Results for 'Edward N��cka'

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  1. Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality.Edward N. Zalta - 1988 - MIT Press.
    This book tackles the issues that arise in connection with intensional logic -- a formal system for representing and explaining the apparent failures of certain important principles of inference such as the substitution of identicals and existential generalization -- and intentional states --mental states such as beliefs, hopes, and desires that are directed towards the world. The theory offers a unified explanation of the various kinds of inferential failures associated with intensional logic but also unifies the study of intensional contexts (...)
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  2. Abstract Objects: An Introduction to Axiomatic Metaphysics.Edward N. Zalta - 1983 - D. Reidel.
    In this book, Zalta attempts to lay the axiomatic foundations of metaphysics by developing and applying a (formal) theory of abstract objects. The cornerstones include a principle which presents precise conditions under which there are abstract objects and a principle which says when apparently distinct such objects are in fact identical. The principles are constructed out of a basic set of primitive notions, which are identified at the end of the Introduction, just before the theorizing begins. The main reason for (...)
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  3. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.Edward N. Zalta (ed.) - 2004 - Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Lab.
    The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an open access, dynamic reference work designed to organize professional philosophers so that they can write, edit, and maintain a reference work in philosophy that is responsive to new research. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up to date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished Editorial Board before they (...)
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  4. Essence and Modality.Edward N. Zalta - 2006 - Mind 115 (459):659-693.
    Some recently-proposed counterexamples to the traditional definition of essential property do not require a separate logic of essence. Instead, the examples can be analysed in terms of the logic and theory of abstract objects. This theory distinguishes between abstract and ordinary objects, and provides a general analysis of the essential properties of both kinds of object. The claim ‘x has F necessarily’ becomes ambiguous in the case of abstract objects, and in the case of ordinary objects there are various ways (...)
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  5. Twenty-Five Basic Theorems in Situation and World Theory.Edward N. Zalta - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (4):385-428.
    The foregoing set of theorems forms an effective foundation for the theory of situations and worlds. All twenty-five theorems seem to be basic, reasonable principles that structure the domains of properties, relations, states of affairs, situations, and worlds in true and philosophically interesting ways. They resolve 15 of the 19 choice points defined in Barwise (1989) (see Notes 22, 27, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 43, and 45). Moreover, important axioms and principles stipulated by situation theorists are derived (see Notes (...)
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  6. Logical and Analytic Truths That Are Not Necessary.Edward N. Zalta - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (2):57-74.
    The author describes an interpreted modal language and produces some clear examples of logical and analytic truths that are not necessary. These examples: (a) are far simpler than the ones cited in the literature, (b) show that a popular conception of logical truth in modal languages is incorrect, and (c) show that there are contingent truths knowable ``a priori'' that do not depend on fixing the reference of a term.
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  7.  97
    Neo-Logicism? An Ontological Reduction of Mathematics to Metaphysics.Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - Erkenntnis 53 (1-2):219-265.
    In this paper, we describe "metaphysical reductions", in which the well-defined terms and predicates of arbitrary mathematical theories are uniquely interpreted within an axiomatic, metaphysical theory of abstract objects. Once certain (constitutive) facts about a mathematical theory T have been added to the metaphysical theory of objects, theorems of the metaphysical theory yield both an analysis of the reference of the terms and predicates of T and an analysis of the truth of the sentences of T. The well-defined terms and (...)
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  8.  32
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.Edward N. Zalta (ed.) - 1995 - Stanford University.
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  9.  42
    Computer Science and Metaphysics: A Cross-Fertilization.Edward N. Zalta, Christoph Benzmüller & Daniel Kirchner - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):230-251.
    Computational philosophy is the use of mechanized computational techniques to unearth philosophical insights that are either difficult or impossible to find using traditional philosophical methods. Computational metaphysics is computational philosophy with a focus on metaphysics. In this paper, we develop results in modal metaphysics whose discovery was computer assisted, and conclude that these results work not only to the obvious benefit of philosophy but also, less obviously, to the benefit of computer science, since the new computational techniques that led to (...)
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  10. A Classically-Based Theory of Impossible Worlds.Edward N. Zalta - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (4):640-660.
