Results for 'Egoism'

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  1. Chapter One ThPxEE Views of Love: Egoism, Disinterest, and Harmonism Alan Vincelette.Disinterest Egoism - 2007 - In Thomas Jay Oord (ed.), The Many Facets of Love: Philosophical Explorations. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 1.
     
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  2. Egoism and moral scepticism.James Rachels - 2009 - In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring ethics: an introductory anthology. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  3.  8
    Egoism and Altruism: Selfishness and Sacrifice.Gregory Salmieri - 2016 - In Allan Gotthelf & Gregory Salmieri (eds.), A Companion to Ayn Rand. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 130–156.
    When Ayn Rand is studied in philosophy classes, it is most often in connection with her defense of ethical egoism and rejection of altruism. This chapter discusses what it means for Rand's ethics to be egoistic. It begins by looking at different doctrines that have been called egoism and situating Rand's position relative to them. The chapter then describes Rand's characterization of altruism, and identifies instances of this view both in popular moral discourse and in the history of (...)
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  4. Egoism.Robert Shaver - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Egoism can be a descriptive or a normative position. Psychological egoism, the most famous descriptive position, claims that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. Normative forms of egoism make claims about what one ought to do, rather than describe what one does do. Ethical egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one's self-interest. Rational egoism claims that it is necessary and (...)
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  5. Egoism and Altruism.Bernard A. O. Williams - 1973 - In Problems of the Self. Cambridge University Press.
    A discussion of egoism and altruism as related both to ethical theory and moral psychology. Williams considers and rejects various arguments for and against the existence of egoistic motives and the rationality of someone motivated by self-interest. He ultimately attempts to give a more Humean defense of altruism, as opposed to the more Kantian defenses found in Thomas Nagel, for example.
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  6.  16
    The Egoistic Answer.Ivar Russøy Labukt - 2015 - In Beatrix Himmelmann (ed.), Why Be Moral? An Argument from the Human Condition in Response to Hobbes and Nietzsche. pp. 81-102.
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  7. Taking Egoism Seriously.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):529-542.
    Though utilitarianism is far from being universally accepted in the philosophical community, it is taken seriously and treated respectfully. Its critics do not dismiss it out of hand; they do not misrepresent it; they do not belittle or disparage its proponents. They allow the theory to be articulated, developed, and defended from criticism, even if they go on to reject the modified versions. Ethical egoism, a longstanding rival of utilitarianism, is treated very differently. It is said to be “refuted” (...)
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  8. Egoism, Empathy, and Self-Other Merging.Joshua May - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):25-39.
    [Emerging Scholar Prize Essay for Spindel Supplement] Some philosophers and psychologists have evaluated psychological egoism against recent experimental work in social psychology. Dan Batson (1991; forthcoming), in particular, argues that empathy tends to induce genuinely altruistic motives in humans. However, some argue that there are egoistic explanations of the data that remain unscathed. I focus here on some recent criticisms based on the idea of self-other merging or "oneness," primarily leveled by Robert Cialdini and his collaborators (1997). These authors (...)
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  9. Ethical Egoism.Nathan Nobis - 2020 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    Selfishness is often considered a vice and selfish actions are often judged to be wrong. But sometimes we ought to do what’s best for ourselves: in a sense, we sometimes should be selfish. -/- The ethical theory known as ethical egoism states that we are always morally required to do what’s in our own self-interest. The view isn’t that we are selfish—this is psychological egoism—but that we ought to be. -/- This essay explores ethical egoism and the (...)
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  10. Egoism and the publicity of reason: A reply to Korsgaard.Michael J. Cholbi - 1999 - Social Theory and Practice 25 (3):491-517.
    Christine Korsgaard has argued recently that the thesis that reasons are "essentially public" undermines the distinction between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons, thus refuting egoism by rejecting its commitment to the universal availability of agent-relative reasons. I conclude that Korsgaard's invocation of the essential publicity of reasons trades on ambiguities concerning the "sharing" of reasons and so does not refute egoism and does not ground moral normativity. Her account of the publicity of reasons shows that solipsism is incoherent, but (...)
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  11. Egoism, force, and the need for government: a response to Huemer.Harry Binswanger - 2019 - In Gregory Salmieri & Robert Mayhew (eds.), Foundations of a Free Society: Reflections on Ayn Rand's Political Philosophy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  12. Psychological Egoism.Joshua May - 2011 - Internet Encyclopeida of Philosophy.
