BackgroundMany procedures currently require the use of bone grafts to replace or recover bone volume that has been resorbed. However, the patient’s opinion and preferences must be taken into account before implementing any treatment. Researchers have focused primarily on assessing the effectiveness of bone grafts rather than on patients' perceptions. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore patients' opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments.MethodsOne hundred patients were randomly chosen participated in the study. (...) A standardized survey of 10 questions was used to investigate their opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the different variables, and absolute frequencies and percentages were used as summary measures. A value of p <0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance.ResultsThe highest rate of refusal was observed for allografts and xenografts. The grafts with the lowest rates of refusal were autologous grafts and alloplastics. No significant differences were found between the various types of bone grafts in the sociodemographic variables or the refusal/acceptance variable. Similarly, no significant relations were observed between a specific religious affiliation and the acceptance/refusal rates of the various types of graft.ConclusionsAllografts and xenografts elicited the highest refusal rates among the surveyed patients, and autologous bone and alloplastics were the most accepted bone grafts. Moreover, no differences were found in the sociodemographic variables or religious affiliations in terms of the acceptance/refusal rates of the different bone grafts. (shrink)
Based on his Inclosure Schema and the Principle of Uniform Solution, Priest has argued that Curry’s paradox belongs to a different family of paradoxes than the Liar. Pleitz argued that Curry’s paradox shares the same structure as the other paradoxes and proposed a scheme of which the Inclosure Schema is a particular case and he criticizes Priest’s position by pointing out that applying the PUS implies the use of a paraconsistent logic that does not validate Contraction, but that this can (...) hardly seen as uniform. In this paper, we will develop some further reasons to defend Pleitz’ thesis that Curry’s paradox belongs to the same family as the rest of the self-referential paradoxes & using the idea that conditionals are generalized negations. However, we will not follow Pleitz in considering doubtful that there is a uniform solution for the paradoxes in a paraconsistent spirit. We will argue that the paraconsistent strategies can be seen as special cases of the strategy of restricting Detachment and that the latter uniformly blocks all the connective-involving self-referential paradoxes, including Curry’s. (shrink)
The expressivist account of knowledge attributions, while claiming that these attributions are nonfactual, also typically holds that they retain a factual component. This factual component involves the attribution of a belief. The aim of this work is to show that considerations analogous to those motivating an expressivist account of knowledge attributions can be applied to belief attributions. As a consequence, we claim that expressivists should not treat the so-called factual component as such. The phenomenon we focus on to claim that (...) belief attributions are non-factual is that of normative doxastic disagreement. We show through several examples that this kind of disagreement is analogous to that of the epistemic kind. The result will be a doxastic expressivism. Finally, we answer some objections that our doxastic expressivism could seem to face. (shrink)
A popular accusation against moral relativism is that it goes too far in its vindication of tolerance. The idea behind accusations like this can be summarized in the slogan, frequently attributed to relativism, that “anything goes”. The aim of this paper is to defend moral relativism from the accusation that it is an “anything goes” view; from the accusation that it forces us to suspend our judgment in cases in which we do not think we should even be allowed to. (...) In the end, relativism is not an “anything goes” view because it is not a view about what goes, but about the way things go—about what goes on when we say that something is morally right or wrong. There is indeed a view, sometimes called “relativism”, that forces us to suspend our judgment about practices that do not allow for such comfort, but it is not so much moral relativism as moral contextualism. Apparently, though, the most salient alternative to “anything goes” views such as contextualism is not moral relativism. It is moral objectivism, according to which there is a fact of the matter about moral issues. However, I show that moral objectivism too ends up being an “anything goes” view unless the objectivist takes herself to be endowed with “God’s point of view”, which I prove troublesome. (shrink)
One of the most pressing issues in contemporary semantics is whether propositions are structured entities that should be individuated in terms of their components or, contrarily, they lack structure and should be individuated in terms of their inferential relations. Another one is whether propositions should always contain all the information that is needed to deem them true or false—whether they should always be Fregean propositions. The latter debate might seem to presuppose a certain position in the former. However, it is (...) the first aim of this paper to argue that the two debates are orthogonal. Moreover, we will use Frege’s thoughts as an example of what we would contemporarily call ‘propositions’ that, though trivially Fregean, lack structure. Since it is not uncontroversial that Frege’s thoughts are unstructured, it is the second aim of this paper to show that it follows from Frege’s writings that they are. (shrink)
