Results for 'Ecologists'

201 found
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  1.  6
    Ecologists and Taxonomists: Divergent Traditions in Twentieth-Century Plant Geography.Joel B. Hagen - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):197-214.
    The distinction between taxonomic plant geography and ecological plant geography was never absolute: it would be historically inaccurate to portray them as totally divergent. Taxonomists occasionally borrowed ecological concepts, and ecologists never completely repudiated taxonomy. Indeed, some botanists pursued the two types of geographic study. The American taxonomist Henry Allan Gleason (1882–1975), for one, made noteworthy contributions to both. Most of Gleason's research appeared in short articles, however. He never published a major synthetic work comparable in scope or influence (...)
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  2.  12
    Tasks for Future Ecologists.Mary Clark - 1992 - Environmental Values 1 (1):35-46.
    Apparent conflicts between human jobs and welfare and the interests of wildlife can frequently be resolved if man is perceived as part of Nature rather than in opposition to it. However, social and scientific paradigms emphasize individuality at the expense of connectedness, and competition at the expense of co-operation. Ecologists are well placed to address the important questions of how fast human societies can adapt to change; which cultures are most adaptable, and how satisfactory given adaptations are likely to (...)
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  3.  9
    The Values of Ecologists.Alexander K. Lautensach - 2005 - Environmental Values 14 (2):241-250.
    The popular stereotype of ecologists appears somewhat at odds with the ideal of the objective, detached, morally disinterested researcher. Ecologists tend to subscribe to this ideal, as do most natural scientists. This puts the stereotype into question. To what extent and in what respects can ecologists be regarded as motivated by environmentalist values? What other values might contribute to their motivations? The answers to those questions have bearing on how policy makers perceive the input they receive from (...)
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  4.  7
    Mapping Ecologists' Ecologies of Knowledge.Peter J. Taylor - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:95 - 109.
    Ecologists grapple with complex, changing situations. Historians, sociologists and philosophers studying the construction of science likewise attempt to account for (or discount) a wide variety of influences making up the scientists' "ecologies of knowledge." This paper introduces a graphic methodology, mapping, designed to assist researchers at both levels-in science and in science studies-to work with the complexity of their material. By analyzing the implications and limitations of mapping, I aim to contribute to an ecological approach to the philosophy of (...)
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  5.  58
    From Environmental to Ecological Ethics: Toward a Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Conservationists.Ben A. Minteer & James P. Collins - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):483-501.
    Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of (...)
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  6.  23
    Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Stephen Bocking - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1-47.
  7.  4
    Heidegger: Philosopher for Ecologists[REVIEW]George J. Seidel - 1971 - Man and World 4 (1):93-99.
  8.  3
    Ecologists and the Public Interest.Dorothy Nelkin - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (1):38-44.
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  9.  2
    Ecologists, Ethical Codes, and the Struggles of a New Profession.Rachelle Hollander - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (1):45-46.
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  10. Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal PopulationPeter Crowcroft.Stephen Bocking - 1992 - Isis 83 (2):355-356.
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  11. Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary Ecology. Stephen Bocking.Eugene Cittadino - 1998 - Isis 89 (1):162-163.
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  12. The Ecologists: From Merry Naturalists to Saviours of the NationThomas Soderqvist.Eugene Cittadino - 1987 - Isis 78 (3):463-464.
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  13. A Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Biodiversity Managers.with James P. Collins - 2012 - In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Refounding Environmental Ethics: Pragmatism, Principle, and Practice. Temple University Press.
     
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  14. Historical Context Contemporary Studies of Foraging by Evolutionary Ecologists Are Based on the Synthesis of Two Research Traditions, Both Emerging During the 1960s. The Ethological Approach to Behavior is Illustrated By.Donald L. Kramer - 2001 - In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. pp. 232.
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  15. Palaeobiology of the South African Savanna and Lessons for Modern Ecologists.Fred Kruger - 2015 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 70 (2):117-125.
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  16. Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. By Peter Crowcroft Pp. 177. (University of Chicago Press, 1991.). [REVIEW]P. C. Lee - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (2):283-284.
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  17. Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. [REVIEW]P. Lee - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (2):283-284.
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  18. Peter Crowcroft. Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Pp. Xx + 177, Illus. ISBN 0-226-12146-1, £27.95, $35.00 ; 0-226-12148-8, £12.75, $14.95. [REVIEW]Jack Morrell - 1992 - British Journal for the History of Science 25 (4):488.
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  19. Thomas Söderqvist. The Ecologists, From Merry Naturalists to Saviours of the Nation: A Sociologically Informed Narrative Survey of the Ecologization of Sweden 1895–1975. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1986. Pp. Vii + 330. ISBN 91-22-00827-6. No Price Given. [REVIEW]Malcolm Nicolson - 1988 - British Journal for the History of Science 21 (2):257.
