What accounts for the apocalyptic angst that is now so clearly present among Americans who do not subscribe to any religious orthodoxy? Why do so many popular television shows, films, and music nourish themselves on this very angst? And why do so many artists—from Coldplay to Tori Amos to Tom Wolfe—feel compelled to give it expression? It is tempting to say that America’s fears and anxieties are understandable in the light of 9/11, the ongoing War on Terror, nuclear proliferation, and (...) the seemingly limitless capacity of science to continually challenge our conceptions of the universe and ourselves. Perhaps, too, American culture remains so permeated by Protestant Christianity that even avowed skeptics cannot pry themselves from its grip. In _A Consumer’s Guide to the Apocalypse,_ Eduardo Velásquez argues that these answers are too pat. Velásquez’s astonishing thesis is that when we peer into contemporary artists’ creative depiction of our sensibilities we discover that the antagonisms that fuel the current cultural wars stem from the same source. Enthusiastic religions and dogmatic science, the flourishing of scientific reason and the fascination with mystical darkness, cultural triumphalists and multicultural ideologues are all sustained by the same thing: a willful commitment to the basic tenets of the Enlightenment. Velásquez makes his point with insightful readings of the music of Coldplay, Tori Amos, and Dave Matthews and the fiction of Michael Frayn’s _Copenhagen,_ Chuck Palahniuk’s _Fight Club,_ and Tom Wolfe’s _I Am Charlotte Simmons._ Written with grace and humor, and directed toward the lay reader, _A Consumer’s Guide to the Apocalypse_ is a tour de force of cultural analysis. (shrink)
The origins and development of the problem of mental causation are outlined. The underlying presuppositions which give rise to the problem are identified. Possible strategies for solving, or dissolving the problem are examined.
The main idea that we want to defend in this paper is that the question of what a logic is should be addressed differently when structural properties enter the game. In particular, we want to support the idea according to which it is not enough to identify the set of valid inferences to characterize a logic. In other words, we will argue that two logical theories could identify the same set of validities, but not be the same logic.
The global economy’s centre of gravity is shifting. Emerging and developing countries have been contributing over 50% of the global GDP since the onset of the 21st century, which is unprecedented since the Industrial Revolution. This article offers the first analysis of the creeping convergence of the BRIC world (ie Brazil, Russia, India and China) with global legal standards in a key area of International Law: the International Tax Regime (ITR). The ITR is a legal technology fundamentally designed by the (...) League of Nations in the 1920s, when the BRICs played no relevant role. This article proposes a theory that aims to illuminate the core driving forces of the on-going trend towards global convergence in this area of International Law from both the static and dynamic dimensions. It is grounded on the logic of two-sided platforms. (shrink)
In his article “The Status of Content”, Boghossian defends what has been called “trascendentalism about content”. According to him, the thesis that there is nothing in the world that corresponds to our thoughts “is not merely implausible but incoherent”. In other words, he thinks that the thesis in question is not simply false on empirical basis but rather self-refuting or pragmatically incoherent. My purpose in this article is to show that Boghossian´s argument for his point of view is not valid. (...) My main thesis is that there is no contradiction in applying the notion of truth to both semantical and psychological sentences and, at the same time, holding that there are neither semantic nor mental contents. (shrink)
From a scientific standpoint, the world is more prepared than ever to respond to infectious disease outbreaks; paradoxically, globalization and air travel, antimicrobial resistance, the threat of bioterrorism, and newly emerging pathogens driven by ecological, socioeconomic, and environmental factors, have increased the risk of global epidemics.1,2,3Following the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome, global efforts to build global emergency response capabilities to contain infectious disease outbreaks were put in place.4,5,6But the recent H1N1, Ebola, and Zika global epidemics have shown unnecessary delays (...) and insufficient coordination in response efforts.7,8,9,10In a thoughtful and compelling essay,11Thana C. de Campos argues that greater clarity in the definition of pandemics would probably result in more timely effective emergency responses, and pandemic preparedness. In her view, a central problem is that the definition of pandemics is based solely on disease transmission across several countries, and not on spread and severity together, which conflates two very different situations: emergency and nonemergency disease outbreaks. A greater emphasis on severity, such that pandemics are defined as severe and rapidly spreading infectious disease outbreaks, would make them “true global health emergencies,” allowing for priority resource allocation and effective collective actions in emergency response efforts. Sympathetic to the position taken by de Campos, here I highlight some of the challenges in the definition of severity during an infectious disease outbreak. (shrink)
In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in education, the performance gap among social groups increased. In addition, at a cultural level, the reform promoted the value of individual productivity negatively affecting some of the cultural (...) behaviors developed by low-income groups as a consequence of and as reaction to the exclusion they suffer. Namely, by stressing the notions of human capital and quality education, the reform has tended to reinforce these students? fatalism, and limit the scope of the organizations they form to improve their academic and social opportunities. (shrink)
In this article I study Kant's doctrine of the power of judgement. I focus on its main function of rendering possible the transition from the lawfulness of nature to the realization of practical ends. In order to do so, I analyze the concept of “spontaneity” and the principle of “purposiveness of nature”, understood as a “principle of contingency”, according to Kant's explanation in the Critique of the Power of Judgement.
