Troubled conscience may jeopardize the health of healthcare personnel and, hence, the quality of care provided. Learning more about how personnel deal with their troubled conscience therefore seems important. The aim of this study was to describe personnel’s experiences of how they deal with troubled conscience generated in their daily work in municipal care of older people. Interviews were conducted with 20 care providers and analysed with a thematic content analysis. The findings show that in order to deal with troubled (...) conscience, personnel dialogued with themselves and with others. They took measures in a direction they perceived to be correct, and they expressed a need for distancing and re-energizing. It is of importance to share situations that generate troubled conscience in order to find ways to deal with them. Reconsidering one’s ways of dealing with troubled conscience may give care providers an opportunity to reach consensus within themselves. (shrink)
The Perceptions of Conscience Questionnaire (PCQ) and the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ) have previously been developed and validated within the ‘Stress of Conscience Study’. The aim was to revalidate these two questionnaires, including two additional, theoretically and empirically significant items, on a sample of healthcare personnel working in direct contact with patients. The sample consisted of 503 healthcare personnel. To test variation and distribution among the answers, descriptive statistics, item analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to examine (...) the underlying factor structure of the questionnaires. Support for adding the new item to the PCQ was found. No support was found for adding the new item to the SCQ. Both questionnaires can be regarded as valid for Swedish settings but can be improved by rephrasing some of the PCQ items and by adding items about private life to the SCQ. (shrink)
The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to describe relationships over time between degrees of stress of conscience, perceptions of conscience, burnout scores and assessments of person-centred climate and social support among healthcare personnel working in municipal care of older people. This study was performed among registered nurses and nurse assistants (n = 488). Data were collected on two occasions. Results show that perceiving one’s conscience as a burden, having feelings of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and noticing disturbing (...) conflicts between co-workers were positively associated with stress of conscience. No significant changes were observed during the year under study, but degrees of stress of conscience and burnout scores were higher than in previous studies, suggesting that downsizing and increased workloads can negatively affect healthcare personnel. Following and expressing one’s conscience in one’s work, and perceiving social support from superiors are of importance in buffering the effects of stress of conscience. (shrink)
Background: Conscience is an important concept in ethics, having various meanings in different cultures. Because a growing number of healthcare professionals are of immigrant background, particularly within the care of older people, demanding multiple ethical positions, it is important to explore the meaning of conscience among care providers within different cultural contexts. Research objective: The study aimed to illuminate the meaning of conscience by enrolled nurses with an Iranian background working in residential care for Persian-speaking people with dementia. Research design: (...) A phenomenological hermeneutical method guided the study. Participants and research context: A total of 10 enrolled nurses with Iranian background, aged 33–46 years, participated in the study. All worked full time in residential care settings for Persian-speaking people with dementia in a large city, in Sweden. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board for ethical vetting of research involving humans. Participants were given verbal and written study information and assured that their participation was voluntary and confidential. Findings: Three themes were constructed including perception of conscience, clear conscience grounded in relations and striving to keep a clear conscience. The conscience was perceived as an inner guide grounded in feelings, which is dynamic and subject to changes throughout life. Having a clear conscience meant being able to form a bond with others, to respect them and to get their confirmation that one does well. To have a clear conscience demanded listening to the voice of the conscience. The enrolled nurses strived to keep their conscience clear by being generous in helping others, accomplishing daily tasks well and behaving nicely in the hope of being treated the same way one day. Conclusion: Cultural frameworks and the context of practice needed to be considered in interpreting the meaning of conscience and clear conscience. (shrink)
Esse trabalho discute a renovação e a centralidade do conceito de estrutura no projeto ontológico de Merleau-Ponty. Estabelece, primeiro, a ideia de que na obra de Merleau-Ponty não existe um sentido unívoco para a noção de estrutura, mas uma polissemia de usos e sentidos que acompanham o desenvolvimento do seu pensamento. Merleau-Ponty, sobretudo no momento da elaboração d’O visivel e o invisivel, não objetivava apenas se apropriar da noção de estrutura – gestalt – já em uso na psicologia, na linguística (...) e na etnologia, mas aprofundá-la na sua matriz filosófica, explorá-la como um novo regime de pensamento. Portanto, nossa hipótese de trabalho é que, em O visivel e o invisivel, a estrutura deixou de ser considerada apenas como a significação original da percepção e passou a ser pensada como condição do “ser-no-mundo”, um elemento essencial para uma nova noção de cogito – ser bruto –, sem os prejuízos da noção de cogito tácito que Merleau-Ponty reconheceu na Fenomenologia da percepção. (shrink)
A experiência democrática moderna indica que o nosso sistema político mantém uma relação de sobredeterminação com a liberdade. Toda forma de sistema político determina o alcance e o sentido da nossa liberdade, ao mesmo tempo em que a experiência concreta de liberdade modifica o sistema político. Sustentamos neste trabalho que a liberdade individual elevada ao princípio máximo de realização existencial e à consagração ideal de vida política é, ao mesmo tempo, o registro jurídico-político de que realmente vivemos em uma democracia, (...) sem, contudo, deixar de se apresentar como força desestruturante do próprio regime democrático. (shrink)
O artigo discute dois modos diferentes de teorizar a relação entre meios de comunicação, subjetividade e cultura. O primeiro modo parte de tipos de mentes, e formula classificações gerais de épocas definidas pela dominação de determinados meios de comunicação. O outro opera em uma dimensão mais local e regional, não realizando grandes classificações. Finalmente, são levantadas questões acerca da relação entre ambos os estilos de teorização.
