Results for 'Egoism'

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  1. Egoism and Altruism.Bernard A. O. Williams - 1973 - In Problems of the Self. Cambridge University Press.
    A discussion of egoism and altruism as related both to ethical theory and moral psychology. Williams considers and rejects various arguments for and against the existence of egoistic motives and the rationality of someone motivated by self-interest. He ultimately attempts to give a more Humean defense of altruism, as opposed to the more Kantian defenses found in Thomas Nagel, for example.
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  2. Egoism as a Theory of Human Motives.C. D. Broad - 1949 - Hibbert Journal 48:105-114.
    Now it is plain that such consequences as these conflict sharply with common-sense notions of morality. If we had been obliged to accept Psychological Egoism, in any of its narrower forms, on its merits, we should have had to say: 'So much the worse for the common-sense notions of morality!' But, if I am right, the morality of common sense, with all its difficulties and incoherences, is immune at least to attacks from the basis of Psychological Egoism.
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  3. Egoism.Robert Shaver - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Egoism can be a descriptive or a normative position. Psychological egoism, the most famous descriptive position, claims that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. Normative forms of egoism make claims about what one ought to do, rather than describe what one does do. Ethical egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one's self-interest. Rational egoism claims that it is necessary and (...)
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  4. Taking Egoism Seriously.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):529-542.
    Though utilitarianism is far from being universally accepted in the philosophical community, it is taken seriously and treated respectfully. Its critics do not dismiss it out of hand; they do not misrepresent it; they do not belittle or disparage its proponents. They allow the theory to be articulated, developed, and defended from criticism, even if they go on to reject the modified versions. Ethical egoism, a longstanding rival of utilitarianism, is treated very differently. It is said to be “refuted” (...)
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  5. Egoism, Empathy, and Self-Other Merging.Joshua May - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):25-39.
    [Emerging Scholar Prize Essay for Spindel Supplement] Some philosophers and psychologists have evaluated psychological egoism against recent experimental work in social psychology. Dan Batson (1991; forthcoming), in particular, argues that empathy tends to induce genuinely altruistic motives in humans. However, some argue that there are egoistic explanations of the data that remain unscathed. I focus here on some recent criticisms based on the idea of self-other merging or "oneness," primarily leveled by Robert Cialdini and his collaborators (1997). These authors (...)
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  6. Chapter One ThPxEE Views of Love: Egoism, Disinterest, and Harmonism Alan Vincelette.Disinterest Egoism - 2007 - In Thomas Jay Oord (ed.), The Many Facets of Love: Philosophical Explorations. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 1.
     
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  7. Psychological Egoism.Joshua May - 2011 - Internet Encyclopeida of Philosophy.
    Provides an overview of the theory of psychological egoism—the thesis that we are all ultimately motivated by self-interest. Philosophical arguments for and against the view are considered as well as some empirical evidence.
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  8. Egoism and Emotion.Michael Slote - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2):313-335.
    Recently, the idea that human beings may be totally egoistic has resurfaced in philosophical and psychological discussions. But many of the arguments for that conclusion are conceptually flawed. Psychologists are making a conceptual error when they think of the desire to avoid guilt as egoistic; and the same is true of the common view that the desire to avoid others’ disapproval is also egoistic. Sober and Wilson argue against this latter idea on the grounds that such a desire is relational, (...)
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  9. Rational Egoism and the Separateness of Persons.David O. Brink - 1997 - In J. Dancy (ed.), Reading Parfit. Blackwell. pp. 96--134.
  10. Consistent Egoists and Situation Managers: Two Problems for Situationism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2015 - Philosophical Explorations 18 (3):344-361.
    According to philosophical “situationism”, psychological evidence shows that human action is typically best explained by the influence of situational factors and not by “global” and robust character traits of the agent. As a practical implication of their view, situationists recommend that efforts in moral education be shifted from character development to situation management. Much of the discussion has focused on whether global conceptions of virtue and character, and in particular Aristotelian virtue ethics, can be defended against the situationist challenge. After (...)
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  11. Egoism Versus Rights.Robert H. Bass - 2006 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2):329-349.
    I develop an argument that key theses from Ayn Rand's ethics and political philosophy are incompatible with one another. Her ethical egoism is not compatible with her rights theory. Though Rand's version of rights theory is libertarian, the argument does not depend upon any claims peculiar to her theory, but would apply to the (in)compatibility of ethical egoism and almost any plausible rights theory.