En uno de los ataques más reiterados a Darwin, que todavía subsiste en la literatura actual, se señala que la teoría de la selección natural es tautológica, analítica o, al menos, irrefutable. En docenas de artículos, diversos autores han señalado las condiciones en que la selección natural quedaría refutada, intentando mostrar que no carece de contenido empírico. La estrategia seguida en este trabajo será otra. Teniendo en cuenta que la crítica de tautologicidad o irrefutabilidad ha sido esgrimida contra leyes fundamentales (...) de otras teorías, insertaré la discusión en un marco metateórico más amplio. Para discutir el estatus del segundo principio de la mecánica clásica, Moulines introduce el concepto de "principio guía". Los principios guía no serían contrastables directamente, sino a través de especializaciones. Desde mi punto de vista, considerar a la selección natural como principio guía permitiría explicar por qué muchos la han considerado tautológica y cómo esto no implica vacuidad. One of the most repeated objections to Darwin, still present in contemporary literature, outlines that theory of natural selection is tautological, analytical or at least irrefutable. There are many authors that point out the conditions in which natural selection would be refuted, trying to prove that it doesn't lack of empirical content. This essay will work on a different strategy. Taking into account that tautological or irrefutable criticism has been put forward against other theories' fundamental laws; I will insert the argumentation in a wider theoretical frame. To argue about the status of the second principle about classic mechanical Moulines introduces the 'guiding principle' concept. The guiding principles wouldn't be directly contrastable. The only way in which they could be contrastable would be through special laws. From my point of view natural selection, considered as the guiding principle, would explain why many thinkers had considered it a tautology and how this does not imply vacuity. (shrink)
¿Seguimos reglas de inferencia al razonar? Por más intuitiva que resulte la respuesta positiva a esta pregunta, hay una serie de dificultades para vincular reglas lógicas y prácticas inferenciales. El Problema de la Adopción de Reglas de Inferencia constituye un desafío para todo aquel que proponga que podemos seguir nuevos patrones inferenciales a partir del reconocimiento de reglas. En esta sección temática se exploran diversos asuntos conectados a si podemos seguir un nuevo patrón inferencial en virtud de una regla.
This book is a collection of secondary essays on America's most important philosophic thinkers—statesmen, judges, writers, educators, and activists—from the colonial period to the present. Each essay is a comprehensive introduction to the thought of a noted American on the fundamental meaning of the American regime.
This paper analyzes the theory of area developed by Euclid in the Elements and its modern reinterpretation in Hilbert’s influential monograph Foundations of Geometry. Particular attention is bestowed upon the role that two specific principles play in these theories, namely the famous common notion 5 and the geometrical proposition known as De Zolt’s postulate. On the one hand, we argue that an adequate elucidation of how these two principles are conceptually related in the theories of Euclid and Hilbert is highly (...) relevant for a better understanding of the respective geometrical practices. On the other hand, we claim that these conceptual relations unveil interesting issues between the two main contemporary approaches to the study of area of plane rectilinear figures, i.e., the geometrical approach consisting in the geometrical theory of equivalence and the metrical approach based on the notion of measure of area. Finally, in an appendix logical relations among equivalence, comparison and addition of magnitudes are examined schematically in an abstract setting. (shrink)
O presente artigo visa a explicitar o conceito duplo de natureza do jovem Feuerbach, em sua obra Pensamentos sobre Morte e Imortalidade ( Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit ): 1. a natureza como possibilidade e condiçáo de toda existência no espaço e no tempo e 2. a natureza como instância da negaçáo de todo ser. A natureza oferece ao jovem Feuerbach o modelo para a soluçáo de várias oposições, pois nela se manifesta um processo dialético de afirmaçáo e negaçáo, singularidade (...) e pluralidade, indivíduo e gênero. Assim, o homem experimenta na natureza náo apenas a afirmaçáo, como também a negaçáo, de sua existência em forma de efemeridade e morte. (shrink)
Feuerbach trata a natureza, na sua primeira obra, A Razáo Una, Universal e Infinita , desde a perspectiva do panteísmo, no qual ele vê a superaçáo do dualismo entre o espírito e a natureza, ou seja, a reconciliaçáo entre eles, que vale simultaneamente como negaçáo da subjetividade individual, abstrata, e da personalidade como determinaçáo de Deus. Trata-se aqui de um direcionamento de Feuerbach para a natureza, em clara oposiçáo à teologia cristá-monoteísta, que manifesta um abandono completo à natureza (ao “náo (...) sagrado”, ao “náo divino”). Enquanto a teologia cristá está em oposiçáo à natureza e, com isto, também à natureza originária do homem, porque Deus é para ela um ser “exclusivo”, “extramundano” ou “estranho ao mundo”, trata Feuerbach a natureza, a matéria, panteisticamente, em unidade com Deus ou com o espírito. (shrink)
We study the algebraizability of the logics constructed using literal-paraconsistent and literal-paracomplete matrices described by Lewin and Mikenberg in , proving that they are all algebraizable in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi in  but not finitely algebraizable. A characterization of the finitely algebraizable logics defined by LPP-matrices is given.We also make an algebraic study of the equivalent algebraic semantics of the logics associated to the matrices ℳ32,2, ℳ32,1, ℳ31,1, ℳ31,3, and ℳ4 appearing in  proving that they are (...) not varieties and finding the free algebra over one generator. (shrink)
This is a dissertation of philosophy of mathematics, in the analytical tradition, about the Quine-Putnam mathematical indispensability argument, that we ought to have ontological commitment to mathematical entities that are indispensable to our best scientific theories. It is an argument for the metaphysical mathematical realism supported by Quinean doctrines such as naturalism and holism. My overall aim is to make a discussion of the argument. The argument will be defended against generic objections or some of its detractors such as Azzouni, (...) Maddy, Cheyne and Balaguer. Matters connected with the indispensability of mathematics, such as the epistemic problem of Benacerraf and the agnosticist view of Balaguer, will be discussed. Primarily, the discussion is ontological; secondarily, the discussion is epistemological and metaphysical. (shrink)