    Provides an overview of the theory of psychological egoism—the thesis that we are all ultimately motivated by self-interest. Philosophical arguments for and against the view are considered as well as some empirical evidence.
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  13. Egoism and Emotion.Michael Slote - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2):313-335.
    Recently, the idea that human beings may be totally egoistic has resurfaced in philosophical and psychological discussions. But many of the arguments for that conclusion are conceptually flawed. Psychologists are making a conceptual error when they think of the desire to avoid guilt as egoistic; and the same is true of the common view that the desire to avoid others’ disapproval is also egoistic. Sober and Wilson argue against this latter idea on the grounds that such a desire is relational, (...)
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  14.  18
    Egoism, Utility, and Friendship in Plato’s Lysis.Irina Deretić - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-032341.
    Many scholars consider that Socrates in the Lysis holds that friendship and love are egoistic and utility-based. In this paper, I will argue against those readings of Plato’s Lysis. I will analyze how Socrates treats utility and egoism in the many different kinds of friendship he discusses in the dialogue, from parental love, like-to-like, and unlike-to-unlike relationships, to the accounts of friendship rooted in the human relation to the good and the ways in which we can belong with some (...)
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  15. Egoism as a Theory of Human Motives.C. D. Broad - 1949 - Hibbert Journal 48:105-114.
    Now it is plain that such consequences as these conflict sharply with common-sense notions of morality. If we had been obliged to accept Psychological Egoism, in any of its narrower forms, on its merits, we should have had to say: 'So much the worse for the common-sense notions of morality!' But, if I am right, the morality of common sense, with all its difficulties and incoherences, is immune at least to attacks from the basis of Psychological Egoism.
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  16.  42
    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Robert Shaver - 1998 - Cambridge University Press..
    This book is the first full-length treatment of rational egoism, and it provides both a selective history of the subject as well as a philosophical analysis of the arguments that have been deployed in its defense.
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  17. Egoism Versus Rights.Robert H. Bass - 2006 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2):329-349.
    I develop an argument that key theses from Ayn Rand's ethics and political philosophy are incompatible with one another. Her ethical egoism is not compatible with her rights theory. Though Rand's version of rights theory is libertarian, the argument does not depend upon any claims peculiar to her theory, but would apply to the (in)compatibility of ethical egoism and almost any plausible rights theory.
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  18.  3
    The philosophy of egoism.James L. Walker - 1905 - Denver,: K. Walker. Edited by Henry Repologle.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be (...)
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  19. Egoism, Labour, and Possession: A reading of “Interiority and Economy,” Section II of Lévinas' Totality of Infinity.Jacob Blumenfeld - 2014 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 45 (2):107-117.
    Lévinas is the philosopher of the absolutely Other, the thinker of the primacy of the ethical relation, the poet of the face. Against the formalism of Kantian subjectivity, the totality of the Hegelian system, the monism of Husserlian phenomenology and the instrumentalism of Heideggerian ontology, Lévinas develops a phenomenological account of the ethical relation grounded in the idea of infinity, an idea which is concretely produced in the experience with the absolutely other, particularly, in their face. The face of the (...)
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  20. Introduction: Egoism, altruism and impartiality.Cillian McBride & Jonathan Seglow - 2003 - Res Publica 9 (3):213-222.
    The distinction between egoistic and altruistic motivation is firmly embedded in contemporary moral discourse, but harks back too to early modern attempts to found morality on an egoistic basis. Rejecting that latter premise means accepting that others’ interests have intrinsic value, but it remains far from clear what altruism demands of us and what its relationship is with the rest of morality. While informing our duties, altruism seems also to urge us to transcend them and embrace the other-regarding values and (...)
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  21.  66
    Egoism and Class Consciousness, or: Why Marx and Engels Wrote So Much About Stirner.Tom Whyman - 2023 - Hegel Bulletin 44 (3):422-445.
    Interest in The German Ideology has largely focused on the ‘chapter’ on Feuerbach—invariably the focus of the various abridgements in which the work is usually read. But this does not reflect the weighting of the text itself, which is dominated by Marx and Engels's critique of the radical egoist philosopher Max Stirner. Which begs the question: just why did they spend so much time and effort writing about Stirner? In this paper, I will provide an answer—which comes down to three (...)
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  22.  42
    Metaphysical Egoism and Personal Identity.Andrea Sauchelli - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry 56 (4):587-599.
    Metaphysical egoism pursues what Gregory Kavka called ‘the reconciliation project’ (roughly, the project of reconciling the demands of morality with our rational self-interest) by appealing to one version of the psychological approach to personal identity. I argue that, for reasons related to its commitment to an implausible understanding of the notion of a psychological connection, this form of egoism is not plausible. I also explore one way in which metaphysical egoism may be amended, but I ultimately reject (...)