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  12. Psychological Egoism.Joel Feinberg - 1978 - In Russ Shafer-Landau & Joel Feinberg (eds.), Reason and Responsibility. Wadsworth. pp. 183.
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  13. Rationality, Egoism, and Morality.Richard Brandt - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (20):681.
  14.  29
    Egoistic and Ethical Orientations of University Students Toward Work-Related Decisions.Jon M. Shepard & Linda S. Hartenian - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):303 - 310.
    An onslaught of ethically questionable actions by top government, business, and religious leaders during the 1980s has brought the issue of ethics in decision making to the forefront of public consciousness. This study examines the ethical orientation of university students in four decision-making situations. The dependent variable — ethical orientation toward work-related decisions — is measured through student responses to questions following four work-related vignettes. Possible responses to each vignette are structured to permit categorization of respondents into two broad orientations: (...)
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  15.  96
    Ego, Egoism and the Impact of Religion on Ethical Experience: What a Paradoxical Consequence of Buddhist Culture Tells Us About Moral Psychology.Jay L. Garfield, Shaun Nichols, Arun K. Rai & Nina Strohminger - 2015 - The Journal of Ethics 19 (3-4):293-304.
    We discuss the structure of Buddhist theory, showing that it is a kind of moral phenomenology directed to the elimination of egoism through the elimination of a sense of self. We then ask whether being raised in a Buddhist culture in which the values of selflessness and the sense of non-self are so deeply embedded transforms one’s sense of who one is, one’s ethical attitudes and one’s attitude towards death, and in particular whether those transformations are consistent with the (...)
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  16. Egoism.Alexander Moseley - 2005 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In philosophy, egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action. Egoism has two variants, descriptive or normative. The descriptive (or positive) variant conceives egoism as a factual description of human affairs. That is, people are motivated by their own interests and desires, and they cannot be described otherwise. The normative variant proposes that people should be so motivated, regardless of what presently motivates their behavior. Altruism (...)
     
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  17.  73
    Egoism, Love, and Political Office in Plato.Richard Kraut - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (3):330-344.
  18. Egoism and the Imitation of Affects in Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2004 - In Yirmiahu Yovel (ed.), Spinoza on Reason and the Free Man. Little Room Press.
     
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  19. Egoism.Kurt Baier - 1990 - In Peter Singer (ed.), A Companion to Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
  20. Egoism and the Publicity of Reason: A Reply to Korsgaard.Michael J. Cholbi - 1999 - Social Theory and Practice 25 (3):491-517.
    Christine Korsgaard has argued recently that the thesis that reasons are "essentially public" undermines the distinction between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons, thus refuting egoism by rejecting its commitment to the universal availability of agent-relative reasons. I conclude that Korsgaard's invocation of the essential publicity of reasons trades on ambiguities concerning the "sharing" of reasons and so does not refute egoism and does not ground moral normativity. Her account of the publicity of reasons shows that solipsism is incoherent, but (...)
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  21.  77
    Epistemological Egoism and Agent-Centered Norms.Michael Huemer - 2011 - In Trent Dougherty (ed.), Evidentialism and its Discontents. Oxford University Press. pp. 17.
    Agent-centered epistemic norms direct thinkers to attach different significance to their own epistemically relevant states than they attach to the similar states of others. Thus, if S and T both know, for certain, that S has the intuition that P, this might justify S in believing that P, yet fail to justify T in believing that P. I defend agent-centeredness and explain how an agent-centered theory can accommodate intuitions that seem to favor agent-neutrality.
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  22.  28
    The Egoistic Teacher: Educational Implications of Spinoza’s Ethical Egoism.Johan Dahlbeck - 2017 - Ethics and Education 12 (3):304-319.
    In this paper I suggest that Spinoza’s understanding of virtue and collective flourishing, rooted in his psychological and ethical egoism, offers a fresh perspective on the question of egoism in education. To this end, I suggest an understanding of the teacher as egoist, where the self-seeking of the teacher is conditioned by – and runs parallel to – the flourishing of his or her students. The understanding of the egoistic teacher is offered as a productive counter-image to the (...)
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  23. Egoism and Altruism.Alasdair MacIntyre - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 2--462.