    The appeal to possible worlds in the semantics of modal logic and the philosophical defense of possible worlds as an essential element of ontology have led philosophers and logicians to introduce other kinds of `worlds' in order to study various philosophical and logical phenomena. The literature contains discussions of `non-normal worlds', `non-classical worlds', `non-standard worlds', and `impossible worlds'. These atypical worlds have been used in the following ways: (1) to interpret unusual modal logics, (2) to distinguish logically equivalent propositions, (3) (...)
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  11. Natural Numbers and Natural Cardinals as Abstract Objects: A Partial Reconstruction of Frege"s Grundgesetze in Object Theory.Edward N. Zalta - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (6):619-660.
    In this paper, the author derives the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory from a consistent and general metaphysical theory of abstract objects. The derivation makes no appeal to primitive mathematical notions, implicit definitions, or a principle of infinity. The theorems proved constitute an important subset of the numbered propositions found in Frege's *Grundgesetze*. The proofs of the theorems reconstruct Frege's derivations, with the exception of the claim that every number has a successor, which is derived from a modal axiom that (...)
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  12. On the Structural Similarities Between Worlds and Times.Edward N. Zalta - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 51 (2):213-239.
    In the debate about the nature and identity of possible worlds, philosophers have neglected the parallel questions about the nature and identity of moments of time. These are not questions about the structure of time in general, but rather about the internal structure of each individual time. Times and worlds share the following structural similarities: both are maximal with respect to propositions (at every world and time, either p or p is true, for every p); both are consistent; both are (...)
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  13. The Road Between Pretense Theory and Abstract Object Theory.Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - In T. Hofweber & A. Everett (eds.), Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Non-Existence. CSLI Publications.
    In its approach to fiction and fictional discourse, pretense theory focuses on the behaviors that we engage in once we pretend that something is true. These may include pretending to name, pretending to refer, pretending to admire, and various other kinds of make-believe. Ordinary discourse about fictions is analyzed as a kind of institutionalized manner of speaking. Pretense, make-believe, and manners of speaking are all accepted as complex patterns of behavior that prove to be systematic in various ways. In this (...)
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  14. Fregean Senses, Modes of Presentation, and Concepts.Edward N. Zalta - 2001 - Philosophical Perspectives 15:335-359.
    of my axiomatic theory of abstract objects.<sup>1</sup> The theory asserts the ex- istence not only of ordinary properties, relations, and propositions, but also of abstract individuals and abstract properties and relations. The.
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  15. A (Leibnizian) Theory of Concepts.Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 3:137-183.
    In this paper, the author develops a theory of concepts and shows that it captures many of the ideas about concepts that Leibniz expressed in his work. Concepts are first analyzed in terms of a precise background theory of abstract objects, and once concept summation and concept containment are defined, the axioms and theorems of Leibniz's calculus of concepts (in his logical papers) are derived. This analysis of concepts is then seamlessly connected with Leibniz's modal metaphysics of complete individual concepts. (...)
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  16.  5
    Logical and Analytic Truths That Are Not Necessary.Edward N. Zalta - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (2):57-74.
    After defining a standard modal language and semantics, we offer some clear examples of logical and analytic truths that are not necessary. These examples: (a) are far simpler than the ones cited in the literature, (b) show that a popular conception of logical truth in modal languages is incorrect, and (c) show that there are contingent truths knowable ``a priori'' that do not depend on fixing the reference of a term.
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  17.  59
    Gottlob Frege.Edward N. Zalta - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This entry introduces the reader to the main ideas in Frege's philosophy of logic, mathematics, and language.
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  18. Referring to Fictional Characters.Edward N. Zalta - 2003 - Dialectica 57 (2):243–254.
    The author engages a question raised about theories of nonexistent objects. The question concerns the way names of fictional characters, when analyzed as names which denote nonexistent objects, acquire their denotations. Since nonexistent objects cannot causally interact with existent objects, it is thought that we cannot appeal to a `dubbing' or a `baptism'. The question is, therefore, what is the starting point of the chain? The answer is that storytellings are to be thought of as extended baptisms, and the details (...)