resumo Este trabalho discute o alcance das considerações de Merleau-Ponty para a formulação de uma teoria do comportamento. Procuramos, antes de tudo, mostrar em que sentido Merleau- Ponty recusa as int e r p retações das escolas intelectualista e empirista sobre o comportamento. Depois, num segundo mo mento, tendo em vista os problemas decorrentes dessas teorias clássicas, apont a mos os funda me ntos para uma descrição feno menológica do comportamento: princ i p a l mente a partir da noção (...) de estrutura. Procura mo s, também, estabelecer a genealogia, os diferentes usos e sent ido do termo estrutura nas ciências humanas, sobretudo para a psicologiada Gestalt. Finalmente, discutimos o sentido da do por Merleau- Ponty ao termo estrutura e como essa noção tornou possível uma leitura fenomenológica do comportamento. palavras-chave Comportamento; Experiência primeira; Corpo; Psicologia da Gestalt; Estrutura; Merleau-Ponty. (shrink)
Esse trabalho discute a noção de desejo a partir da obra de Merleau-Ponty. Sustenta a ideia de que para a fenomenologia merleau-pontyana o desejo remonta a três pontos fundamentais: a sua expressão inicial se dá na forma da intencionalidade operante, vivida na experiência do corpo próprio, como está descrita no prefácio da Fenomenologia da Percepção; o desejo, nesse caso, não pode ser compreendido como falta, ou carência de mundo, mas como transbordamento; finalmente, o desejo tem uma significação ontológica na medida (...) em que remonta à condição intramundana, intercorpórea. (shrink)
Based on the categorical connection between the field and the state of exception, I propose to discuss on this article Giorgio Agamben’s conception of the state of exception in its paradoxical relationship with the law, a relationship which is proper to the paradoxical structure of sovereignty. The field is to the Italian thinker the experience which is able to clarify the paradoxical dimension of the state of exception because it expresses itself at the same time as inside and outside the (...) legal system. On the contemporary experience the state of exception is no longer characterized as an exceptional experience, but it has become the norm. Based on this, we want to present the dialog between Agamben and Carl Schmitt, in order to reflect on the condition of the state of exception to present itself as anomy, whilst continuing to establish with the law a necessary relationship, even in the form of suspension. (shrink)
Investigamos o estatuto do corpo na cultura ocidental contemporânea em uma breve genealogia. Partimos do fenômeno atual da somatização da subjetividade para buscar continuidades e rupturas do modelo disciplinar vigente no século XIX. Sugerimos que as novas modalidades de exercício de poder das sociedades de controle atuam em conjunto com um surpreendente recrudescimento da disciplina na atualidade.
