Results for 'E. Ratti'

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  1. Sistema giuridico e sistemazione del diritto.Ratti Giovanni Battista - 2009 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Del Diritto 86 (2):355.
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  2.  65
    Why Genes Are Like Lemons.F. Boem, E. Ratti, M. Andreoletti & G. Boniolo - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57 (June):88-95.
    In the last few years, the lack of a unitary notion of gene across biological sciences has troubled the philosophy of biology community. However, the debate on this concept has remained largely historical or focused on particular cases presented by the scientific empirical advancements. Moreover, in the literature there are no explicit and reasonable arguments about why a philosophical clarification of the concept of gene is needed. In our paper, we claim that a philosophical clarification of the concept of gene (...)
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  3.  54
    Data Science and Molecular Biology: Prediction and Mechanistic Explanation.Ezequiel López-Rubio & Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - Synthese (4):1-26.
    In the last few years, biologists and computer scientists have claimed that the introduction of data science techniques in molecular biology has changed the characteristics and the aims of typical outputs (i.e. models) of such a discipline. In this paper we will critically examine this claim. First, we identify the received view on models and their aims in molecular biology. Models in molecular biology are mechanistic and explanatory. Next, we identify the scope and aims of data science (machine learning in (...)
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  4. NCG 4.0: The Network of Cancer Genes in the Era of Massive Mutational Screenings of Cancer Genomes.Omer An, Pendino Vera, D'Antonio Matteo, Ratti Emanuele, Gentilini Marco & Ciccarelli Francesca - 2014 - Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2014.
    NCG 4.0 is the latest update of the Network of Cancer Genes, a web-based repository of systems-level properties of cancer genes. In its current version, the database collects information on 537 known (i.e. experimentally supported) and 1463 candidate (i.e. inferred using statistical methods) cancer genes. Candidate cancer genes derive from the manual revision of 67 original publications describing the mutational screening of 3460 human exomes and genomes in 23 different cancer types. For all 2000 cancer genes, duplicability, evolutionary origin, expression, (...)
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  5.  26
    Microethics for Healthcare Data Science: Attention to Capabilities in Sociotechnical Systems.Mark Graves & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - The Future of Science and Ethics 6:64-73.
    It has been argued that ethical frameworks for data science often fail to foster ethical behavior, and they can be difficult to implement due to their vague and ambiguous nature. In order to overcome these limitations of current ethical frameworks, we propose to integrate the analysis of the connections between technical choices and sociocultural factors into the data science process, and show how these connections have consequences for what data subjects can do, accomplish, and be. Using healthcare as an example, (...)
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  6.  68
    Junk or Functional DNA? ENCODE and the Function Controversy.Pierre-Luc Germain, Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):807-831.
    In its last round of publications in September 2012, the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) assigned a biochemical function to most of the human genome, which was taken up by the media as meaning the end of ‘Junk DNA’. This provoked a heated reaction from evolutionary biologists, who among other things claimed that ENCODE adopted a wrong and much too inclusive notion of function, making its dismissal of junk DNA merely rhetorical. We argue that this criticism rests on misunderstandings concerning (...)
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  7.  21
    Cultivating Moral Attention: a Virtue-Oriented Approach to Responsible Data Science in Healthcare.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1819-1846.
    In the past few years, the ethical ramifications of AI technologies have been at the center of intense debates. Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding how a morally responsible practice of data science can be promoted and which values have to shape it. In this context, ethics and moral responsibility have been mainly conceptualized as compliance to widely shared principles. However, several scholars have highlighted the limitations of such a principled approach. Drawing from microethics and the virtue theory tradition, (...)
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  8.  60
    MERRINGTON, E. N. -The Problem of Personality. [REVIEW]A. E. T. A. E. T. - 1917 - Mind 26:489.
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  9.  91
    Big Data Biology: Between Eliminative Inferences and Exploratory Experiments.Emanuele Ratti - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):198-218.
    Recently, biologists have argued that data - driven biology fosters a new scientific methodology; namely, one that is irreducible to traditional methodologies of molecular biology defined as the discovery strategies elucidated by mechanistic philosophy. Here I show how data - driven studies can be included into the traditional mechanistic approach in two respects. On the one hand, some studies provide eliminative inferential procedures to prioritize and develop mechanistic hypotheses. On the other, different studies play an exploratory role in providing useful (...)