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  19.  50
    Fregean Senses, Modes of Presentation, and Concepts.Edward N. Zalta - 2001 - Noûs 35 (s15):335-359.
    Many philosophers, including direct reference theorists, appeal to naively to 'modes of presentation' in the analysis of belief reports. I show that a variety of such appeals can be analyzed in terms of a precise theory of modes of presentation. The objects that serve as modes are identified intrinsically, in a noncircular way, and it is shown that they can function in the required way. It is a consequence of the intrinsic characterization that some objects are well-suited to serve as (...)
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  20. In Defense of the Simplest Quantified Modal Logic.Bernard Linsky & Edward N. Zalta - 1994 - Philosophical Perspectives 8:431-458.
    The simplest quantified modal logic combines classical quantification theory with the propositional modal logic K. The models of simple QML relativize predication to possible worlds and treat the quantifier as ranging over a single fixed domain of objects. But this simple QML has features that are objectionable to actualists. By contrast, Kripke-models, with their varying domains and restricted quantifiers, seem to eliminate these features. But in fact, Kripke-models also have features to which actualists object. Though these philosophers have introduced variations (...)
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  21.  10
    Worlds and Propositions Set Free.Edward N. Zalta, Christopher Menzel & Otávio Bueno - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):797-820.
    The authors provide an object-theoretic analysis of two paradoxes in the theory of possible worlds and propositions stemming from Russell and Kaplan. After laying out the paradoxes, the authors provide a brief overview of object theory and point out how syntactic restrictions that prevent object-theoretic versions of the classical paradoxes are justified philosophically. The authors then trace the origins of the Russell paradox to a problematic application of set theory in the definition of worlds. Next the authors show that an (...)
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  22.  14
    A (Leibnizian) Theory of Concepts.Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 3 (1):137-183.
    Three different notions of concepts are outlined: one derives from Leibniz, while the other two derive from Frege. The Leibnizian notion is the subject of his "calculus of concepts" (which is really an algebra). One notion of concept from Frege is what we would call a "property", so that when Frege says "x falls under the concept F", we would say "x instantiates F" or "x exemplifies F". The other notion of concept from Frege is that of the notion of (...)
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  23.  54
    Singular Propositions, Abstract Constituents, and Propositional Attitudes.Edward N. Zalta - 1989 - In J. Almog, J. Perry & H. Wettstein (eds.), Themes from Kaplan. Oxford University Press. pp. 455--78.
    The author resolves a conflict between Frege's view that the cognitive significance of coreferential names may be distinct and Kaplan's view that since coreferential names have the same "character", they have the same cognitive significance. A distinction is drawn between an expression's "character" and its "cognitive character". The former yields the denotation of an expression relative to a context (and individual); the latter yields the abstract sense of an expression relative to a context (and individual). Though coreferential names have the (...)
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  24. The Modal Object Calculus and its Interpretation.Edward N. Zalta - 1997 - In M. de Rijke (ed.), Advances in Intensional Logic. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 249--279.
    The modal object calculus is the system of logic which houses the (proper) axiomatic theory of abstract objects. The calculus has some rather interesting features in and of itself, independent of the proper theory. The most sophisticated, type-theoretic incarnation of the calculus can be used to analyze the intensional contexts of natural language and so constitutes an intensional logic. However, the simpler second-order version of the calculus couches a theory of fine-grained properties, relations and propositions and serves as a framework (...)
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  25. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.Edward N. Zalta Uri Nodelman Colin Allen & John Perry - unknown
    Notice: This PDF version was distributed by request to members of the Friends of the SEP Society and by courtesy to SEP content contributors. It is solely for their fair use. Unauthorized distribution is prohibited. To learn how to join the Friends of the SEP Society and obtain authorized PDF versions of SEP entries, please visit https://leibniz.stanford.edu/friends/.
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  26.  23
    Referring to Fictional Characters.Edward N. Zalta - 2003 - Dialectica 57 (2):243-254.
