Collected and edited by Noah Levin -/- Table of Contents: -/- UNIT ONE: INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY ETHICS: TECHNOLOGY, AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, AND IMMIGRATION 1 The “Trolley Problem” and Self-Driving Cars: Your Car’s Moral Settings (Noah Levin) 2 What is Ethics and What Makes Something a Problem for Morality? (David Svolba) 3 Letter from the Birmingham City Jail (Martin Luther King, Jr) 4 A Defense of Affirmative Action (Noah Levin) 5 The Moral Issues of Immigration (B.M. Wooldridge) 6 The Ethics of our (...) Digital Selves (Noah Levin) -/- UNIT TWO: TORTURE, DEATH, AND THE “GREATER GOOD” 7 The Ethics of Torture (Martine Berenpas) 8 What Moral Obligations do we have (or not have) to Impoverished Peoples? (B.M. Wooldridge) 9 Euthanasia, or Mercy Killing (Nathan Nobis) 10 An Argument Against Capital Punishment (Noah Levin) 11 Common Arguments about Abortion (Nathan Nobis & Kristina Grob) 12 Better (Philosophical) Arguments about Abortion (Nathan Nobis & Kristina Grob) -/- UNIT THREE: PERSONS, AUTONOMY, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND RIGHTS 13 Animal Rights (EduardoSalazar) 14 John Rawls and the “Veil of Ignorance” (Ben Davies) 15 Environmental Ethics: Climate Change (Jonathan Spelman) 16 Rape, Date Rape, and the “Affirmative Consent” Law in California (Noah Levin) 17 The Ethics of Pornography: Deliberating on a Modern Harm (EduardoSalazar) 18 The Social Contract (Thomas Hobbes) -/- UNIT FOUR: HAPPINESS 19 Is Pleasure all that Matters? Thoughts on the “Experience Machine” (Prabhpal Singh) 20 Utilitarianism (J.S. Mill) 21 Utilitarianism: Pros and Cons (B.M. Wooldridge) 22 Existentialism, Genetic Engineering, and the Meaning of Life: The Fifths (Noah Levin) 23 The Solitude of the Self (Elizabeth Cady Stanton) 24 Game Theory, the Nash Equilibrium, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma (Douglas E. Hill) -/- UNIT FIVE: RELIGION, LAW, AND ABSOLUTE MORALITY 25 The Myth of Gyges and The Crito (Plato) 26 God, Morality, and Religion (Kristin Seemuth Whaley) 27 The Categorical Imperative (Immanuel Kant) 28 The Virtues (Aristotle) 29 Beyond Good and Evil (Friedrich Nietzsche) 30 Other Moral Theories: Subjectivism, Relativism, Emotivism, Intuitionism, etc. (Jan F. Jacko). (shrink)
This paper develops what we can call a first approach into a possible communication epistemology through certain conceptions from Serres. These conceptions are characterized by an open perspective that breaks the notions of limit, frontier, barrier and competence that have distinguished epistemolo..
Si bien en las últimas décadas se ha hecho énfasis en las ciencias sociales como disciplinas interpretativas, no por hecho han dejado de realizarse ?y en algunos casos consolidarse? las investigaciones de corte cuantitativo, en este sentido consideramos de primera importancia recuperar la discusión..
En el trabajo se hace un recorrido por los principales autores latinoamericanos que trabajan el tema de los valores en el siglo XX. Se trata de apresar algunas regularidades generales en el itinerario del pensamiento axiológico en América Latina durante la pasada centuria.
