Results for 'E. Lalumera'

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  1. Lalumera, E. 2017 Understanding Schizophrenia Through Wittgenstein: Empathy, Explanation, and Philosophical Clarification, in Schizophrenia and Common Sense, Hipólito, I., Gonçalves, J., Pereira, J. (Eds.). SpringerNature, Mind-Brain Studies.E. Lalumera - forthcoming - In I. Hipolito, J. Goncalves & J. Pereira (eds.), Schizophrenia and Common Sense, Hipólito, I., Gonçalves, J., Pereira, J. (eds.). SpringerNature, Mind-Brain Studies. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Wittgenstein’s concepts shed light on the phenomenon of schizophrenia in at least three different ways: with a view to empathy, scientific explanation, or philosophical clarification. I consider two different “positive” wittgensteinian accounts―Campbell’s idea that delusions involve a mechanism of which different framework propositions are parts, Sass’ proposal that the schizophrenic patient can be described as a solipsist, and a Rhodes’ and Gipp’s account, where epistemic aspects of schizophrenia are explained as failures in the ordinary background of certainties. I argue that (...)
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  2. Fanti, S., Oyen, W., & Lalumera, E. (2019). Consensus Procedures in Oncological Imaging: The Case of Prostate Cancer.Stefano Fanti, Wim Oyen & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Cancers 11:1178-1190.
    Recently, there has been increasing interest in methodological aspects of advanced imaging, including the role of guidelines, recommendations, and experts’ consensus, the practice of self-referral, and the risk of diagnostic procedure overuse. In a recent Delphi study of the European Association for Nuclear Medicine (EANM), panelists were asked to give their opinion on 47 scientific questions about imaging in prostate cancer. Nine additional questions exploring the experts’ attitudes and opinions relating to the procedure of consensus building itself were also included. (...)
     
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  3. Concetti: capacità o rappresentazioni?E. Lalumera - 2008 - Epistemologia 31 (1):75-96.
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  4. Self-Knowledge * Edited by Anthony Hatzimoysis.E. Lalumera - 2012 - Analysis 72 (3):619-620.
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  5.  13
    Il criterio del “danno” nella definizione di disturbo mentale del DSM. Alcune riflessioni epistemologiche.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (2):139-150.
    Riassunto: In questo contributo analizzeremo il criterio del danno, presente nella definizione generale di disturbo mentale del DSM. La questione ha rilevanza sia da un punto di vista filosofico, perché il danno è una componente normativa e valoriale, non oggettiva, sia da un punto di vista clinico, perché chi ha difeso il criterio del danno ha spesso sostenuto che in sua assenza avremmo troppi falsi positivi. Infine, ha importanza dal punto di vista socio-sanitario in relazione al rapporto tra la psichiatria (...)
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  6. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage of (...)
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  7.  56
    Reference, Knowledge, and Scepticism About Meaning.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2007 - Sorites (19):1-18.
    This paper explores the possibility of resisting meaning scepticism – the thesis that there are many alternative incompatible assignments of reference to each of our terms - by appealing to the idea that the nature of reference is to maximize knowledge. If the reference relation is a knowledge maximizing-relation, then some candidate referents are privileged among the others - i.e., those referents we are in a position to know about – and a positive reason against meaning scepticism is thus individuated. (...)
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  8. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders. MEDICINA & STORIA, 109-128.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia (9-10):109-129.
    Abstract: At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a cer- tain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main rea- sons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative fail- ure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descrip- tivism (...)
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  9. G. E. Moore: Selected Writings.G. E. Moore - 1993 - Routledge.
    G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...)
     
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  10.  34
    Reliability of Molecular Imaging Diagnostics.Elisabetta Lalumera, Stefano Fanti & Giovanni Boniolo - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Advanced medical imaging, such as CT, fMRI and PET, has undergone enormous progress in recent years, both in accuracy and utilization. Such techniques often bring with them an illusion of immediacy, the idea that the body and its diseases can be directly inspected. In this paper we target this illusion and address the issue of the reliability of advanced imaging tests as knowledge procedures, taking positron emission tomography in oncology as paradigmatic case study. After individuating a suitable notion of reliability, (...)
