido e do sentido sensato que nos situam sendo-uns-com-os-outros na coexistência mundana.palavras chave: música; escuta; educação infantil; jean-luc nancy.estar a la escucha: música y docencia en la educación infantilresumenEl ensayo aproxima estudios acerca de la dimensión poética del lenguaje para abordar la relación entre docencia en la educación infantil y experiencia de estar a la escucha como modo sensible de coexistir en el mundo. La aproximación entre filosofía, artes y educación infantil, desde el encuentro entre música y educación, destaca que la escucha es el sonido del sentido y no el sentido del sonido a ser interpretado. La interlocución con el pensamiento de Jean-Luc Nancy, al permitir afirmar que el sentido sensible suscita el sentido sensato o inteligible y lo hace en un movimiento constante que no se completa o finaliza produciendo una significación o una información, emerge como resistencia filosófica al privilegio del registro teórico fundado en la primacía occidental del modelo óptico. Estar a la escucha implica la resonancia como el sonido del sentido, como profundidad primera o última del cuerpo. La música como juego entre sonido y ruido, como producción poética de ordenación de los sentidos sonoros provocados por la resonancia -como gesto de escuchar la escucha, contribuye para interrogar la educación de bebés, niños y niñas pequeñas a partir de un cuerpo que puede jugar con la sonoridad del mundo para vivir la poética del hacer ruido como potencia musical del jugar con sonidos y ruidos. El apetito sonoro de los niños y niñas las llama hacer ruidos por la sensibilidad de escuchar el mundo en la pluralidad de la coexistencia. El gesto de estar a la escucha en la docencia con bebés, niños y niñas pequeñas apunta para acciones educativas que consideran la experiencia constituyente de resonancias y reverberaciones de sentidos solapados en el sonido, un sentir sentirse, como participación y intercambio de voces, de signos, de gestos de las formas, del sonido sentido y del sentido sensato que nos sitúan siendo-unos-con-los-otros en la coexistencia mundana.palabras clave: música; escucha; educación infantil; jean-luc nancy. (shrink)
This book addresses some basic questions about intrinsic value: What is it? What has it? What justifies our beliefs about it? In the first six chapters the author defends the existence of a plurality of intrinsic goods, the thesis of organic unities, the view that some goods are 'higher' than others, and the view that intrinsic value can be explicated in terms of 'fitting' emotional attitudes. The final three chapters explore the justification of our beliefs about intrinsic value, including coherence (...) theories and the idea that some value beliefs are warranted on the basis of emotional experience. Professor Lemos defends the view that some value beliefs enjoy 'modest' a priori justification. The book is intended primarily for professional philosophers and their graduate students working in ethics, value theory and epistemology. (shrink)
In this 2004 book, Noah Lemos presents a strong defense of the common sense tradition, the view that we may take as data for philosophical inquiry many of the things we ordinarily think we know. He discusses the main features of that tradition as expounded by Thomas Reid, G. E. Moore and Roderick Chisholm. For a long time common sense philosophers have been subject to two main objections: that they fail to give any non-circular argument for the reliability of (...) memory and perception; and that they pick out instances of knowledge without knowing a criterion for knowledge. Lemos defends the appeal to what we ordinarily think we know in both epistemology and ethics and thus rejects the charge that common sense is dogmatic, unphilosophical or question-begging. Written in a clear and engaging style, this book will appeal to students and philosophers in epistemology and ethics. (shrink)
John Lemos' _Freedom, Responsibility, and Determinism_ offers an up-to-date introduction to free will debates in an engaging, dialogic format that recommends it for use by beginning students in philosophy as well as by undergraduates in intermediate courses in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and action theory.
