Background: Discussing treatment risks has become increasingly important in medical communication. Still, despite regulations, physicians must decide how much and what kind of information to present. Objective: To investigate patients’ preference for information about a small risk of a complication of colonoscopy, and whether medical and personal factors contribute to such preference. To propose a disclosure policy related to our results. Design: Vignettes study. Setting: Department of Gastroenterology, Academic Medical Centre, the Netherlands. Patients: 810 consecutive colonoscopy patients. Intervention: A home-sent (...) questionnaire containing three vignettes. Vignettes varied in the indication for colonoscopy, complication severity and level of risk. Patients were invited to indicate their wish to be informed and the importance of such information. In addition, sociodemograhic, illness-related and psychological characteristics were assessed. Main outcome measurements: Wish to be informed and importance of information. Results: Of 810 questionnaires, 68% were returned. Patients generally wished to be informed about low-risk complications, regardless of the indication for colonoscopy or the severity of the complication. The level of risk did matter, though (OR = 2.48, SE = 0.28, p = 0.001). The information was considered less important if done for population screening purposes or diagnosis of colon cancer, if the complication was less severe (bleeding) and if the risk was smaller (0.01% and 0.1%). Patients’ information preference was also related to age, mood and coping style. Limitations: Difficulty of vignettes. Conclusions: Patients generally wish to be informed about all possible risks. However, this might become uninformative. A stepwise approach is suggested. (shrink)
Theophrasti Characteres recensuit Hermannus Diels. Oxford Classical Texts. 1909. 3s. 6d. net. Pp. xxviii + .Θεοφρστου Xαρακτxs22EFρες. The Characters of Theophrastus. An English Translation from a Revised Text. With Introduction and Notes by R. C. Jebb, M.A. A new edition. Edited by J. E. Sandys, Litt.D. Macmillan. 1909. 7s. 6d. net. c. 23×14½. Pp. xvi+229.
H.B.D. Kettlewell is best known for his pioneering work on the phenomenon of industrial melanism, which began shortly after his appointment in 1951 as a Nuffield Foundation research worker in E.B. Ford's newly formed sub-department of genetics at the University of Oxford. In the years since, a legend has formed around these investigations, one that portrays them as a success story of the 'Oxford School of Ecological Genetics', emphasizes Ford's intellectual contribution, and minimizes reference to assistance provided by others. The (...) following essay reviews the important influence Ford, E.A. Cockayne, and P.M. Sheppard played in Kettlewell's research, leading up to his most famous experiments in 1953. It documents several reasons for doubting that Ford was as intellectually involved in the design of these investigations as he has previously been portrayed. It clarifies Kettlewell's intellectual contribution to the investigations for which he is famous, as well as the pivotal roles Cockayne and Sheppard played in the design, execution and interpretation of these investigations. (shrink)
Andocidis Orationes edidit Iustus Hermann Lipsius; pp. xxxii, 67. B. Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1888. M. 1. 20. Andocidis de Mysteriis et de Reditu; edited by E. C. Marchant, B.A., late scholar of Peter house, Cambridge; Assistant Master at St. Paul's School. Rivingtons, London, 1889. 5s.
Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums, im Auftrage und unter Mitwirkung des kaiserlick deutschen archaeologischen Instituts beschrieben von Walter Amerlung. Berlin: In Kommission bei Georg Reimer. Vol. I., 1903; Vol. II., 1908. Text, 8vo, pp. x + 935, 768. Plates, 4to, 121 + 83. M. 50 per vol.Guida illustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli; approvata dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Compilata da D. Bassi, E. Gábrici, L. Mariani, O. Maruchhi, G. Patroni, G. de Petra, A. Sogliano; per cura di A. Ruesch. (...) Naples: Richter & Co.; Munich: Buchholz, 1908. 8vo. Pp. 500. 129 illustrations in the text. Lire 25. (shrink)
The usual way for new cells to come into being is by division of old cells. So the zygote, which is a—new—single cell formed from two, the sperm and ovum, is an exception. Textbooks of human genetics usually say that this new cell is beginning of a new human individual. What this indicates is that they suddenly forget about identical twins.
O presente artigo constitui, antes de mais, uma exposição da tentativa feita por Maurice Merleau-Ponty de sistematização de um método psicológico convergente com algumas das principais metas estabelecidas pela Fenomenologia de inspiração husserliana. Constatando de que modo o autor da Fenomenologia da Percepção considera os diversos âmbitos da cultura, a começar pela arte e pela psicanálise, como indicadores da decadência do cartesianismo, o artigo analisa o estatuto da ciência justamente como uma das esferas culturais das quais é possível extrair categorias (...) que exprimam de forma mais precisa e rigorosa o real, mostrando-se de que modo as investigações científicas são indispensáveis para uma identificação dos temas a serem filosoficamente tratados, pois os dados obtidos por tais pesquisas são imprescindíveis para o trabalho filosófico enquanto tal Neste sentido, o autor propõe uma relação entre Filosofia e Ciência que não é mais uma relação de hierarquização, tal como defendia Husserl, mas sim uma de complementaridade, tal como defendia Bergson. Com efeito, postulando-se a não necessidade de fragmentar o real para que se legitime um tal acordo, ou seja, dado que a cisão entre o espiritual e o material não pode mais ser mantida, o artigo sublinha a absoluta necessidade de que Filosofia e Ciência se encontrem. Por outras palavras, a integração entre ambas não depende de que uma e outra se refiram à mesma, e justa, metade da realidade, mas tão-somente que cada uma delas remeta para a mesma camada fenomenal, seja para descrever cientificamente os organismos em seu contacto com o meio seja para expor filosoficamente a nova ontologia ali contida. Em suma, o artigo mostra até que ponto, apesar de realizar a intenção bergsoniana de integrar explicação quantitativa e descrição qualitativa e assimilar a crítica de Husserl ao objectivismo, o método fenomenoló-gico não esgota a tarefa ontológica da filosofia. /// The present article analyzes de attempt made by Maurice Merleau-Ponty in order to systematize a psychological method convergent with some of the main goals established by the phenomenological movement issued from HusserL Taking into account the way in which the author of the Phenomenology of Perception considers the different realms of the cultural sphere, beginning with art and psychoanalysis, as special indicators of cartesianisms decadence, the article analyses the statute of science inasmuch as it is one of the cultural spheres from which it is possible to extract the categories that express in a more precise and rigorous way the real, whereby it is shown in what way scientific research is indispensable for an identification of the themes to be treated philosophically. In this sense, the author proposes a relation between Philosophy and Science that is no more one of hierarchysation, as defended by Husserl, but one of complementarity, such as defended by Bergson. By postulating that there is no longer a necessity for a fragmentation of the real so that such an accord between Philosophy and Science could be reached, and this precisely since there is no longer a way of maintaining a division between the spiritual and the material, the article underlines the necessity that Philosophy and Science must come together. In other words, the integration between the Wo no longer depends of the fact that one and the other refer to the same portion of the real, but only of the capacity that each one of them has of referring to the same set of phenomena, being that in order to achieve a scientific description of organisms in contact with the environment or being that in order to advance a philosophical exploration of the new ontology in it contained. Above all, the article shows the measure in which, regardless of the fact that the methodological approach of phenomenology realizes the bergsonian intention of an integration of quantitative explanation and qualitative description, it. cannot properly be said that such method exhausts the ontological task of Philosophy. (shrink)