    In this paper, the author replies to a question raised about theories of nonexistent objects. The question concerns the way names of fictional characters, when analyzed as names which denote nonexistent objects, acquire their denotations. Since nonexistent objects cannot causally interact with existent objects, it is thought that we cannot appeal to a‘dubbing’or a‘baptism’. The question is, therefore, what is the starting point of the chain? The answer is that storytellings are to be thought of as extended baptisms, and the (...)
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  27.  22
    Frege's Theorem and Foundations for Arithmetic.Edward N. Zalta - Spring 2015 - In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The principal goal of this entry is to present Frege's Theorem (i.e., the proof that the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory can be derived in second-order logic supplemented only by Hume's Principle) in the most logically perspicuous manner. We strive to present Frege's Theorem by representing the ideas and claims involved in the proof in clear and well-established modern logical notation. This prepares one to better prepared to understand Frege's own notation and derivations, and read Frege's original work (whether in (...)
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  28. Plato on Negation and Not-Being in the Sophist.Edward N. Lee - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (3):267-304.
  29.  83
    Deriving and Validating Kripkean Claims Using the Theory of Abstract Objects.Edward N. Zalta - 2006 - Noûs 40 (4):591–622.
    In this paper, the author shows how one can independently prove, within the theory of abstract objects, some of the most significant claims, hypotheses, and background assumptions found in Kripke's logical and philosophical work. Moreover, many of the semantic features of theory of abstract objects are consistent with Kripke's views — the successful representation, in the system, of the truth conditions and entailments of philosophically puzzling sentences of natural language validates certain Kripkean semantic claims about natural language.
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  30. In Defense of the Law of Noncontradiction.Edward N. Zalta - 2004 - In J. C. Beall, B. Armour-Garb & G. Priest (eds.), The Law of Non-Contradiction : New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    The arguments of the dialetheists for the rejection of the traditional law of noncontradiction are not yet conclusive. The reason is that the arguments that they have developed against this law uniformly fail to consider the logic of encoding as an analytic method that can resolve apparent contradictions. In this paper, we use Priest [1995] and [1987] as sample texts to illustrate this claim. In [1995], Priest examines certain crucial problems in the history of philosophy from the point of view (...)
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  31.  10
    Measuring the Integration of Social and Environmental Missions in Hybrid Organizations.Edward N. Gamble, Simon C. Parker & Peter W. Moroz - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 167 (2):271-284.
    This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations—the degree of integration of their revenue model and social–environmental mission. The SEMI measure is illustrated using a hand-collected sample of 256 North American Certified B Corporations. We explore the heterogeneity of SEMI scores by identifying external-facing correlates and demonstrate non-congruence with Certified B Corporation’s audit results. Overall, our findings advance existing knowledge of these hybrid organizations and how (...)
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  32.  56
    On Mally's Alleged Heresy: A Reply.Edward N. Zalta - 1992 - History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (1):59-68.
    In this paper, I respond to D. Jacquette's paper, "Mally's Heresy and the Logic of Meinong's Object Theory" (History and Philosophy of Logic, 10 (1989): 1-14), in which it is claimed that Ernst Mally's distinction between two modes of predication, as it is employed in the theory of abstract objects, is reducible to, and analyzable in terms of, a single mode of predication plus the distinction between nuclear and extranuclear properties. The argument against Jacquette's claims consists of counterexamples to his (...)
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  33.  15
    Frege's Logic, Theorem, and Foundations for Arithmetic.Edward N. Zalta - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This entry explains Frege's Theorem by using the modern notation of the predicate calculus. Frege's Theorem is that the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory are derivable from Hume's Principle, given the axioms and rules of second-order logic. Frege's methodology for defining the natural numbers and for the derivation of the Dedekind-Peano axioms are sketched in some detail.
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  34. Reflections on the Logic of the Ontological Argument.Edward N. Zalta - 2007 - Studia Neoaristotelica 4 (1):28-35.