In ”Epistemology and Ethics,” Noah Lemos suggests that moral epistemology is mainly concerned with “whether and how we can have knowledge or justified belief” about moral issues. After addressing skeptical arguments, he considers how the moral epistemologist and moral philosopher should begin their account of moral knowledge. Lemos favors a particularist approach whereby we begin with instances of moral knowledge and use these to formulate and evaluate criteria for moral knowledge. After relating his approach to concerns about the (...) nature of the epistemic justification of moral beliefs as dealt with by foundationalists and coherentists, Lemos responds to arguments against particularist approaches in moral epistemology. Specifically, he addresses the claim that our moral beliefs must receive their justification from an independent moral criterion developed from nonmoral beliefs. (shrink)
LEMOS, Luiz Henrique. A Psicologia da religião Ocidental e Oriental: a influência do círculo de Eranos no atendimento da religião na perspectiva de Carl Gustav Jung. 2013. 127f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
This extended essay presents the meditations of an eminent scholar on medieval philosophical theology. Beginning with a discussion of faith and reason, Ramon M. Lemos argues that we can be practically justified in accepting certain religions even though we may not know that their central claims are true. Lemos moves on to his operational definition of God, based on St. Anselm's concept of God as a being that which no greater can be conceived. From this ground, he considers (...) various medieval arguments for the existence of God and refutes the ability of the major arguments to succeed in demonstrating God's existence. He concludes that it is impossible to demonstrate the existence of God philosophically. This provocative book addresses the fundamental issues in the philosophy of religion—from a Christian perspective—while maintaining the necessary intellectual distance between revealed theology and philosophy. (shrink)
In a recent article, Meghan Griffith (American Philosophical Quarterly 47:43–56, 2010) argues that agent-causal libertarian theories are immune to the problem of luck but that event-causal theories succumb to this problem. In making her case against the event-causal theories, she focuses on Robert Kane’s event-causal theory. I provide a brief account of the central elements of Kane’s theory and I explain Griffith’s critique of it. I argue that Griffith’s criticisms fail. In doing so, I note some important respects in which (...) Kane’s view is unclear and I suggest a plausible way of reading Kane that makes his theory immune to Griffith’s objections. (shrink)
Epistemology or the theory of knowledge is one of the cornerstones of analytic philosophy, and this book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the subject. It discusses some of the main theories of justification, including foundationalism, coherentism, reliabilism, and virtue epistemology. Other topics include the Gettier problem, internalism and externalism, skepticism, the problem of epistemic circularity, the problem of the criterion, a priori knowledge, and naturalized epistemology. Intended primarily for students taking a first class in epistemology, this lucid and (...) well-written text would also provide an excellent introduction for anyone interested in knowing more about this important area of philosophy. (shrink)
This essay provides a short introduction to the ideas and potential implications of quantum physics for scholars in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. Quantum-inspired ideas pepper current discourse in all of these fields, in ways that range from playful metaphors to sweeping ontological claims. We explain several of the most important concepts at the core of quantum theory, carefully delineating the scope and bounds of currently established science, in order to aid the evaluation of such claims. In particular, we (...) emphasize that the smallest units of matter and light, as described in quantum physics, are not things, meaning that they do not obey the logic we take for granted when discussing the behavior of macroscopic objects. We also highlight the substantial debate that exists within physics about the interpretation of the equations and empirical results at the core of quantum physics, noting that implicit philosophical commitments necessarily accompany any discussion of quantum ideas that takes place in non-technical language. (shrink)
In this paper, I consider two sorts of objections to summative theories of value. The first objection concerns “indeterminate” value. The second concerns the importance of variety. I argue that both objections pose serious problems for the summative approach. I also argue that if we accept certain plausible views about the value of variety, we should reject certain forms of argument concerning what sorts of states have intrinsic value.
Some contemporary philosophers maintain we lack the kind of free will that makes us morally responsible for our actions. Some of these philosophers, such as Derk Pereboom, Gregg Caruso, and Bruce Waller, also argue that such a view supports the case for significant reform of the penal system. Pereboom and Caruso explicitly endorse a quarantine model for dealing with dangerous criminals, arguing that while not responsible for their crimes such criminals should be detained in non-harsh conditions and offered the opportunity (...) for rehabilitation. Waller does not explicitly endorse the quarantine model, but his view is similar in significant respects. I argue that such views can too easily lead to the endorsement of legal policies which would result in more frequent punishment of innocent persons for crimes they have not committed. Thus, we should have deep moral reservations about such views. (shrink)
Richard Double argues that libertarians believe we should hold people morally responsible for their actions and we must possess libertarian free will to be morally responsible for our actions; most libertarians believe there is scant epistemic justification for the belief that any of us possess LFW; and morally conscientious persons hold people responsible for their actions only if they have epistemic justification for their guilt. Thus, he concludes most libertarians are not being morally conscientious when they hold people responsible for (...) their actions. Double considers a possible pragmatic, moral argument against his position, but in so doing he only considers a consequentialist version of the pragmatic response. I show that there is a plausible nonconsequentialist way of responding to Double’s argument, and I defend it in the article. (shrink)
In a recent article, I defended libertarian views of free will against Richard Double’s argument that such views are hard-hearted. In supporting my main argument against Double, I invoked what I call “the Puppetmaster” argument. Double has recently countered that this argument fails. In this essay, I provide a response to this negative assessment of the Puppetmaster argument.