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  11.  19
    Randomized Controlled Trials for Diagnostic Imaging: Conceptual and Pratical Problems.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):395-400.
    We raise a problem of applicability of RCTs to validate nuclear diagnostic imaging tests. In spite of the wide application of PET and other similar techniques that use radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes, RCT-based evidence on their validity is sparse. We claim that this is due to a general conceptual problem that we call Prevalence of Treatment, which arises in connection with designing RCTs for testing any diagnostic procedure in the present context of medical research, and is particularly apparent in this (...)
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  12.  28
    Trust in Health Care and Vaccine Hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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  13.  91
    The Collected Philosophical Papers of G.E.M. Anscombe.G. E. M. Anscombe - 1900 - Blackwell.
    -- v. 2. Metaphysics and the philosophy of mind.
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  14. Concepts: Stored or Created?Marco Mazzone & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (1):47-68.
    Are concepts stable entities, unchanged from context to context? Or rather are they context-dependent structures, created on the fly? We argue that this does not constitute a genuine dilemma. Our main thesis is that the more a pattern of features is general and shared, the more it qualifies as a concept. Contextualists have not shown that conceptual structures lack a stable, general core, acting as an attractor on idiosyncratic information. What they have done instead is to give a contribution to (...)
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  15. Knud E. Løgstrup: “Humanism and Christianity”. Translated by Kees van Kooten Niekerk, Bjørn Rabjerg and Robert Stern.Knud E. Løgstrup - 2019 - Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte 26 (1):132-146.
    Dieser Artikel ist die Übersetzung des zuerst in 1950 veröffentlichten Schlüsseltextes “Humanisme og kristendom” des dänischen Philosophen und Theologen Knud E. Løgstrup. In diesem Text legt Løgstrup seine Konzeption der Debatte zwischen Humanismus und Christentum dar. Er argumentiert dafür, dass die beiden Positionen nicht als einander entgegengesetzt zu betrachten sind, da beide die Interdependenz und Verletzlichkeit des Menschseins als Grundlage für eine “stumme” Forderung nach Umsorge erkennen – auch wenn der Humanismus in dieser Forderung lediglich die Leistung sozialer Normen sehen (...)
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  16.  40
    A Potential Tension in DSM-5: The General Definition of Mental Disorder Versus Some Specific Diagnostic Criteria.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (1):85-108.
    The general concept of mental disorder specified in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is definitional in character: a mental disorder might be identified with a harmful dysfunction. The manual also contains the explicit claim that each individual mental disorder should meet the requirements posed by the definition. The aim of this article is two-fold. First, we shall analyze the definition of the superordinate concept of mental disorder to better understand what necessary criteria actually (...)
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  17.  2
    Daseinsanálise E Psicanálise: Caracterização de Como Se Dá Esse Debate Na Atualidade.Caroline Garpelli Barbosa, Érico Bruno Viana Campos & Carmen Maria Bueno Neme - 2020 - Revista Natureza Humana 22 (1):30.
    Resumo: Este estudo objetiva retomar o diálogo efetuado entre a tradição da ontologia hermenêutica heideggeriana e a psicanálise freudiana, a fim de discutir se ele ainda tem lugar na atualidade e, em caso positivo, problematizar como ele tem sido construído. Apesar de existirem muitos argumentos que questionam a possibilidade de articulação entre esses dois campos, eles não encerram consensualmente essa discussão e exigem ser atualizados. No cenário mais recente, algumas pesquisas têm acenado para o estabelecimento de pontos de conexões entre (...)
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  18.  19
    COVID-19 as the Underlying Cause of Death: Disentangling Facts and Values.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people’s feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization’s rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts and values.
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  19.  23
    Harm Should Not Be a Necessary Criterion for Mental Disorder: Some Reflections on the DSM-5 Definition of Mental Disorder.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):321-337.
    The general definition of mental disorder stated in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders seems to identify a mental disorder with a harmful dysfunction. However, the presence of distress or disability, which may be bracketed as the presence of harm, is taken to be merely usual, and thus not a necessary requirement: a mental disorder can be diagnosed as such even if there is no harm at all. In this paper, we focus on the (...)
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  20.  40
    Facts, Freedom and Foreknowledge: E. M. Zemach and D. Widerker.E. M. Zemach - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (1):19-28.