Resumo: Pretende-se, com este artigo, analisar o conceito de história genética no pensamento do filósofo francês Gilbert Simondon. Para isso, faz-se necessário analisar a proposta de uma filosofia a qual pretende romper com as barreiras que separam técnica e cultura, a fim de, a partir daí, examinar o modo próprio de existência dos objetos técnicos. Nessa perspectiva, analisa-se a tecnicidade da técnica, utilizando-se do conceito de invenção, com vistas a formular uma história genética da técnica que recolhe, ao mesmo tempo, (...) elementos subjetivos e objetivos, segundo o método transdutivo. Um projeto que, ao final, se apresenta como "gestão de uma herança", segundo a expressão de Merleau-Ponty.: The aim of this article is to analyze the concept of genetic history in the thought of the French philosopher Gilbert Simondon. To do this it is necessary to consider a philosophy that intends to break the barriers that separate technology and culture, and from there proceeds to analyze the mode of existence of technical objects. From this perspective, the technicity of technology is analyzed, using the concept of invention in order to formulate a genetic history of technology that gathers both subjective and objective elements, according to the transductive method. A project that, in the end, is presented as "management of an inheritance", in the words of Merleau-Ponty. (shrink)
Resumo O presente trabalho explora o expediente metodológico aplicado por Merleau-Ponty sobre a obra e a vida de Cézanne: a vida como exigência de uma obra. Discutimos como esse expediente oferece uma chave de leitura para as polêmicas relações entre a vida e a obra nietzschiana, tanto no sentido de verificar como Nietzsche se apresenta internamente à sua obra, quanto para analisar como as circunstâncias de sua vida podem ser interpretadas como exigências do tipo de obra que ele se propôs (...) a formular. Isso nos leva a uma nova estratégia para interpretar também a própria genealogia da obra nietzschiana e, com ele, de toda a história da filosofia.This paper explores the methodological expedient applied by Merleau-Ponty on the work and the life of Cézanne: the life as demand of a work. We discuss how this expedient offers a key to the controversial relations between Nietzsche’s life and Nietzsche’s work, both in terms of how Nietzsche presents himself internally in his work, and in analyzing how the circumstances of his life can be interpreted as demands of the kind of work he has set out to formulate. This brings us to a new strategy to interpret the genealogy of Nietzsche’s work and, with it, of the whole history of philosophy. (shrink)
Nathanson, J. Introduction.--Arisian, K. American individualism reconceived.--Black, A. D. What it takes to be free.--Ericson, E. L. Character traits of a free people.--Friess, H. L. Confrontations and the human bond.--Nathanson, J. Who is the moral man today?
G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...) In addition, this collection also contains the key early papers in which Moore signals his break with idealism, and three important previously unpublished papers from his later work which illustrate his relationship with Wittgenstein. (shrink)
Is God's foreknowledge compatible with human freedom? One of the most attractive attempts to reconcile the two is the Ockhamistic view, which subscribes not only to human freedom and divine omniscience, but retains our most fundamental intuitions concerning God and time: that the past is immutable, that God exists and acts in time, and that there is no backward causation. In order to achieve all that, Ockhamists distinguish ‘hard facts’ about the past which cannot possibly be altered from ‘soft facts’ (...) about the past which are alterable, and argue that God's prior beliefs about human actions are soft facts about the past. (shrink)
An important contribution to the foundations of probability theory, statistics and statistical physics has been made by E. T. Jaynes. The recent publication of his collected works provides an appropriate opportunity to attempt an assessment of this contribution.
What is a natural kind ? As we shall see, the concept of a natural kind has a long history. Many of the interesting doctrines can be detected in Aristotle, were revived by Locke and Leibniz, and have again become fashionable in recent years. Equally there has been agreement about certain paradigm examples: the kinds oak, stickleback and gold are natural kinds, and the kinds table, nation and banknote are not. Sadly agreement does not extend much further. It is impossible (...) to discover a single consistent doctrine in the literature, and different discussions focus on different doctrines without writers or readers being aware of the fact. In this paper I shall attempt to find a defensible distinction between natural and non-natural kinds. (shrink)
How could the self be a substance? There are various ways in which it could be, some familiar from the history of philosophy. I shall be rejecting these more familiar substantivalist approaches, but also the non-substantival theories traditionally opposed to them. I believe that the self is indeed a substance—in fact, that it is a simple or noncomposite substance—and, perhaps more remarkably still, that selves are, in a sense, self-creating substances. Of course, if one thinks of the notion of substance (...) as an outmoded relic of prescientific metaphysics—as the notion of some kind of basic and perhaps ineffable stuff —then the suggestion that the self is a substance may appear derisory. Even what we ordinarily call ‘stuffs’—gold and water and butter and the like—are, it seems, more properly conceived of as aggregates of molecules or atoms, while the latter are not appropriately to be thought of as being ‘made’ of any kind of ‘stuff’ at all. But this only goes to show that we need to think in terms of a more sophisticated notion of substance—one which may ultimately be traced back to Aristotle's conception of a ‘primary substance’ in the Categories , and whose heir in modern times is W. E. Johnson's notion of the ‘continuant’. It is the notion, that is, of a concrete individual capable of persisting identically through qualitative change, a subject of alterable predicates that is not itself predicable of any further subject. (shrink)
In this philosophy classic, which was first published in 1951, E. R. Dodds takes on the traditional view of Greek culture as a triumph of rationalism. Using the analytical tools of modern anthropology and psychology, Dodds asks, "Why should we attribute to the ancient Greeks an immunity from 'primitive' modes of thought which we do not find in any society open to our direct observation?" Praised by reviewers as "an event in modern Greek scholarship" and "a book which it would (...) be difficult to over-praise," _The Greeks and the Irrational _was Volume 25 of the Sather Classical Lectures series. (shrink)
The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
If one is an egalitarian, what should one want to equalize? Opportunities or outcomes? Resources or welfare? These positions are usually conceived to be very different. I argue in this paper that the distinction is misconceived: the only coherent conception of resource equality implies welfare equality, in an appropriately abstract description of the problem. In this section, I motivate the program which the rest of the paper carries out.