: This article critically examines central arguments made in Sam Harris’ Free Will as well as key aspects of Daniel Dennett’s compatibilist conception of free will. I argue that while Dennett makes thoughtful replies to Harris’ critique of compatibilism, his compatibilism continues to be plagued by critical points raised by Bruce Waller. Additionally, I argue that Harris’ rejection of the libertarian view of free will is ill-informed and I explain the basics of Robert Kane’s libertarian view, arguing that it can (...) be defended against points raised by both Dennett and Harris. Keywords: Free Will; Libertarianism; Compatibilism; Daniel Dennett; Sam Harris Una replica libertaria Dennett e Harris sul libero arbitrio Riassunto : Questo articolo prende criticamente in esame gli argomenti principali presentati nel volume di Sam Harris “Free Will” e gli aspetti principali della concezione compatibili sta proposta da Daniel Dennett sul libero arbitrio. Intendo sostenere che Dennett, pur rispondendo accuratamente alla critica del compatibilismo proposta da Harris, sostiene un compatibilismo che resta sotto il giogo delle critiche sollevate da Bruce Waller. Inoltre, cercherò di sostenere che il rifiuto della prospettiva libertarian proposto da Harris è una posizione male informata ed esporrò I principi di base della prospettiva libertarian di Robert Kane, affermando che lo si può difendere dale critiche sollevate sia da Dennett che da Harris. Parole chiave: Libero arbitrio; Libertarianismo; Compatibilismo; Daniel Dennett; Sam Harris. (shrink)
In this essay, I defend the Moorean position on organic unities. I will present some plausible examples of organic unites and consider some objections to them. In particular, I will consider an objection from evaluative inadequacy and an objection from Holism or Conditionalism. I will also examine one line of criticism that claims the Moorean position is incoherent.
Robert Kane has for many years claimed that in our underivatively free actions, what he calls “self-forming acts”, we actually try to do both of the two acts we are contemplating doing and then we ultimately end up doing only one of them. This idea of dual willings/efforts was put forward in an attempt to solve luck problems, but Randolph Clarke and Alfred Mele argue that for this to work agents must, then, freely engage in the dual efforts leading up (...) to their SFAs. In response, Kane has said they do so freely by meeting compatibilist criteria of freedom. In Free Will and Luck , Mele argues that this move is deeply problematic. In this essay, I defend Kane's position. In doing so, I clarify important differences between the SFAs of adults and those of young children, making more clear the connections between SFAs, character, and responsibility. (shrink)
In the second half of their recent, critically acclaimed book Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior , Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson discuss psychological hedonism. This is the view that avoiding our own pain and increasing our own pleasure are the only ultimate motives people have. They argue that none of the traditional philosophical arguments against this view are good, and they go on to present theirownevolutionary biological argument against it. Interestingly, the first half of their (...) book, which is a defense of group selectionism, has received almost all of the attention of those people who have published reactions to the book. No one has published a detailed reaction to the argument of the latter half of the book. In this article, the author explains and critically discusses their evolutionary biological argument against psychological hedonism, concluding that in its current form it is not strong enough to support its conclusion. However, the author goes on to argue that despite recent criticisms of Robert Nozick’s experience-machine argument, it is still a good argument against psychological hedonism. In support of the latter point, the author responds to the objections of Sober and Wilson and to the more recent criticisms offered by Matthew Silverstein. Key Words: hedonism • psychological egoism • evolution • Robert Nozick • Elliott Sober. (shrink)
Abstract: Ernest Sosa has done important work on epistemic circularity, epistemic virtue, and reflective knowledge. He holds that epistemic circularity need not be vicious and need not prevent us from knowing that our ways of forming beliefs are reliable. In this article, I briefly explore Sosa's defense of this view and raise some questions about what is required for reflective knowledge.
I defend the view that there are organic unities mainly by presenting examples of organic unities. I also defend the view against two objections. The first objection appeals to the notion of an evaluatively incomplete state of affairs. The second objection holds that the intrinsic value of a state of affairs can be different in different contexts. I argue that neither objection provides a compelling reason for rejecting these examples.