Corporate social performance (CSP) has become a widely applied concept, discussed in most large firms’ corporate reports and the academic literature alike. Unfortunately, CSP has largely been employed as a way of demonstrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) in practice, or to justify the business case for CSR in academia by relating some measure of CSP to some measure of financial performance. In this article, we discuss multiple shortcomings to these approaches. We argue that (1) CSR activities need to be managed (...) and measured as projects and aggregated to the business or corporate level using a project portfolio; (2) appropriate measures need to be identified that move away from reporting the firm’s activities toward quantifying actual social outcomes achieved; and (3) given the types of projects prevalent in CSR, statistical evaluation methods common in other fields (ideally, pre-test post-test control group designs, such as used in medicine or propensity score matching for ongoing or past projects) should be employed to properly measure outcomes. We make a first, albeit imperfect, attempt at using such an approach with data collected on behalf of the Patrimonio Hoy project, a well-publicized CSR initiative carried out by Cemex in Mexico. We show that the results from this data reinforce concerns voiced earlier in this article. (shrink)
In a variety of synaesthesia, photisms result from affect-laden stimuli as emotional words, or faces of familiar people. For R, who participated in this study, the sight of a familiar person triggers a mental image of "a human silhouette filled with colour". Subjective descriptions of synaesthetic experiences induced by the visual perception of people's figures and faces show similarities with the reports of those who claim to possess the ability to see the aura. It has been proposed that the purported (...) auric perception may be easily explained by the presence of a specific subtype of cross-modal perception. We analyse the subjective reports of four synaesthetes who experience colours in response to human faces and figures. These reports are compared with descriptions of alleged auric phenomena found in the literature and with claims made by experts in esoteric spheres. The discrepancies found suggest that both phenomena are phenomenologically and behaviourally dissimilar. (shrink)
(Spanish) La argumentación es un aspecto publico y comunicativo, quizás no el único, de los procesos cognitivos inferenciales en la especie humana. Aunque los propios procesos cognitivos inferenciales no son exclusivos de los seres humanos, su expresión a través de la comunicación lingüística, su utilización en los procesos sociales para la conformación y cambio de las creencias y la conducta es propiamente humana. Una explicación correcta del concepto de argumentación es por tanto importante para captar nuestro concepto de racionalidad, de (...) uso de la razón. EI trabajo explora la forma que tiene el concepto de argumentación en la cultura occidental utilizando las herramientas de teorías cognitivas recientes sobre la naturaleza de los conceptos, sugiriendo sus consecuencias para el concepto de razón. -/- (English) The argumentation is a public and communicative aspect, maybe not the only one, of inferential cognitive processes in the human species. While the very inferential, cognitive processes are not exclusive of the human beings, their expression through the linguistic communication, their use in social processes to shape and change beliefs and behaviour is properly human. An accurate description of the concept of argumentation is important then to grasp our concept of rationality, of the use of the reason. This paper explores the form of the concept of argumentation in western culture using the tools of recent cognitive theories on the nature of concepts, suggesting its consequences for the concept of reason. (shrink)
The article examines the erasure of any concept of the ‘public kitchen’ in the Philippines as demonstrative of statewide suppression of marginal identities that continues to facilitate the simplistic and uncomplicated entry of neocolonial modernity. As a yardstick of growth and progress under the US colonial government, the battle to modernize the Philippines extends far beyond the political and administrative terrains and into the reconfiguration of domestic space. In particular, the kitchen was to become an important site that demonstrated the (...) efficiency and power of American science. Accorded with new functions emanating from a colonial ideology, the induction of cooking and eating as expressions of collective identity have considerable implications for the manner in which public and private spaces are imagined. (shrink)
Business students from the three NAFTA countries were shown a possible Sexual Harassment scenario from Arthur Andersen’s Business Ethics Program. They were asked to respond to a pre-questionnaire concerning the three characters’ behaviors and possible actions and a post-questionnaire after writing a report from the points of view of the three characters in the scenario. The students were asked to consider whether the characters should report the possible harasser to their supervisor, and thus engage in whistle-blowing behavior, as well as (...) directly confront the harasser. Hypotheses are formulated for the three NAFTA countries based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. There were significant differences, but in some cases not in the direction expected. Gender differences are also explored, but there were few significant differences. (shrink)
Within Emile Littreés classification of Hippocratic works, class ten consists of three lost works, two of which appear to have been treatises on the treatment of serious wounds and on the extraction of arrows. The sources for their titles—Erotian, Galen, an eleventh-century Arabic MS and the twelfth-century MS Vat.graec.276–disagree on minor points, but it is clear that they are all referring to the same works.
This article argues that one of the principal difficulties in measuring CSR performance lies with the unit of analysis and that its social, environmental and economic impacts need to be examined at a project level. Using a quasi-experimental research approach the paper shows an evaluation of the Patrimonio Hoy (PH) a CSR program of CEMEX, one of the largest cement manufacturers inthe world.
What are the theoretical implications of a universal genealogy? After the demise of relativism in kinship studies, there is much to be gained by joining old formal-structural analysis of kinship to recent cognitive-evolutionary approaches. This commentary shows how the logic of kinship terminologies, specifically those of the Seneca-Iroquois, can be clarified by looking at the relationship between opposite-sex/same-sex sibling pairs.
La nueva estrategia militar norteamericana hacia América Latina, consiste en construir socialmente el enemigo bajo tres parámetros: Terrorismo, Populismo Radical y Narcotráfico, cuyos ejes cumplen la función de ligar toda actividad política popular o de insubordinación contra los Estados Unidos con ..