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  10.  5
    Science, Technology, and Virtues: Contemporary Perspectives.Emanuele Ratti & Tom Stapleford (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
  11. J. E. Erdmann, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie. 4. Aufl. bearb. von Benno Erdmann. [REVIEW]E. Adickes - 1899 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 3:344.
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  12. BRÉHIER, É. -Histoire de la Philosophie, Tome II, 1. [REVIEW]A. E. T. A. E. T. - 1930 - Mind 39:526.
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  13. JOURDAIN, E. F. -On the Theory of the Infinite in Modern Thought. [REVIEW]A. E. T. A. E. T. - 1911 - Mind 20:437.
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  14. ROLFES, E. -Die Philosophie des Aristoteles Als Naturerklärung Und Weltanschauung. [REVIEW]A. E. T. A. E. T. - 1925 - Mind 34:105.
     
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  15. URWICK, E. J. -The Message of Plato. [REVIEW]A. E. T. A. E. T. - 1921 - Mind 30:235.
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  16. E. W. BETH, "Mathematical Thought. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics". [REVIEW]E. Agazzi - 1967 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 59:251.
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  17.  52
    What Kind of Novelties Can Machine Learning Possibly Generate? The Case of Genomics.Emanuele Ratti - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:86-96.
    Machine learning (ML) has been praised as a tool that can advance science and knowledge in radical ways. However, it is not clear exactly how radical are the novelties that ML generates. In this article, I argue that this question can only be answered contextually, because outputs generated by ML have to be evaluated on the basis of the theory of the science to which ML is applied. In particular, I analyze the problem of novelty of ML outputs in the (...)
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  18.  48
    Facts, Freedom and Foreknowledge: E. M. Zemach and D. Widerker.E. M. Zemach - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (1):19-28.
    Is God's foreknowledge compatible with human freedom? One of the most attractive attempts to reconcile the two is the Ockhamistic view, which subscribes not only to human freedom and divine omniscience, but retains our most fundamental intuitions concerning God and time: that the past is immutable, that God exists and acts in time, and that there is no backward causation. In order to achieve all that, Ockhamists distinguish ‘hard facts’ about the past which cannot possibly be altered from ‘soft facts’ (...)
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  19.  63
    ‘Models of’ and ‘Models For’: On the Relation Between Mechanistic Models and Experimental Strategies in Molecular Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (2):773-797.
    Molecular biologists exploit information conveyed by mechanistic models for experimental purposes. In this article, I make sense of this aspect of biological practice by developing Keller’s idea of the distinction between ‘models of’ and ‘models for’. ‘Models of (phenomena)’ should be understood as models representing phenomena and are valuable if they explain phenomena. ‘Models for (manipulating phenomena)’ are new types of material manipulations and are important not because of their explanatory force, but because of the interventionist strategies they afford. This (...)
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  20.  37
    What does it mean to embed ethics in data science? An integrative approach based on the microethics and virtues.Louise Bezuidenhout & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - AI and Society 36:939–953.
    In the past few years, scholars have been questioning whether the current approach in data ethics based on the higher level case studies and general principles is effective. In particular, some have been complaining that such an approach to ethics is difficult to be applied and to be taught in the context of data science. In response to these concerns, there have been discussions about how ethics should be “embedded” in the practice of data science, in the sense of showing (...)
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  21.  66
    Mechanistic Models and the Explanatory Limits of Machine Learning.Emanuele Ratti & Ezequiel López-Rubio - unknown
    We argue that mechanistic models elaborated by machine learning cannot be explanatory by discussing the relation between mechanistic models, explanation and the notion of intelligibility of models. We show that the ability of biologists to understand the model that they work with severely constrains their capacity of turning the model into an explanatory model. The more a mechanistic model is complex, the less explanatory it will be. Since machine learning increases its performances when more components are added, then it generates (...)
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  22.  98
    Review: The Work of E. T. Jaynes on Probability, Statistics and Statistical Physics. [REVIEW]E. T. Jaynes, D. A. Lavis & P. J. Milligan - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (2):193 - 210.
    An important contribution to the foundations of probability theory, statistics and statistical physics has been made by E. T. Jaynes. The recent publication of his collected works provides an appropriate opportunity to attempt an assessment of this contribution.
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  23. The End of 'Small Biology'? Some Thoughts About Biomedicine and Big Science.Emanuele Ratti - 2016 - Big Data and Society:1-6.