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  20. Science & Soul.Charles Birch - 2008 - Unsw Press.
     
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  21. What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.Jay Odenbaugh - unknown
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
     
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  22. Idealized, Inaccurate but Successful: A Pragmatic Approach to Evaluating Models in Theoretical Ecology. [REVIEW]Jay Odenbaugh - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):231-255.
    Ecologists attempt to understand the diversity of life with mathematical models. Often, mathematical models contain simplifying idealizations designed to cope with the blooming, buzzing confusion of the natural world. This strategy frequently issues in models whose predictions are inaccurate. Critics of theoretical ecology argue that only predictively accurate models are successful and contribute to the applied work of conservation biologists. Hence, they think that much of the mathematical work of ecologists is poor science. Against this view, I argue (...)
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  23. Message in the Bottle: The Constraints of Experimentation on Model Building.Jay Odenbaugh - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):720-729.
    Some ecologists have argued that theoretical model building in population and community ecology has gone evidentially unconstrained. In the essay, I argue that "bottle experiments" offer ecological model building evidential constraints and illustrate this by considering work on chaotic models tested by the dynamics of flour beetles. Critics reply that these experiments are importantly unlike nonmanipulated natural systems and thus do not constitute genuine tests of the models. I conclude by considering two responses to this worry and a suggestion (...)
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  24.  65
    Differentiating and Defusing Theoretical Ecology's Criticisms: A Rejoinder to Sagoff's Reply to Donhauser (2016).Justin Donhauser - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 63:70-79.
    In a (2016) paper in this journal, I defuse allegations that theoretical ecological research is problematic because it relies on teleological metaphysical assumptions. Mark Sagoff offers a formal reply. In it, he concedes that I succeeded in establishing that ecologists abandoned robust teleological views long ago and that they use teleological characterizations as metaphors that aid in developing mechanistic explanations of ecological phenomena. Yet, he contends that I did not give enduring criticisms of theoretical ecology a fair shake in (...)
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  25. Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism.Val Plumwood - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (1):3 - 27.
    Rationalism is the key to the connected oppressions of women and nature in the West. Deep ecology has failed to provide an adequate historical perspective or an adequate challenge to human/nature dualism. A relational account of self enables us to reject an instrumental view of nature and develop an alternative based on respect without denying that nature is distinct from the self. This shift of focus links feminist, environmentalist, and certain forms of socialist critiques. The critique of anthropocentrism is not (...)
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  26. De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize).Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff - 2013 - Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is (...)
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  27. Animal Behavior.Stephen J. Crowley & Colin Allen - 2008 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 327--348.
    Few areas of scientific investigation have spawned more alternative approaches than animal behavior: comparative psychology, ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behavioral endocrinology, behavioral neuroscience, neuroethology, behavioral genetics, cognitive ethology, developmental psychobiology---the list goes on. Add in the behavioral sciences focused on the human animal, and you can continue the list with ethnography, biological anthropology, political science, sociology, psychology (cognitive, social, developmental, evolutionary, etc.), and even that dismal science, economics. Clearly, no reasonable-length chapter can do justice to such a varied collection. We (...)
     
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  28.  7
    Towards Improving the Ethics of Ecological Research.G. K. D. Crozier & Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):577-594.
    We argue that the ecological research community should develop a plan for improving the ethical consistency and moral robustness of the field. We propose a particular ethics strategy—specifically, an ongoing process of collective ethical reflection that the community of ecological researchers, with the cooperation of applied ethicists and philosophers of biology, can use to address the needs we identify. We suggest a particular set of conceptual and analytic tools that, we argue, collectively have the resources to provide an empirically grounded (...)
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  29. Ecological Laws.Ecological Laws - unknown
    The question of whether there are laws in ecology is important for a number of reasons. If, as some have suggested, there are no ecological laws, this would seem to distinguish ecology from other branches of science, such as physics. It could also make a difference to the methodology of ecology. If there are no laws to be discovered, ecologists would seem to be in the business of merely supplying a suite of useful models. These models would need to (...)
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  30. Analogical Thinking in Ecology: Looking Beyond Disciplinary Boundaries.Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg - 2010 - The Quarterly Review of Biology 85 (2):171--182.
    ABSTRACT We consider several ways in which a good understanding of modern techniques and principles in physics can elucidate ecology, and we focus on analogical reasoning between these two branches of science. Analogical reasoning requires an understanding of both sciences and an appreciation of the similarities and points of contact between the two. In the current ecological literature on the relationship between ecology and physics, there has been some misunderstanding about the nature of modern physics and its methods. Physics is (...)