Robert Kane's event-causal libertarian theory of free will has been subjected to a variety of criticisms. In response to the luck objection, he has provided an ambiguous answer which results in additional criticisms that are avoidable. I explain Kane's theory, the luck objection and Kane's reply to the problem of luck. I note that in some places he suggests that the dual wantings of agents engaged in self-forming actions (SFAs) provides the key to answering the luck objection, whereas in other (...) places he suggests that the dual willings or tryings of agents is the key. Various philosophers criticize Kane's view by focusing on his concept of the dual willings/tryings involved in SFAs. I argue that despite Kane's efforts to answer these criticisms, they still hold; but I also go on to argue that Kane can avoid these criticisms and also answer the luck objection by just focusing on the important role of the dual wantings in SFAs. (shrink)
This paper provides a brief review of some of the central elements of Robert Kane’s event-causal libertarian theory of free will. It then goes on to consider four of the central criticisms Derk Pereboom has made of Kane’s view and it shows how each of these criticisms can be reasonably answered. These criticisms are the no further power/control objection, the disappearing agent/luck objection, the randomizing manipulator objection, and the problem of responsibility for efforts of will.
Naturalistic naturalized epistemology combines ontological naturalism with naturalized epistemology. Ontological naturalism is the view that nothing exists other than spatio-temporal beings embedded within a space-time framework. Naturalized epistemology is a view about the nature of knowledge characterized by its commitment to externalism and the idea that knowledge consists in beliefs reliably generated by cognitive mechanisms operating in a suitable environment. Alvin Plantinga has provided a much discussed evolutionary biological argument against naturalistic naturalized epistemology. In this article I defend naturalistic naturalized (...) epistemology by refuting Plantinga's replies to two important criticisms of his argument. /// La epistemología naturalizada naturalista combina el naturalismo ontológico con la epistemología naturalizada. El naturalismo ontológico sostiene que no existe nada más que seres espacio-temporales inmersos en un marco espacio-temporal. La epistemología naturalizada sostiene que la naturaleza del conocimiento se caracteriza por su compromiso con el externismo, y la idea de que el conocimiento consiste en creencias generadas de manera confiable mediante mecanismos cognitivos que operan en un entorno adecuado. Alvin Plantinga ha propuesto un muy discutido argumento biológico evolucionista contra la epistemología naturalizada naturalista. En este artículo defiendo esta epistemología refutando las réplicas de Plantinga a dos críticas importantes a su argumento. (shrink)
This article compares the views of Foot and Aristotle on virtues and flourishing. It is argued that the view put forward in Philippa Foot’s recent book, Natural Goodness, suffers from a certain sort of vagueness and it is open to other criticisms which the Aristotelian view can avoid. Foot’s views have been subjected to criticism in the recent literature by David Copp and David Sobel. These criticisms are given consideration in the article and it is argued that the more traditional (...) Aristotelian view advocated by the author will have the means to answer some of these criticisms whereas Foot’s view will not. (shrink)
RESUMO O artigo analisa a importância das reflexões sobre medicina, a dinâmica do corpo, da doença e da saúde, tais como desenvolvidas pelo médico John Brown no século XVIII, sobre a filosofia da natureza de Novalis, contextualizando a recepção dessas reflexões do âmbito romântico-idealista da Alemanha do começo do século XIX. ABSTRACT This paper examines the relevance for Novalis’s philosophy of nature of John Brown’s reflections upon Medicine, dynamics of body, illness and health, the way they were developed by this (...) 18th century physician, by setting the context for it within romantic-idealist early 19th century Germany. (shrink)
Organizational ecology applies Darwinian principles of natural selection to understand the evolution of new forms of organizations over time. The idea here is that there are different forms of human organizations, such as different business organizations, religious organizations, political organizations, etc. The growth of new forms of organizations within each of these fields is to be understood in terms of a struggle for existence among organizations with different traits. In a recent article, Reydon and Scholz (2009) argue that this Darwinian (...) view of the evolution of new organizational forms is highly problematic because organizational populations do not exhibit the levels of internal cohesion, isolation, and closure that are necessary for something like Darwinian evolution to occur. In this article, I defend organizational ecology by rebutting the arguments of Reydon and Scholz. (shrink)
Years ago Robert Nozick provided the experience machine argument, which states that since many people would forgo a life of artificially stimulated tremendous pleasure provided by an "experience machine," it must be that sometimes people are motivated by things other than the pursuit of their own pleasure. This is to say that he rejected psychological hedonism. In a recent book Elliot Sober and David Wilson defend the view that Nozick's argument does not provide adequate refutation of psychological hedonism. This article (...) defends Nozick's argument against their objections. (shrink)
This article provides a defense of a variety of MacIntyrean arguments against emotivism. In After Virtue MacIntyre explains that emotivism might be understood either as a theory about the meaning or about the function of moral language. He also argues that emotivism is false either way. I argue that MacIntyre is right about this by explaining and then answering the recent defenses of emotivism that have appeared in the literature. I conclude by reminding the reader that according to MacIntyre his (...) attacks on emotivism also serve as attacks on other subjectivist ethical theories, such as prescriptivism and existentialism. Thus, if he is right about this, then his critique of emotivism has more far ranging implications than one might initially suppose. (shrink)
Este trabalho teve como objetivo buscar evidência de validade convergente entre a Escala de Motivação para Aprendizagem em Universitários (EMAPRE-U) e a Escala de Avaliação da Motivação para Aprender de Alunos Universitários (EMA-U) e, também, verificar possíveis diferenças entre as variáveis sexo, ..
