Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother’s importance depends on the family’s circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother’s co-residence and children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive. Grandmothers over age 60 are most effective in helping their children. They (...) are particularly important for girls, and when the mother is deceased or not living in the household. Grandmothers are less effective in situations with few opportunities, as in very poor regions or in communities with few schooling opportunities. Our findings indicate that providing support to grandmothers should not be overlooked when designing policies aimed at strengthening the position of women and children in the sub-Saharan African context. (shrink)
O presente artigo examina a natureza da investigação antropológica que Kant executou nos seus cursos sobre geografia física. Se, por um lado, a sua relação com a física empírica é assegurada, por outro, a incorporação de ambos os objetos do sentido interno, alma e ser humano, na abordagem cosmológica da investigação empírica da natureza humana gera questionamentos sobre a articulação disciplinar e metodológica pressupostas no Conhecimento do Mundo. Será mostrado que a investigação antropológica de Kant desde o início procurou assegurar (...) uma combinação sistemática entre diferentes procedimentos científicos que visam o conhecimento da natureza humana e que este é justamente o caso do emprego geográfico do conceito ontológico de alma no esclarecimento da diversidade de temperamentos e de gostos da espécie humana. (shrink)
A novel acquisition and processing technique is described to derive surface-wave dispersion curves from seismic ambient noise. We have determined that the use of spatial gradients of the wavefield provides new opportunities for high-resolution near-surface characterization with minimal field effort. In contrast to conventional active source data analysis that provides spatially smoothed results from large and dense arrays of receivers, our method provides local phase velocity information from ambient noise using only three closely spaced geophones. A time-frequency domain polarization-based analysis (...) scheme is implemented to detect the useful part of the data satisfying fundamental gradiometry assumptions, estimate the noise source azimuthal distribution, and finally, derive the desired local dispersion curves. The robustness and effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the synthetic and real data, with a comparison to results from active source measurements. (shrink)
We have introduced a workflow that allows subsurface imaging using upcoming body-wave arrivals extracted from ambient-noise land seismic data. Rather than using the conventional seismic interferometry approach based on correlation, we have developed a deconvolution technique to extract the earth response from the observed periodicity in the seismic traces. The technique consists of iteratively applying a gapped spiking deconvolution, providing multiple-free images with higher resolution than conventional correlation. We have validated the workflow for zero-offset traces with simple synthetic data and (...) real data recorded during a small point-receiver land seismic survey. (shrink)
While the importance of moral and national pluralism to John Stuart Mill and later liberals has been the subject of recent debate, little attention has been paid to Mill’s arguments that class and gender ascription fundamentally construct individual identity. Mill argues that the analysis of society in terms of its constituent groups and the power relations between them requires the representation by groups of their own identities and interests in politics — and thus lays the liberal foundations for modern identity (...) politics. Later Idealists and New Liberals, sympathetic to the idea of nationalist self-determination, define national communities as the only groups shaping individual identity, and relegate social groups to the expression of particular interests. The contemporary division in liberalism between identity and interest groups is a consequence of this shift. The recovery of Mill’s social pluralism establishes a liberal basis for deliberative democratic theories based on group differentiation and structures of power. (shrink)
The potential role of locus equations in three existing models of human classification behavior is examined. Locus equations can play a useful role in single-prototype and boundary-based models for human consonant recognition by reducing model complexity.
Small, mass-produced pipe-clay figurines were popular devotionalia in the late medieval Low Countries. In this paper, focusing on representations of the Christ Child, I study the sensory and playful ways in which such objects were used as ‘props of perception’ in spiritual games of make-believe or role-play. Not only does this particular iconography invite tactile and playful behaviour, the figurines fit within a larger context of image practices involving visions and make-believe. Through such practices images were animated and imbued with (...) a divine power. Contemporary written sources suggest that, especially for women, ownership of and sensory engagement with small-scale figures provided them with agency. (shrink)
This paper tests the comparative effectiveness of spokes-characters, both ‘celebrity’ and ‘non-celebrity’, in promoting healthy versus non-healthy foods. An experimental study among 6- to 7-year-old children in Belgium demonstrates that adding a spokes-character to a food product increases the appetite, the wished-for frequency of consumption and the expected number of purchase requests for that product. This finding holds true for healthy foods as well as for unhealthy foods. The effect of the celebrity spokes-character exceeds that of a similar gnome. Nevertheless, (...) the latter is also capable of promoting the healthy and unhealthy products. These findings suggest that using ‘celebrity’ spokes-characters to promote healthy foods to children might indeed be an effective strategy to change children’s diets. Even the use of similar, non-celebrity spokes-characters could be quite fruitful. (shrink)