     
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  24.  69
    Egoism, Reason, and the Social Contract.A. P. Martinich - 2012 - Hobbes Studies 25 (2):209-222.
    Bernard Gert’s distinctive interpretation of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes in his recent book may be questioned in at least three areas: (1) Even if Hobbes is not a psychological egoist, he seems to be a desire egoist, which has the consequence, as he understands it, that a person acts at least for his own good in every action. (2) Although there are several senses of reason, it seems that Hobbes uses the idea that reason is calculation of means to (...)
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  25. Philosophical Egoism: Its Nature and Limitations: Hans Bernhard Schmid.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2010 - Economics and Philosophy 26 (2):217-240.
    Egoism and altruism are unequal contenders in the explanation of human behaviour. While egoism tends to be viewed as natural and unproblematic, altruism has always been treated with suspicion, and it has often been argued that apparent cases of altruistic behaviour might really just be some special form of egoism. The reason for this is that egoism fits into our usual theoretical views of human behaviour in a way that altruism does not. This is true on (...)
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  26.  58
    Challenging the Egoistic Paradigm.Norman E. Bowie - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (1):1-21.
    Most economists are committed to some version of egoism. After distinguishing among the various sorts of egoistic claims, l cite the empirical literature against psychological egoism and show that attempts to account for this data make these economists' previous empirical claims tautological. Moreover, the assumption of egoism has undesirable consequences, especially for students; if people believe that others behave egoistically, they are more likely to behave egoistically themselves. As an alternative to egoism I recommend the commitment (...)
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  27. Portraits of Egoism in Classic Cinema II: Negative Portrayals.Gary James Jason - 2015 - Reason Papers 37 (1).
    In this essay, I look at two negative portrayals of egoism. I summarize in detail the superb All About Eve—which won six Academy Awards, including Best Picture. The movie is about the rise of a ruthlessly ambitious actress, and how she treats her main competitor. Eve Harrington worms her way into top theatrical actress Margo Channing’s inner circle by pretending to be an admirer, but she is really a schemer who wants to eclipse Margo’s star in the theater universe. (...)
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  28.  73
    Flourishing Egoism.Lester H. Hunt - 1999 - Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1):72.
    Early in Peter Abelard's Dialogue between a Philosopher, a Jew, and a Christian, the philosopher and the Christian easily come to agreement about what the point of ethics is: “[T]he culmination of true ethics … is gathered together in this: that it reveal where the ultimate good is and by what road we are to arrive there.” They also agree that, since the enjoyment of this ultimate good “comprises true blessedness,” ethics “far surpasses other teachings in both usefulness and worthiness.” (...)
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  29. Psychological Egoism.Elliott Sober - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette & Ingmar Persson (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. pp. 148-168.
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    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Robert Shaver - 1998 - Cambridge University Press..
    This book is the first full-length treatment of rational egoism, and it provides both a selective history of the subject as well as a philosophical analysis of the arguments that have been deployed in its defense.
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  31. Egoism and Moral Scepticism.James Rachels - 2009 - In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Ethics: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  32. Egoism and Eudaimonia-Maximization in the Nicomachean Ethics.Erik Wielenberg - 2004 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26:277-95.
  33. Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Robert Shaver - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    The position of rational egoism centres upon the thought that the rational thing to do must be to pursue one's own self-interest. Focusing on the work of Hobbes and Sidgwick, this book is an extensive history and evaluation of rational egoism. They are, after the ancients, the foremost exponents of rational egoism. He also considers other figures - Grotius, Samuel Clarke, John Clarke, Butler, Hume, Reid, Kant, Paley and Bentham - and a related position: the instrumental theory (...)
     
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  34.  69
    Egoism, Partiality, and Impartiality.Brad Hooker - 2013 - In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 710-728.
    This chapter discusses psychological egoism, ethical egoism, rational egoism, partiality, and impartiality. Partiality involves assigning more importance to the welfare or will of some individuals or groups than to the welfare or will of others. Egoism is an extreme form of partiality in that it gives overriding importance to the welfare of just one individual. While there are different kinds of impartiality, the kind that juxtaposes with egoism and partiality is impartiality towards the welfare or (...)
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  35.  42
    Egoists, Consequentialists, and Their Friends.William H. Wilcox - 1987 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1):73-84.