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  31. Are Ecology and Evolutionary Biology “Soft” Sciences?Massimo Pigliucci - 2002 - Annales Zoologici Finnici 39:87-98.
    Research in ecology and evolutionary biology (evo-eco) often tries to emulate the “hard” sciences such as physics and chemistry, but to many of its practitioners feels more like the “soft” sciences of psychology and sociology. I argue that this schizophrenic attitude is the result of lack of appreciation of the full consequences of the peculiarity of the evo-eco sciences as lying in between a-historical disciplines such as physics and completely historical ones as like paleontology. Furthermore, evo-eco researchers have gotten stuck (...)
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  32.  99
    On How Theoretical Analyses in Ecology Can Enable Environmental Problem-Solving.Justin Donhauser - 2014 - Ethics and the Environment 19 (2):91-116.
    Environmental advisory institutions around the world assume that ecological theory can directly inform decision-making in environmental policy and natural resource management . Accordingly, theoretical ecological models are supposed to serve as reliable guides for adjudicating between policy and management alternatives. Leading ecologists even promise that TEMs can “provide a strong guide for environmental management and resource conservation” . At the same time, criticisms of theory-based policy and management have persisted since the 1970s—after the overall failure of the International ..
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  33.  21
    Function in Ecology: An Organizational Approach.Nei Nunes-Neto, Alvaro Moreno & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):123-141.
    Functional language is ubiquitous in ecology, mainly in the researches about biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, it has not been adequately investigated by ecologists or philosophers of ecology. In the contemporary philosophy of ecology we can recognize a kind of implicit consensus about this issue: while the etiological approaches cannot offer a good concept of function in ecology, Cummins’ systemic approach can. Here we propose to go beyond this implicit consensus, because we think these approaches are not adequate for (...)
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  34.  24
    Are There General Causal Forces in Ecology?Mark Sagoff - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    In this paper, I adopt the view that if general forces or processes can be detected in ecology, then the principles or models that represent them should provide predictions that are approximately correct and, when not, should lead to the sorts of intervening factors that usually make trouble. I argue that Lotka–Volterra principles do not meet this standard; in both their simple “strategic” and their complex “tactical” forms they are not approximately correct of the findings of the laboratory experiments and (...)
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  35. The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise.David Takacs - 1996 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    "At places distant from where you are, but also uncomfortably close," writes David Takacs, "a holocaust is under way. People are slashing, hacking, bulldozing, burning, poisoning, and otherwise destroying huge swaths of life on Earth at a furious pace." And a cadre of ecologists and conservation biologists has responded, vigorously promoting a new definition of nature: biodiversity --advocating it in Congress and on the Tonight Show; whispering it into the ears of foreign leaders redefining the boundaries of science and (...)
     
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  36.  61
    Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World.Carolyn Merchant - 2005 - Routledge.
    In the first edition of Radical Ecology --the now classic examination major philosophical, ethical, scientific, and economic roots of environmental problems--Carolyn Merchant responded to the profound awareness of environmental crisis which prevailed in the closing decade of the twentieth century. In this provocative and readable study, Merchant examined the ways that radical ecologists can transform science and society in order to sustain life on this planet. Now in this second edition, Merchant continues to emphasize how laws, regulations and scientific (...)
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  37.  90
    On “Self-Realization” – The Ultimate Norm of Arne Naess’s Ecosophy T.Md Munir Hossain Talukder - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (2):219-235.
    This paper considers the foundation of self-realization and the sense of morality that could justify Arne Naess’s claim ‘Self-realization is morally neutral,’ by focusing on the recent debate among deep ecologists. Self-realization, the ultimate norm of Naess’s ecosophy T, is the realization of the maxim ‘everything is interrelated.’ This norm seems to be based on two basic principles: the diminishing of narrow ego, and the integrity between the human and non-human worlds. The paper argues that the former is an (...)
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  38. Do Non-Native Species Threaten the Natural Environment?Mark Sagoff - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (3):215-236.
    Conservation biologists and other environmentalists confront five obstacles in building support for regulatory policies that seek to exclude or remove introduced plants and other non-native species that threaten to harm natural areas or the natural environment. First, the concept of “harm to the natural environment” is nebulous and undefined. Second, ecologists cannot predict how introduced species will behave in natural ecosystems. If biologists cannot define “harm” or predict the behavior of introduced species, they must target all non-native species as (...)
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  39. The Democracy of Objects.Levi R. Bryant - 2011 - Open Humanities Press.
    Since Kant, philosophy has been obsessed with epistemological questions pertaining to the relationship between mind and world and human access to objects. In The Democracy of Objects Bryant proposes that we break with this tradition and once again initiate the project of ontology as first philosophy. Drawing on the object-oriented ontology of Graham Harman, as well as the thought Roy Bhaskar, Gilles Deleuze, Niklas Luhman, Aristotle, Jacques Lacan, Bruno Latour and the developmental systems theorists, Bryant develops a realist ontology that (...)