    Is God's foreknowledge compatible with human freedom? One of the most attractive attempts to reconcile the two is the Ockhamistic view, which subscribes not only to human freedom and divine omniscience, but retains our most fundamental intuitions concerning God and time: that the past is immutable, that God exists and acts in time, and that there is no backward causation. In order to achieve all that, Ockhamists distinguish ‘hard facts’ about the past which cannot possibly be altered from ‘soft facts’ (...)
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  21. O Pluralismo E a Nova Ordem Mundial: Para Uma Ressignificação Do Político a Partir de Mouffe.Rita de Cassia Ferreira Lins E. Silva - 2016 - Pensando - Revista de Filosofia 7 (13):220.
    O presente trabalho examina uma perspectiva hermenêutica do político presente no pensamento de Chantal Mouffe, cujo empreendimento se dá com o seu postulado em torno do que denomina por democracia radical e plural e da resultante desse postulado dentro de uma ordem cosmopolita da política e o reflexo do empreendimento dos direitos nesse sentido. A chave de leitura que orienta esta perspectiva advém da concepção do político realizada pela autora, em que o antagonismo é nuclear na formação da identidade plural (...)
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  22.  91
    Review: The Work of E. T. Jaynes on Probability, Statistics and Statistical Physics. [REVIEW]E. T. Jaynes, D. A. Lavis & P. J. Milligan - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (2):193 - 210.
    An important contribution to the foundations of probability theory, statistics and statistical physics has been made by E. T. Jaynes. The recent publication of his collected works provides an appropriate opportunity to attempt an assessment of this contribution.
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  23.  42
    Concepts Are a Functional Kind. Comment on Machery's Doing Without Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):217-18.
    This commentary focuses on Machery's eliminativist claim, that ought to be eliminated from the theoretical vocabulary of psychology because it fails to denote a natural kind. I argue for the more traditional view that concepts are a functional kind, which provides the simplest account of the empirical evidence discussed by Machery.
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  24. VKnowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience, V in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski, Eds.E. T. Higgins - 1996 - In E. E. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guilford.
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  25.  86
    Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 62:23-48.
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  26. G. E. Moore: Early Philosophical Writings.Thomas Baldwin - 1990 - Routledge.
    This book is available either individually, or as part of the specially-priced Arguments of the Philosphers Collection.
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  27.  1
    Utilidade E Obrigação No Pensamento Moral de Richard Cumberland.Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade E. Silva Sahd - 2017 - Pensando - Revista de Filosofia 7 (14):76.
    Neste trabalho eu pretendo oferecer um breve esboço de uma das fontes do utilitarismo. A teoria do direito natural de Richard Cumberland. Embora o autor se insira na tradição do jus naturae, há elementos suficientes em seu texto que apontam para a preparação de noções importantes ao utilitarismo, noções de raciocínio consequencialista. Sem fazer anacronismos, eu pretenso esboçar aqui o papel assumido por Cumberland na história dessa corrente do pensamento ético.
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  28.  28
    Natural Kinds: T. E. Wilkerson.T. E. Wilkerson - 1988 - Philosophy 63 (243):29-42.
    What is a natural kind ? As we shall see, the concept of a natural kind has a long history. Many of the interesting doctrines can be detected in Aristotle, were revived by Locke and Leibniz, and have again become fashionable in recent years. Equally there has been agreement about certain paradigm examples: the kinds oak, stickleback and gold are natural kinds, and the kinds table, nation and banknote are not. Sadly agreement does not extend much further. It is impossible (...)
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  29. Quando Um Biólogo É Inundado Por Outras Biologias, Outras Educações.Carlos Augusto Silva E. Silva & Maria dos Remédios de Brito - 2020 - Quaestio - Revista de Estudos Em Educação 22 (2):355-374.
    O texto partilha dos encontros vitais que mobilizaram no corpo de um biólogo-artista, exercícios fabulatórios de experimentação - com a imagem, a escrita, a memória, as águas de um igarapé, a terra, as vidas que atravessaram moradores atingidos por uma barragem - aglutinados pelas seguintes questões: como um biólogo pode experimentar a biologia, a arte, a natureza para além do já posto? Como a arte e a biologia se cruzam com/na natureza e que educações se compõem nesses vazamentos? O texto (...)