    Forma logica argumenti ontologici reconsiderataHac in tractatione auctores veritatem praemissarum argumenti ontologici, quod in dissertatione sua anno 1991 publicata proposuerunt, examinant. Auctores praesertim de prima Anselmi praemissa, qua asseritur, dari cogitabile quid, quo maius cogitari nequit, dubitant. Primo scilicet argumentum, quod Anselmus pro hac assertione astruit, reiciunt; deinde ostendunt, aliam interpretationem formalem huius praemissae dari posse, secundum quam vera evenit. Haec interpretatione adhibita, argumentum Anselmi non solum validum, sed etiam efficax esse constat. Reconstructio praecisa argumenti in hoc sensu intellectinihilominus revelat, (...)
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  35. Hoist With His Own Petard: Ironic and Comic Elements in Plato's Critique of Protagoras (Tht. 161-171).Edward N. Lee - 1973 - In Gregory Vlastos, Edward N. Lee, Alexander P. D. Mourelatos & Richard Rorty (eds.), Phronesis. Assen, van Gorcum. pp. 225--261.
  36. A Comparison of Two Intensional Logics.Edward N. Zalta - 1988 - Linguistics and Philosophy 11 (1):59-89.
    The author examines the differences between the general intensional logic defined in his recent book and Montague's intensional logic. Whereas Montague assigned extensions and intensions to expressions (and employed set theory to construct these values as certain sets), the author assigns denotations to terms and relies upon an axiomatic theory of intensional entities that covers properties, relations, propositions, worlds, and other abstract objects. It is then shown that the puzzles for Montague's analyses of modality and descriptions, propositional attitudes, and directedness (...)
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  37.  90
    On the Metaphysics of the Image in Plato’s Timaeus.Edward N. Lee - 1966 - The Monist 50 (3):341-368.
    This paper has two main aims: first, to set forth an analysis of Timaeus 48E-52D and then to explore the significance of those pages for our understanding of Plato’s metaphysics. Students of the “Receptacle” in Plato’s Timaeus have given close attention to the many metaphors he offers in his explanation of its nature. Less attention has been given to the overall structure of the passage in which he presents it. In this paper, I attempt to show that Plato’s exposition there (...)
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  38. Reason and Rotation: Circular Movement as the Model of Mind (Nous) in Later Plato.Edward N. Lee - 1976 - In W. H. Werkmeister (ed.), Facets of Plato's Philosophy. Van Gorcum. pp. 70--102.
  39. Frege's Logic, Theorem, and Foundations for Arithmetic.Edward N. Zalta - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In this entry, Frege's logic is introduced and described in some detail. It is shown how the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory can be derived from a consistent fragment of Frege's logic, with Hume's Principle replacing Basic Law V.
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  40. In Defense of the Contingently Nonconcrete.Bernard Linsky & Edward N. Zalta - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 84 (2-3):283-294.
    In "Actualism or Possibilism?" (Philosophical Studies, 84 (2-3), December 1996), James Tomberlin develops two challenges for actualism. The challenges are to account for the truth of certain sentences without appealing to merely possible objects. After canvassing the main actualist attempts to account for these phenomena, he then criticizes the new conception of actualism that we described in our paper "In Defense of the Simplest Quantified Modal Logic" (Philosophical Perspectives 8: Philosophy of Logic and Language, Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview, 1994). We respond (...)
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  41.  60
    Two (Related) World Views.Edward N. Zalta - 1995 - Noûs 29 (2):189-211.
    A. Plantinga develops a challenging critique of Castañeda's guise theory, by identifying fundamental intuitions that guise theory gives up and by developing several objections to the guise-theoretic world view as a whole. In this paper, I examine whether Plantinga's criticisms apply to the theory of abstract objects. The theory of abstract objects and guise theory can be fruitfully compared because they share a common intellectual heritage---both follow Ernst Mally [1912] in postulating a special realm of objects distinguished by their "internal" (...)
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  42. Replies to the Critics.Edward N. Zalta - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):231-242.
    In an author-meets-critics session at the March 1992 Pacific APA meetings, the critics (Christopher Menzel, Harry Deutsch, and C. Anthony Anderson) commented on the author's book *Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality* (Cambridge, MA: MIT/Bradford, 1988). The critical commentaries are published in this issue together with these replies by the author. The author responds to questions concerning the system he proposes, and in particular, to questions concerning the treatment of modality, the semantics of belief reports, and the general efficacy (...)