    In biology—as in other scientific fields—there is a lively opposition between big and small science projects. In this commentary, I try to contextualize this opposition in the field of biomedicine, and I argue that, at least in this context, big science projects should come first.
     
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  24. G. Giorello, "Lo spettro e il libertino". [REVIEW]E. Agazzi - 1985 - Epistemologia 8 (2):349.
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  25. Logo semantico e logo apofantico.E. Agazzi - 1989 - Epistemologia 12:17-48.
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  26. Recensioni-Valori e limiti del senso comune.E. Agazzi & F. Minazzi - 2007 - Epistemologia 30 (1):179-183.
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  27.  32
    The Principles of Mechanics. Edited by D.E. Jones and James Walley.E. A. Singer, Henrich Hertz, D. E. Jones & J. T. Walley - 1900 - Philosophical Review 9 (6):676.
  28.  54
    Phronesis and Automated Science: The Case of Machine Learning and Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - In Fabio Sterpetti & M. Bertolaso (eds.), Will Science Remain Human? Springer.
    The applications of machine learning and deep learning to the natural sciences has fostered the idea that the automated nature of algorithmic analysis will gradually dispense human beings from scientific work. In this paper, I will show that this view is problematic, at least when ML is applied to biology. In particular, I will claim that ML is not independent of human beings and cannot form the basis of automated science. Computer scientists conceive their work as being a case of (...)
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  29. Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine.Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem - 2016 - In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Philosophy of Molecular Medicine - Foundational Issues in Research and Practice. Routledge.
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material manipulation. We also (...)
     
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  30.  95
    Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 62:23-48.
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  31.  13
    Psichiatria clinico-nosografica e psichiatria fenomenologica: un confronto.E. Agresti - 2002 - Comprendre: Archive International pour l'Anthropologie et la Psychopathologie Phénoménologiques 12:11-30.
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  32.  5
    Nación e historia. La justificación e interpretación histórica de las naciones a finales del siglo XIX y en la primera mitad del XX.Rafael E. Acevedo P. - 2014 - Co-herencia 11 (21):191-227.
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  33. VKnowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience, V in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski, Eds.E. T. Higgins - 1996 - In E. E. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guilford.
     
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  34.  26
    Dialética e experiência.Franklin Leopoldo E. Silva - 2005 - Doispontos 2 (2).
    É bem conhecida a oposição estabelecida por Kant entre experiência possível e dialética, na medida em que esta última é caracterizada como a “lógica da ilusão”. Ao mesmo tempo, o modo de pensar metafísico, que ocorre dialeticamente, em sentido kantiano, é uma tendência inevitável da razão, expressa na exigência formal de completude das categorias. Como o pensar, enquanto exercício livre da razão, é em si mesmo mais amplo do que a atividade de conhecer, própria do entendimento, o pensar contém o (...)
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  35.  17
    Explainable Machine Learning Practices: Opening Another Black Box for Reliable Medical AI.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - 2022 - AI and Ethics:1-14.
    In the past few years, machine learning (ML) tools have been implemented with success in the medical context. However, several practitioners have raised concerns about the lack of transparency—at the algorithmic level—of many of these tools; and solutions from the field of explainable AI (XAI) have been seen as a way to open the ‘black box’ and make the tools more trustworthy. Recently, Alex London has argued that in the medical context we do not need machine learning tools to be (...)
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  36.  38
    Natural Kinds: T. E. Wilkerson.T. E. Wilkerson - 1988 - Philosophy 63 (243):29-42.
    What is a natural kind ? As we shall see, the concept of a natural kind has a long history. Many of the interesting doctrines can be detected in Aristotle, were revived by Locke and Leibniz, and have again become fashionable in recent years. Equally there has been agreement about certain paradigm examples: the kinds oak, stickleback and gold are natural kinds, and the kinds table, nation and banknote are not. Sadly agreement does not extend much further. It is impossible (...)
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  37.  43
    E. Spang-Hanssen: J. N. Madvig Bibliografi. Pp. xxiii+139. Copenhagen: Kongelige Bibliotek, 1966. Paper, 20 D.kr.E. J. Kenney - 1967 - The Classical Review 17 (3):404-404.