O presente texto procura acompanhar alguns aspectos da reconstrução sartreana das relações entre indivíduo e história, tentando mostrar que a fenomenologia e o materialismo dialético comparecem nessa proposta de conhecimento e que é a convergência das duas perspectivas que permite, contemplando adequadamente a universalidade e a singularidade, descrever e compreender dialeticamente o modo histórico de produção da identidade individual.
Why does the problem of free will seem so intractable? I surmise that in large measure it does so because the free will debate, at least in its modern form, is conducted in terms of a mistaken approach to causality in general. At the heart of this approach is the assumption that all causation is fundamentally event causation. Of course, it is well-known that some philosophers of action want to invoke in addition an irreducible notion of agent causation, applicable only (...) in the sphere of intelligent agency. But such a view is generally dismissed as incompatible with the naturalism that has now become orthodoxy amongst mainstream analytical philosophers of mind. What I want to argue is that substances, not events, are the primary relata of causal relations and that agent causation should properly be conceived of as a species of substance causation. I shall try to show that by thus reconceiving the nature of causation and of agency, the problem of free will can be made more tractable. I shall also argue for a contention that may seem even less plausible at first sight, namely, that such a view of agency is perfectly compatible with a volitionist theory of action. (shrink)
In this paper I shall venture into an area with which I am not very familiar and in which I feel far from confident; namely into phenomenology. My main motive is not to get away from standard, boring, methodological questions like those of induction and demarcation; but the conviction that a phenomenological account of the empirical basis forms a necessary complement to Popper's falsificationism. According to the latter, a scientific theory is a synthetic and universal, hence unverifiable proposition. In fact, (...) in order to be technologically useful, a scientific hypothesis must refer to future states-of-affairs; it ought therefore to remain unverified. But in order to be empirical, a theory must bear some kind of relation to factual statements. According to Popper, such a relation can only be one of potential conflict. Thus a theory T will be termed scientific if and only if T is logically incompatible with a so-called basic statement b, where b is both empirically verifiable and empirically falsifiable. In other words: T is scientific if it entails ¬b; where b, hence also ¬b, is an empirically decidable proposition. (shrink)
E-Z Reader 7 is a processing model of eye-movement control. One constraint imposed on the model is that high-level cognitive processes do not influence eye movements unless normal reading processes are disturbed. I suggest that this constraint is unnecessary, and that the model provides a sensible architecture for explaining how both low- and high-level processes influence eye movements.
Hume's famous discussion of miracles in the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is curious both on account of the arguments he does deploy and on account of the arguments he does not deploy, but might have been expected to. The first and second parts of this paper will be devoted to examining, respectively, these two objects of curiosity. The second part I regard as the more important, because I shall there try to show that the fact that Hume does not deploy (...) an argument that he might have been expected to deploy in fact reflects a weakness in the view of natural laws that has come to be associated with Hume's name. I shall argue, in fact, that it is a symptom of the defectiveness of the ‘Humean’ view of natural laws that on that view it is only too easy to rule out the possibility of a miracle ever occurring. In the third part of the paper, I shall show how another view of laws can overcome this problem. (shrink)
Characterizations of philosophy abound. It is ‘the queen of the sciences’, a grand and sweeping metaphysical endeavour; or, less regally, it is a sort of deep anthropology or ‘descriptive metaphysics’, uncovering the general presuppositions or conceptual schemes that lurk beneath our words and thoughts. A different set of images portray philosophy as a type of therapy, or as a spiritual exercise, a way of life to be followed, or even as a special branch of poetry or politics. Then there is (...) a group of characterizations that include philosophy as linguistic analysis, as phenomenological description, as conceptual geography, or as genealogy in the sense proposed by Nietzsche and later taken up by Foucault. (shrink)