  36.  46
    Egoism and Morality.Stephen Darwall - 2011 - In Desmond M. Clarke & Catherine Wilson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines changes in the conception of morality and egoism in early modern Europe. It explains that the postulate that human beings were fractious, covetous, and endowed with a strong drive towards self-aggrandizement was associated with Thomas Hobbes, and his writings produced a strong counterflow in the form of assertions and demonstrations of altruism and benevolence as natural endowments of human beings. It suggests that the modern ethical thought has defined itself by its concern with a specific ethical (...)
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  37.  55
    Deontological Egoism.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 2003 - Social Theory and Practice 29 (3):357-385.
  38.  13
    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Roger Crisp & Robert Shaver - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):111.
    The natural bias towards the contemporary in teaching and in research, combined with numerous specialized journals, mean that certain areas of philosophy, including ethics, are in danger of forgetting their past. In that context, history of philosophy of the high standard exemplified in this book is particularly important.
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  39.  22
    Legitimating Market Egoism: The Availability Problem.Tony Lynch - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):89-95.
    It is a common enough view that market agents are self-interested, not benevolent or altruistic – call this market egoism – and that this is morally defensible, even morally required. There are two styles of defence – utilitarian and deontological – and while they differ, they confront a common problem. This is the availability problem. The problem is that the more successful the moral justification of self-interested economic activity, the less there is for the justification to draw upon. Religious (...)
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  40.  46
    Egoistic Rationalism: Aquinas's Basis for Christian Morality.Scott MacDonald - 1990 - In Michael Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  41.  73
    Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism and the Fallacy of Pragmatic Inconsistency.Jonathan Harrison - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (4):595-609.
    In this paper I shall consider the difficulty for Ethical Egoism, Act Utilitarianism and later what I shall call Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism, that they both commit the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency. I shall distinguish various forms of the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency; in particular I shall distinguish between the fallacy of direct and indirect pragmatic inconsistency, and shall argue that though both Ethical Egoism and Act Utilitarianism probably commit both, Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism does not.
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  42.  69
    Egoism as an Ethical System.Warren Quinn - 1974 - Journal of Philosophy 71 (14):456-472.
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  43. Ethical and Epistemic Egoism and the Ideal of Autonomy.Linda Zagzebski - 2007 - Episteme 4 (3):252-263.
    In this paper I distinguish three degrees of epistemic egoism, each of which has an ethical analogue, and I argue that all three are incoherent. Since epistemic autonomy is frequently identified with one of these forms of epistemic egoism, it follows that epistemic autonomy as commonly understood is incoherent. I end with a brief discussion of the idea of moral autonomy and suggest that its component of epistemic autonomy in the realm of the moral is problematic.
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  44. Can Egoists Be Consistent?Roger Donway - 1969 - Ethics 80 (1):50-52.
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  45. Egoism and Altruism in Ethics: Dispensing with Spurious Generality. [REVIEW]Wim J. Van Der Steen - 1995 - Journal of Value Inquiry 29 (1):31-44.
    Is human behavior exclusively motivated by self-interest? Common sense indicates that we should flatly deny this, or so it seems to me. Yet the doctrine of universal self-interest, psychological egoism for short, has gained the support of many researchers in science. Common sense also seems to allow the rejection of ethical egoism, the doctrine that human behavior should be motivated exclusively by self-interest. It appears to be at variance with widely endorsed moralities. Yet it is a perennial subject (...)
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  46.  13
    Egoism, Community and Rational Moral Education.Helen Freeman - 1977 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 9 (2):1–18.
  47. The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism.Alison Hills - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Part One introduces three different versions of egoism. Part Two looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false, and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. But in part Three, Hills defends morality and develops a new (...)
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  48. Ethical Egoism and Interpersonal Compatibility.Kurt Baier - 1973 - Philosophical Studies 24 (6):357-368.
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  49.  73
    Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand.Stephen R. C. Hicks - 2009 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (2):249 - 291.
    Philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Ayn Rand are often identified as strong critics of altruism and arch advocates of egoism. In this essay, Stephen Hicks argues that Nietzsche and Rand have much in common in their critiques of altruism but almost nothing in common in their views on egoism.
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  50.  69
    Egoism in Hobbes.F. S. McNeilly - 1966 - Philosophical Quarterly 16 (64):193-206.
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