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  40.  36
    Why Organizational Ecology is Not a Darwinian Research Program.Thomas A. C. Reydon & Markus Scholz - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (3):408-439.
    Organizational ecology is commonly seen as a Darwinian research program that seeks to explain the diversity of organizational structures, properties and behaviors as the product of selection in past social environments in a similar manner as evolutionary biology seeks to explain the forms, properties and behaviors of organisms as consequences of selection in past natural environments. We argue that this explanatory strategy does not succeed because organizational ecology theory lacks an evolutionary mechanism that could be identified as the principal cause (...)
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  41.  56
    Competition Theory, Evolution, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche.Thomas R. Alley - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of (...)
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  42. Deeper Than Deep Ecology: The Eco-Feminist Connection.Ariel Kay Salleh - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (4):339-345.
    I offer a feminist critique of deep ecology as presented in the seminal papers of Naess and Devall. I outline the fundamental premises involved and analyze their internal coherence. Not only are there problems on logical grounds, but the tacit methodological approach of the two papers are inconsistent with the deep ecologists’ own substantive comments. I discuss these shortcomings in terms of a broader feminist critique of patriarchal culture and point out some practical and theoretical contributions which eco-feminism can (...)
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  43.  13
    Adaptation, Fitness and the Selection-Optimality Links.Samir Okasha & Cédric Paternotte - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):225-232.
    We critically examine a number of aspects of Grafen’s ‘formal Darwinism’ project. We argue that Grafen’s ‘selection-optimality’ links do not quite succeed in vindicating the working assumption made by behavioural ecologists and others—that selection will lead organisms to exhibit adaptive behaviour—since these links hold true even in the presence of strong genetic and developmental constraints. However we suggest that the selection-optimality links can profitably be viewed as constituting an axiomatic theory of fitness. Finally, we compare Grafen’s project with Fisher’s (...)
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  44.  88
    Beyond Positivist Ecology: Toward an Integrated Ecological Ethics.Bryan G. Norton - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives (...)
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  45.  35
    The Plaza and the Pendulum: Two Concepts of Ecological Science.Mark Sagoff - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):529-552.
    This essay explores two strategies of inquiryin ecological science. Ecologists may regardthe sites they study either as contingentcollections of plants and animals, therelations of which are place-specific andidiosyncratic, or as structured systems andcommunites that are governed by general rules,forces, or principles. Ecologists who take thefirst approach rely on observation, induction,and experiment – a case-study or historicalmethod – to determine the causes of particularevents. Ecologists who take the secondapproach, seeking to explain by inferringevents from general patterns or principles,confront (...)
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  46.  54
    On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.H. Bernstein Mark - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  47.  53
    Ecological and Lyapunov Stability.James Justus - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (4):421-436.
    Ecologists have proposed several incompatible definitions of ecological stability. Emulating physicists, mathematical ecologists commonly define it as Lyapunov stability. This formalizes the problematic concept by integrating it into a well‐developed mathematical theory. The formalization also seems to capture the intuition that ecological stability depends on how ecological systems respond to perturbation. Despite these advantages, this definition is flawed. Although Lyapunov stability adequately characterizes perturbation responses of many systems studied in physics, it does not for ecological systems. This failure (...)
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  48.  48
    Refocusing Ecocentrism.Bill Throop - 1999 - Environmental Ethics 21 (1):3-21.
    Traditional ecocentric ethics relies on an ecology that emphasizes the stability and integrity of ecosystems. Numerous ecologists now focus on natural systems that are less clearly characterized by these properties. We use the elimination and restoration of wolves in Yellowstone to illustrate troubles for traditional ecocentric ethics caused by ecological models emphasizing instability in natural systems. We identify several other problems for a stability-integrity based ecocentrism as well. We show how an ecocentric ethic can avoid these difficulties by emphasizing (...)
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  49.  85
    Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes.Colin Allen & Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):221-240.
    The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. We describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. These experiments form the basis of a general point. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists and behavioral ecologists (...)
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  50.  36
    Ecological Explanation Between Manipulation and Mechanism Description.Viorel Pâslaru - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):821-837.
    James Woodward offers a conception of explanation and mechanism in terms of interventionist counterfactuals. Based on a case from ecology, I show that ecologists’ approach to that case satisfies Woodward’s conditions for explanation and mechanism, but his conception does not fully capture what ecologists view as explanatory. The new mechanistic philosophy likewise aims to describe central aspects of mechanisms, but I show that it is not sufficient to account for ecological mechanisms. I argue that in ecology explanation involves (...)
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