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  30.  52
    Substance and Selfhood: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (255):81-99.
    How could the self be a substance? There are various ways in which it could be, some familiar from the history of philosophy. I shall be rejecting these more familiar substantivalist approaches, but also the non-substantival theories traditionally opposed to them. I believe that the self is indeed a substance—in fact, that it is a simple or noncomposite substance—and, perhaps more remarkably still, that selves are, in a sense, self-creating substances. Of course, if one thinks of the notion of substance (...)
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  31.  41
    Q.E.D., Qed.Adam Koberinski & Chris Smeenk - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 71:1-13.
    Precision testing of the quantum electrodynamics (QED) and the standard model provides some of the most secure knowledge in the history of physics. These tests can also be used to constrain and search for new physics going beyond the standard model. We examine the evidential structure of relationships between theoretical predictions from QED, precision measurements of these phenomena, and the indirect determination of the fine structure constant. We argue that "pure QED" is no longer sufficient to predict the electron's anomalous (...)
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  32. Intention and Intentionality: Essays in Honour of G. E. M. Anscombe.G. E. M. Anscombe, Cora Diamond & Jenny Teichman (eds.) - 1979 - Cornell University Press.
  33.  64
    A C.E. Real That Cannot Be SW-Computed by Any Ω Number.George Barmpalias & Andrew E. M. Lewis - 2006 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (2):197-209.
    The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
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  34.  58
    Conhecimento e identidade histórica em Sartre.Franklin Leopoldo E. Silva - 2003 - Trans/Form/Ação 26 (2):43-64.
    O presente texto procura acompanhar alguns aspectos da reconstrução sartreana das relações entre indivíduo e história, tentando mostrar que a fenomenologia e o materialismo dialético comparecem nessa proposta de conhecimento e que é a convergência das duas perspectivas que permite, contemplando adequadamente a universalidade e a singularidade, descrever e compreender dialeticamente o modo histórico de produção da identidade individual.
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  35.  2
    Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence.E. Cardena & S. Lynn (eds.) - 2000 - American Psychological Association.
    What happens during a near-death experience? In an accessible style, this text reviews recent research about unbelievable events, creating an account of activity at the boundaries of science. It also examines research concerns, current theories, methodological issues and clinical implications.
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  36.  26
    The Index Set $\{E: WE \Equiv1 X\}$.E. Herrmann - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):110 - 116.
    Let X be any infinite, coinfinite r.e. set. We show that the index set $\{e: W_e \equiv_1 X\}$ is Σ 0 3 -complete, answering a question posed by Odifreddi in [2].
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  37.  82
    A Simple Realist Account of the Normativity of Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2005 - Disputatio 1 (19):1-17.
    I argue that a concept is applied correctly when it is applied to the kind
    of things it is the concept of. Correctness as successful kind-tracking is
    fulfilling an externally and naturalistically individuated standard. And the normative aspect of concept-application so characterized depends on the relational (non-individualistic) feature of conceptual content. I defend this view against two objections. The first is that norms should provide justifications for action, and the second involves a version of the thesis of indeterminacy of reference.
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  38.  35
    Personal Agency: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2003 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 53:211-227.
    Why does the problem of free will seem so intractable? I surmise that in large measure it does so because the free will debate, at least in its modern form, is conducted in terms of a mistaken approach to causality in general. At the heart of this approach is the assumption that all causation is fundamentally event causation. Of course, it is well-known that some philosophers of action want to invoke in addition an irreducible notion of agent causation, applicable only (...)
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  39.  27
    The Principles of Mechanics. Edited by D.E. Jones and James Walley.E. A. Singer, Henrich Hertz, D. E. Jones & J. T. Walley - 1900 - Philosophical Review 9 (6):676.
  40.  19
    Reasons and Causes in Psychiatry: Ideas From Donald Davidson’s Work.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - In Annalisa Coliva, Paolo Leonardi & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Eva Picardi on Language, Analysis and History. Palgrave. pp. 281-296.