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  43. Naturalized Platonism Versus Platonized Naturalism.Bernard Linsky & Edward N. Zalta - 1995 - Journal of Philosophy 92 (10):525-555.
    In this paper, we develop an alternative strategy, Platonized Naturalism, for reconciling naturalism and Platonism and to account for our knowledge of mathematical objects and properties. A systematic (Principled) Platonism based on a comprehension principle that asserts the existence of a plenitude of abstract objects is not just consistent with, but required (on transcendental grounds) for naturalism. Such a comprehension principle is synthetic, and it is known a priori. Its synthetic a priori character is grounded in the fact that it (...)
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  44. "Hoist with His Own Petard": Ironic and Comic Elements in Platos Critique of Protagoras.Edward N. Lee - 1973 - Phronesis 18:225.
     
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  45. On the Logic of the Ontological Argument.Paul E. Oppenheimer & Edward N. Zalta - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:509-529.
    In this paper, the authors show that there is a reading of St. Anselm's ontological argument in Proslogium II that is logically valid (the premises entail the conclusion). This reading takes Anselm's use of the definite description "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" seriously. Consider a first-order language and logic in which definite descriptions are genuine terms, and in which the quantified sentence "there is an x such that..." does not imply "x exists". Then, using an ordinary logic (...)
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  46. Reflections on Mathematics.Edward N. Zalta - 2007 - In V. F. Hendricks & Hannes Leitgeb (eds.), Philosophy of Mathematics: Five Questions. Automatic Press/VIP.
    This paper contains answers to the following Five questions, posed by the editors are answered: (1) Why were you initially drawn to the foundations of mathematics and/or the philosophy of mathematics? (2) What example(s) from your work (or the work of others) illustrates the use of mathematics for philosophy? (3) What is the proper role of philosophy of mathematics in relation to logic, foundations of mathematics, the traditional core areas of mathematics, and science? (4) What do you consider the most (...)
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  47. A Computationally-Discovered Simplification of the Ontological Argument.Paul Oppenheimer & Edward N. Zalta - 2011 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (2):333 - 349.
    The authors investigated the ontological argument computationally. The premises and conclusion of the argument are represented in the syntax understood by the automated reasoning engine PROVER9. Using the logic of definite descriptions, the authors developed a valid representation of the argument that required three non-logical premises. PROVER9, however, discovered a simpler valid argument for God's existence from a single non-logical premise. Reducing the argument to one non-logical premise brings the investigation of the soundness of the argument into better focus. Also, (...)
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  48.  13
    A Philosophical Conception of Propositional Modal Logic.Edward N. Zalta - 1993 - Philosophical Topics 21 (2):263-281.
    The formulation of propositional modal logic is revised by interposing a domain of structured propositions between the modal language and the models. Interpretations of the language (i.e., ways of mapping the language into the domain of propositions) are distinguished from models of the domain of propositions (i.e., ways of assigning truth values to propositions at each world), and this contrasts with the traditional formulation. Truth and logical consequence are defined, in the first instance, as properties of, and relations among, propositions. (...)
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  49. Foundations for Mathematical Structuralism.Uri Nodelman & Edward N. Zalta - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):39-78.
    We investigate the form of mathematical structuralism that acknowledges the existence of structures and their distinctive structural elements. This form of structuralism has been subject to criticisms recently, and our view is that the problems raised are resolved by proper, mathematics-free theoretical foundations. Starting with an axiomatic theory of abstract objects, we identify a mathematical structure as an abstract object encoding the truths of a mathematical theory. From such foundations, we derive consequences that address the main questions and issues that (...)
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  50. How to Say Goodbye to the Third Man.Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - Noûs 34 (2):165–202.
    In (1991), Meinwald initiated a major change of direction in the study of Plato’s Parmenides and the Third Man Argument. On her conception of the Parmenides , Plato’s language systematically distinguishes two types or kinds of predication, namely, predications of the kind ‘x is F pros ta alla’ and ‘x is F pros heauto’. Intuitively speaking, the former is the common, everyday variety of predication, which holds when x is any object (perceptible object or Form) and F is a property (...)
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