The particular behavior exhibited by sentences featuring predicates of personal taste such as “tasty” may drive us to claim that their truth depends on the context of assessment, as MacFarlane does. MacFarlane considers two ways in which the truth of a sentence can depend on the context of assessment. On the one hand, we can say that the sentence expresses a proposition whose truth-value depends on the context of assessment. This is MacFarlane’s position, which he calls “truth relativism” and, following (...) Weatherson, I rebrand as “nonindexical relativism”. On the other hand, we can say that what proposition a sentence expresses depends on the context of assessment. MacFarlane calls this position “content relativism” and rejects it on the grounds that it leads to implausible readings of certain sentences and is unable to account for the speaker’s authority over the content of her assertions. In this paper, I too argue against content relativism, which, again following Weatherson, I rebrand as “indexical relativism”. However, my arguments against the theory are different from MacFarlane’s, which I prove unsound. In particular, I show that any version of indexical relativism will be unable to account for at least one of the phenomena that have been standardly used to motivate nonindexical relativism—faultless disagreement and retraction—in most of the ways in which it has been proposed to understand them. (shrink)
Lo que a primera vista parece una colección suelta de relatos de juventud –contadas de acuerdo a algún particular episodio de la vida juvenil de sus autores, sin mayor cohesión ni trama– termina siendo una hilvanada muestra de una parte importante de la historia del siglo XX en Chile. A través de su lectura, queda retratada la página más trágica de nuestra convivencia, aquélla que está marcada por la herida que la lucha política fue abriendo en el tejido social del (...) país durante varias décadas.. (shrink)
O artigo introduz a questão da relação entre a Igreja hierárquica e a mulher, afirmando que, desde seus começos, o cristianismo teve dificuldades para compreender o comportamento de Jesus para com as mulheres. Destaca alguns sinais do surgimento, no século XX, de uma nova consciência feminina, caracterizada pela emergência do “pensamento autônomo”. Em contraposição às mudanças do universo feminino e referindo-se ao “desconhecimento da mulher” que caracterizou o Vaticano II, o artigo refere-se à dificuldade da Igreja em identificar a ideologia (...) heterônoma que a caracteriza. “Há sempre um outro que manda”: o rei, o senhor, o homem, o pai – sobre o que se constrói a figura de um Deus poderoso e distante. Para corroborar a dificuldade de passar do pensamento heterônomo ao pensamento autônomo, particularmente para os bispos – e seguindo a teóloga Ivone Gebara – a reflexão toma como objeto paradigmático de leitura as falas do Arcebispo de Recife frente ao caso da menina estuprada pelo padrasto, ocorrido em 2009. Conclui: Os textos mais inovadores do Vaticano II não conseguiram romper com a imagem de heteronomia herdada do passado. Hoje não existe caminho para a Igreja fora do diálogo com a modernidade, o que implica, em primeiro lugar, uma atitude autocrítica. Palavras-chave : Igreja hierárquica. Vaticano II. Mulher.This article introduces the question of the relationship between the Church hierarchy and the women, arguing that since its beginnings, Christianity struggled to understand the attitude of Jesus toward women. It highlights some signs of the emergence in the twentieth century, of a new feminine consciousness, characterized by the emergence of an "autonomous thinking." In contrast to the changing world of women and referring to the “unknown woman” that characterized the Vatican II, this article refers to the difficulty to indentify the heteronomous ideology that characterizes the Church. "There's always another that gives orders" the king, the lord, the man, the father – under which the figure of a mighty and distant God is built on. To corroborate the difficulty to pass from an autonomous thought to a heteronomous thinking, particularly for the bishops - and following the theologian Ivone Gebara – this article analyzes the speeches of the Archbishop of Recife concerning the case of the girl raped by her stepfather, held in 2009. In conclusion: The most innovative texts of Vatican II were not able to break with the image of heteronomy from the past. Today there is no way for the Church out of the dialogue with modernity, which implies, first, a self-critical attitude. Keywords: Hierarchical Church. Vatican II. Women - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1280. (shrink)
El libro de Oriana Zorrilla es un texto de investigación periodística importante, que instala en el debate nacional un tema que coloca la experiencia existencial del maltrato en el escenario democrático, retratando una realidad desconocida de acoso laboral a los empleados públicos, constituyéndose en un tema político sobre la calidad y profundidad de nuestra democracia. Ya en el prólogo Armando Uribe señala que el libro “es la denuncia bien fundada en la historia personal y colectiva, y tiene..
La emancipación de las colonias latinoamericanas fue un proceso que tuvo la influencia directa del liberalismo europeo, cuyo contenido ideológico formó parte primordial de la base que sirvió para organizar los Estados, los regímenes políticos y la construcción civil de estas jóvenes naciones. Sin embargo, este pensamiento se desarrolló de manera diferente y tuvo adaptaciones diversas en cada una de ellas, debido a que poseían necesidades y realidades diferentes.Pues bien, este tema correspond..