    Though the divide between reason-based and causal-explanatory approaches in psychiatry and psychopathology is old and deeply rooted, current trends involving multi-factorial explanatory models and evidence-based approaches to interpersonal psychotherapy, show that it has already been implicitly bridged. These trends require a philosophical reconsideration of how reasons can be causes. This paper contributes to that trajectory by arguing that Donald Davidson’s classic paradigm of 1963 is still a valid option.
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  41. The Blind Hens' Challenge: Does It Undermine the View That Only Welfare Matters in Our Dealings with Animals?Peter Sandøe, Paul M. Hocking, Bjorn Förkman, Kirsty Haldane, Helle H. Kristensen & Clare Palmer - 2014 - Environmental Values 23 (6):727-742.
    Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding hens for commercial egg-laying systems to become blind, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively repellent, yet ‘welfare-only’ positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the ‘Blind Hens’ Challenge’. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and (...)
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  42.  48
    W. E. B. Du Bois's Critique of American Democracy During the Jim Crow Era: On the Limitations of Rawls and Honneth.Elvira Basevich - 2019 - Journal of Political Philosophy 27 (3):318-340.
  43.  6
    The Index Set {E: We ≡1X}.E. Herrmann - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):110-116.
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  44.  31
    I—Helen E. Longino.Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):19-35.
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  45. Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind: The Collected Philosophical Papers of G. E. M. Anscombe Volume Two.G. E. M. Anscombe - 1981 - Blackwell.
  46. Semantica e pragmatica linguistica. Tracce di normalità nelle implicature scalari.Salvatore Pistoia-Reda - 2014 - Carocci.
    In this book an introduction to the grammatical view of the scalar implicature phenomenon is presented. A detailed overview is offered concerning the embeddability of the exhaustivity operator, and the contextual dependance of the alternatives generation process. The theoretical implications of the grammatical view with respect to the abductive character of the scalar implicature are also discussed. A pragmatic account of the assertive content is proposed in correlation with a blindness-based account of the semantic content carried by scalar sentences, in (...)
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  47. The Problem of the Empirical Basis: E. G. Zahars.E. G. Zahar - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:45-74.
    In this paper I shall venture into an area with which I am not very familiar and in which I feel far from confident; namely into phenomenology. My main motive is not to get away from standard, boring, methodological questions like those of induction and demarcation; but the conviction that a phenomenological account of the empirical basis forms a necessary complement to Popper's falsificationism. According to the latter, a scientific theory is a synthetic and universal, hence unverifiable proposition. In fact, (...)
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  48. Educação Salesiana, Currículo E Formação de Governantes.Celeida Maria Costa de Souza E. Silva & Ozerina Victor De Oliveira - 2019 - Quaestio - Revista de Estudos Em Educação 21 (2).
    Este trabalho apresenta desdobramentos da história da Educação Salesiana no Colégio Salesiano de Santa Teresa, localizado em Corumbá-MS. Elegemos como recorte temporal os anos de 1972 a 1987, período que vigorou o convênio que deu origem a Escola Estadual Santa Teresa que funcionou simultaneamente ao CSST até 1982, passando a existir, a partir daí, somente a Escola Estadual. É nossa intenção mostrar como o currículo da Educação Salesiana, entendido como construção social, ganhou significado localmente, por meio da imprensa sul-mato-grossense, ao (...)
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  49.  56
    E-Z Reader 7 Provides a Platform for Explaining How Low- and High-Level Linguistic Processes Influence Eye Movements.Gary E. Raney - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):498-499.
    E-Z Reader 7 is a processing model of eye-movement control. One constraint imposed on the model is that high-level cognitive processes do not influence eye movements unless normal reading processes are disturbed. I suggest that this constraint is unnecessary, and that the model provides a sensible architecture for explaining how both low- and high-level processes influence eye movements.
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    A Unified Account of Information, Misinformation, and Disinformation.Sille Obelitz Søe - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5929-5949.
    In this paper I develop and present a unified account of information, misinformation, and disinformation and their interconnections. The unified account is rooted in Paul Grice’s notions of natural and non-natural meaning Studies in the way of words. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 213–223, 1957) and a corresponding distinction between natural and non-natural information :313–330, 2010). I argue that we can specify at least three specific kinds of non-natural information. Thus, as varieties of non-natural information there is intentionally non-misleading information, (...)
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