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  38. Lalumera, E. 2017 Understanding Schizophrenia Through Wittgenstein: Empathy, Explanation, and Philosophical Clarification, in Schizophrenia and Common Sense, Hipólito, I., Gonçalves, J., Pereira, J. (Eds.). SpringerNature, Mind-Brain Studies.E. Lalumera - forthcoming - In I. Hipolito, J. Goncalves & J. Pereira (eds.), Schizophrenia and Common Sense, Hipólito, I., Gonçalves, J., Pereira, J. (eds.). SpringerNature, Mind-Brain Studies. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Wittgenstein’s concepts shed light on the phenomenon of schizophrenia in at least three different ways: with a view to empathy, scientific explanation, or philosophical clarification. I consider two different “positive” wittgensteinian accounts―Campbell’s idea that delusions involve a mechanism of which different framework propositions are parts, Sass’ proposal that the schizophrenic patient can be described as a solipsist, and a Rhodes’ and Gipp’s account, where epistemic aspects of schizophrenia are explained as failures in the ordinary background of certainties. I argue that (...)
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  39. Dormo e domine nel Decameron. LN 25 (1964) 1-4. S.E. Leone - 1964 - Paideia 19:332.
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  40.  25
    E. De Saint-Denis: Ovide, Halieutiques. . Pp. 70 . Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1975. Paper.E. J. Kenney - 1977 - The Classical Review 27 (2):279-279.
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  41.  59
    Substance and Selfhood: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (255):81-99.
    How could the self be a substance? There are various ways in which it could be, some familiar from the history of philosophy. I shall be rejecting these more familiar substantivalist approaches, but also the non-substantival theories traditionally opposed to them. I believe that the self is indeed a substance—in fact, that it is a simple or noncomposite substance—and, perhaps more remarkably still, that selves are, in a sense, self-creating substances. Of course, if one thinks of the notion of substance (...)
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  42.  21
    Jerrold E. Seigel: Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism. The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, Petrarch to Valla. Pp. Xx + 268. Princeton: University Press , 1968. Cloth, £4. Net. [REVIEW]E. J. Kenney - 1972 - The Classical Review 22 (1):124-124.
  43.  53
    Validity and Defeasibility in the Legal Domain.Jordi Ferrer Beltrán & Giovanni B. Ratti - 2010 - Law and Philosophy 29 (5):601-626.
    In jurisprudential literature, the adjective 'defeasible' appears as a predicate of many terms: concepts, laws, rules, reasoning, justification, proof, and so on. In this paper, we analyze the effects of some versions of the thesis of the defeasibility of legal norms on the reconstruction of the notion of legal validity. We analyze some possible justifications of this thesis considered as a claim concerning validity, and enquire into two possible sets of problems related to the defeasibility of the criteria of identification (...)
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  44.  38
    Jerrold E. Seigel: Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism. The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, Petrarch to Valla. Pp. Xx + 268. Princeton: University Press (London: Oxford University Press), 1968. Cloth, £4. Net. [REVIEW]E. J. Kenney - 1972 - The Classical Review 22 (01):124-.
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  45.  63
    The Greeks and the Irrational. By E. R. Dodds. Pp. Ix + 327. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press , 1951. 37s. 6d. [REVIEW]H. J. Rose & E. R. Dodds - 1953 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 73 (105):176-177.
    In this philosophy classic, which was first published in 1951, E. R. Dodds takes on the traditional view of Greek culture as a triumph of rationalism. Using the analytical tools of modern anthropology and psychology, Dodds asks, "Why should we attribute to the ancient Greeks an immunity from 'primitive' modes of thought which we do not find in any society open to our direct observation?" Praised by reviewers as "an event in modern Greek scholarship" and "a book which it would (...)
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  46.  31
    G. E. Moore.E. D. Klemke - 1992 - International Studies in Philosophy 24 (1):82-83.
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  47. Ì Öñ Ò Ø Óò Ó Óò× Øö Òø Óòø Üøù Ð Ê Ûö Ø Ò.È. Ö. Ó. Ö ÑѺ - 2000 - In Dov M. Gabbay & Maarten de Rijke (eds.), Frontiers of Combining Systems. Research Studies Press. pp. 47.
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  48. Vitruvio e il teatro del Rinascimento italiano.E. G. G. - 1971 - Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana:364.
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  49. Adickes, E., Kants Lehre von der doppelten Affektion unseres Ich. [REVIEW]E. Hartmann - 1933 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 46:393-394.
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  50. Becher, E., Weltgebäude, Weltgesetze, Weltentwicklung. [REVIEW]E. Hartmann - 1915 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 28:531-532.
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