Most growth models for complex networks consider networks comprising a single connected block or island, which contains all the nodes in the network. However, it has been demonstrated that some large complex networks have more than one island, with an island size distribution obeying a power-law function Is~s-α. This paper introduces a growth model that considers the emergence of islands as the network grows. The proposed model addresses the following two features: the probability that a new island is generated decreases (...) as the network grows and new islands are created with a constant probability at any stage of the growth. In the first case, the model produces an island size distribution that decays as a power-law Is~s-α with a fixed exponent α=1 and in-degree distribution that decays as a power-law Qi~i-γ with γ=2. When the second case is considered, the model describes island size and in-degree distributions that decay as a power-law with 2<α<∞ and 2<γ<∞, respectively. (shrink)
BackgroundScientific literature on posttraumatic growth after terrorist attacks has primarily focused on persons who had not been directly exposed to terrorist attacks or persons who had been directly exposed to them, but who were assessed few months or years after the attacks.MethodsWe examined long-term PTG in 210 adults directly exposed to terrorist attacks in Spain a mean of 29.6 years after the attacks. The participants had been injured by a terrorist attack or were first-degree relatives of people who had been (...) killed or injured by a terrorist attack. They completed diagnostic measures of emotional disorders and measures of PTSD and depression symptomatology, optimism, and PTG.ResultsMultiple regression analyses revealed gender differences and a positive linear relationship between PTG and cumulative trauma after the terrorist attack. Some PTG dimensions were significantly associated with PTSD symptomatology, these associations being linear, not curvilinear. However, PTG was not associated with depression symptomatology, diagnosis of emotional disorders, age, elapsed time since the attack, or optimism. In comparison with survivors assessed 18 years after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, Spanish victims of terrorism showed higher levels of appreciation of life, but lower levels of relating to others and spiritual change.ConclusionThe findings underscore the influence of gender on PTG and provide support to the hypothesis that some emotional distress may be a necessary condition of PTG. Future studies on PTG after terrorist attacks should take into consideration the characteristics of the terrorist attack itself and the contexts of violence and threat in which it occurred. The political, social, and cultural characteristics of the community affected by it and the profile and characteristics of other traumatic events suffered after the attack should also be taken into account in further research. (shrink)
“Toda interpretación pende, juntamente con lo interpretado, en el aire; no puede servirle de apoyo. Las interpretaciones solas no determinan el significado”Wittgenstein, Investigaciones filosóficas § 198IntroducciónLa obra del filósofo estadounidense David H. Finkelstein, Expression and the Inner, publicada originariamente en 2003 por Harvard University Press (2ª ed. 2008) puede ahora leerse en la versión española de Lino San Juan, editada por la ovetense KRK Ediciones con el título: La expr.
O artigo apresenta apontamentos sobre “marketing de guerra santa ” , o planejamento estratégico de gerenciamento de mercado religioso aplicado por algumas das igrejas cristãs da contemporaneidade. Vale-se de reflexões a partir de observação participante e de consulta a bibliografia especializada. Apontam-se algumas das formas com as quais essas igrejas se midiatizam e se inserem num contexto de espetacularização e mercadorização próprios da sociedade do tempo presente e imediato. O mercado religioso no qual se inserem as agências que praticam este (...) tipo de marketing passa por contextos de adequação ao capital simbólico e ao arcabouço cultural dos fiéis, sendo possível identificar o investimento ideológico e econômico na fabricação e veiculação de suas estratégias, discursos e mercadorias. O objetivo é o de perceber algumas das maneiras com as quais firmas religiosas (tomando como maior exemplo as igrejas neopentecostais) veiculam as mercadorias que produzem ou se apropriam, e os discursos que reverberam, relacionando-os a uma cultura de massa e a uma sociedade espetacular; fomentando a discussão sobre como tais igrejas e outros segmentos religiosos aplicam o marketing de guerra santa para melhor posicionarem sua marca no mercado e conquistarem mais fiéis. Palavras-chave : Marketing de guerra santa. Neopentecostalismo. Mídia. Mercado. Espetáculo da fé.This article presents some notes on Jesus´ marketing, strategic planning of management of religious market applied by some of contemporary Christian churches. For this purpose, the reflections from participant observation and literature on the subject are validated. Some of the ways these churches mediate themselves and are part of a context of spectacle and commoditization are also pointed out. The religious market has adequate to the symbolic capital and to the cultural framework of the participants of the churches. Because of that it is possible to identify the ideological and economic investment in the manufacturing and delivery of their strategies, discourses and products. This article aims to highlight some of the ways in which neo-Pentecostal churches convey the goods they produce and the speeches that reflect them, relating them to a mass culture and a society of the spectacle. Finally, the article wants to encourage the debate on the ways these churches apply the marketing of Jesus in order to co-opt their members and flatten their units Keywords : Holy War’s marketing. Neopentecostalism. Media. Market. Show of faith. (shrink)
Neste livro, Donald Gillies pretende responder ao que se propõe no título, utilizando instrumentos de investigação da História e Filosofia das Ciências. O livro é constituído por três partes. As duas primeiras partes são inteiramente destrutivas e a terceira parte é largamente construtiva. A primeira parte analisa o sistema de avaliação da investigação do Reino Unido, chamado “Research Assessment Exercise” (RAE). A segunda parte analisa um outro sistema de avaliação, chamado “Research Excellence Framework” (REF), que, entretanto, substituiu o RAE. A (...) conclusão dessas partes é de que, quer o RAE, quer o REF, têm efeitos negativos na investigação e não parecem contribuir para uma melhor investigação. A terceira parte propõe um novo modelo de avaliação dos académicos que incluiu o parâmetro Ensino, além dos parâmetros Investigação e Administração. (shrink)