One of the author's central theses in this admirable book is that in order to explain adequately the role of desire in practical reasoning and the explanation of action, it is necessary to distinguish between a broad sense of "desire," which "might be called the philosopher's sense," according to which the term applies to whatever moves a person to act, and a narrower, "more ordinary sense," according to which a person can decide to do things he has no desire to (...) do and also decide not to do other things he does have a desire to do. Since, Schueler argues, we do sometimes do things which we do not want to do, and we do not do other things which we do want to do and can do, the first sense of "desire" is too broad to enable us to explain how this is possible. This is because those who use "desire" only in the broad sense fail to distinguish between what Schueler terms "pro attitudes" and "desires proper" and in effect maintain that it is only desires proper, never pro attitudes by themselves, that move us to act. Thus, to use an example from Schueler, my belief that I have a duty to do something, such as attend a meeting at my son's school, might lead me to have a pro attitude toward attending it and to decide to do so even though I do not want to do it but instead want to stay home and read. Schueler's distinction between pro attitudes and desires proper has obvious implications for moral philosophy, some of which he discusses briefly. (shrink)
Analisa-se a relação entre religião, sexualidade e família de pessoas soropositivas para o HIV. O objetivo foi verificar a repercussão da constatação de que um dos (ou ambos) cônjuges é portador do HIV, nas representações e na configuração de suas famílias, tendo por base um possível ideário religioso subjacente às identidades de gênero masculina e feminina, bem como das formas de exercício da sexualidade que tal identidade de gênero comporta. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa. Os participantes foram mulheres e homens que (...) vivem ou viveram maritalmente, podendo essa relação se dar ou ter se dado entre pessoas do sexo oposto ou pessoas do mesmo sexo, selecionados em uma instituição de apoio a soropositivos e a seus familiares. Todos os participantes soropositivos da referida instituição foram convidados a responder um questionário composto por nove perguntas abertas relacionadas à temática em foco. A análise dos dados permitiu a percepção de que embora haja uma forte incidência do ideário religioso sobre família e sexualidade para aquela população, o foco principal desse ideário não está nas representações das configurações de família, e sim enquanto elemento desencadeador de preconceito em relação ao soropositivo tanto no espaço familiar quanto para além dele. Palavras-chave : Religião. Sexualidade. Família. Soropositividade.This article examines the relationship between religion, sexuality and family of HIV seropositive individuals. It aims to verify the repercussion of finding that one of ( or both ) spouses is HIV positive , within the representations and configuration of their families , based on a possible religious ideas underlying to gender identities male and female , as well as to the exercise of sexuality that such gender identity entails. For this purpose, a qualitative survey was conducted. Participants were men and women who live or have lived in a marital status, and this relationship has occurred or took place between members of the opposite sex or same sex, selected in an institution to support HIV positive and their families. All seropositive participants of the mentioned institution were asked to answer a questionnaire composed of nine open questions related to the subject in focus. Data analysis allowed the perception that although there is a strong incidence of religious ideas about family and sexuality for that population, the main focus of this notion is not within the representations of family structures, but within the triggering element of prejudice towards HIV-positive both in the family space and beyond. Keywords : Religion. Sexuality. Family. Seropositivity. (shrink)