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  23. Egoism, partiality, and impartiality.Brad Hooker - 2013 - In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 710-728.
    This chapter discusses psychological egoism, ethical egoism, rational egoism, partiality, and impartiality. Partiality involves assigning more importance to the welfare or will of some individuals or groups than to the welfare or will of others. Egoism is an extreme form of partiality in that it gives overriding importance to the welfare of just one individual. While there are different kinds of impartiality, the kind that juxtaposes with egoism and partiality is impartiality towards the welfare or (...)
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  24.  39
    Egoistic and ethical orientations of university students toward work-related decisions.Jon M. Shepard & Linda S. Hartenian - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):303 - 310.
    An onslaught of ethically questionable actions by top government, business, and religious leaders during the 1980s has brought the issue of ethics in decision making to the forefront of public consciousness. This study examines the ethical orientation of university students in four decision-making situations. The dependent variable — ethical orientation toward work-related decisions — is measured through student responses to questions following four work-related vignettes. Possible responses to each vignette are structured to permit categorization of respondents into two broad orientations: (...)
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  25. Ego, Egoism and the Impact of Religion on Ethical Experience: What a Paradoxical Consequence of Buddhist Culture Tells Us About Moral Psychology.Jay L. Garfield, Shaun Nichols, Arun K. Rai & Nina Strohminger - 2015 - The Journal of Ethics 19 (3-4):293-304.
    We discuss the structure of Buddhist theory, showing that it is a kind of moral phenomenology directed to the elimination of egoism through the elimination of a sense of self. We then ask whether being raised in a Buddhist culture in which the values of selflessness and the sense of non-self are so deeply embedded transforms one’s sense of who one is, one’s ethical attitudes and one’s attitude towards death, and in particular whether those transformations are consistent with the (...)
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  26. Egoism.Alexander Moseley - 2005 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In philosophy, egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action. Egoism has two variants, descriptive or normative. The descriptive (or positive) variant conceives egoism as a factual description of human affairs. That is, people are motivated by their own interests and desires, and they cannot be described otherwise. The normative variant proposes that people should be so motivated, regardless of what presently motivates their behavior. Altruism (...)
     
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  27. Psychological Egoism.Joel Feinberg - 1971 - In Reason and responsibility. Encino, Calif.,: Dickenson Pub. Co.. pp. 183.
  28. ‘Aristotle, Egoism and the Virtuous Person’s Point of View’.Stephen Gardiner - 2001 - In D. Blyth D. Baltzly (ed.), Power and Pleasure, Virtues and Vices: Essays in Ancient Moral Philosophy. pp. 239-262.
    According to the traditional interpretation, Aristotle’s ethics, and ancient virtue ethics more generally, is fundamentally grounded in self-interest, and so in some sense egoistic. Most contemporary ethical theorists regard egoism as morally repellent, and so dismiss Aristotle’s approach. But recent traditional interpreters have argued that Aristotle’s egoism is not vulnerable to this criticism. Indeed, they claim that Aristotle’s egoism actually accommodates morality. For, they say, Aristotle’s view is that an agent’s best interests are partially constituted by acting (...)
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  29. Compassion, egoism and selflessness : Schopenhauer's problematic debt to Rousseau.David James - 2023 - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian mind. New York, NY: Routledge.
     
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  30.  22
    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Robert Shaver - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    The position of rational egoism centres upon the thought that the rational thing to do must be to pursue one's own self-interest. Focusing on the work of Hobbes and Sidgwick, this book is an extensive history and evaluation of rational egoism. They are, after the ancients, the foremost exponents of rational egoism. He also considers other figures - Grotius, Samuel Clarke, John Clarke, Butler, Hume, Reid, Kant, Paley and Bentham - and a related position: the instrumental theory (...)
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  31. Rational egoism and the separateness of persons.David O. Brink - 1997 - In J. Dancy (ed.), Reading Parfit. Blackwell. pp. 96--134.
  32. Consistent egoists and situation managers: two problems for situationism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2015 - Philosophical Explorations 18 (3):344-361.
    According to philosophical “situationism”, psychological evidence shows that human action is typically best explained by the influence of situational factors and not by “global” and robust character traits of the agent. As a practical implication of their view, situationists recommend that efforts in moral education be shifted from character development to situation management. Much of the discussion has focused on whether global conceptions of virtue and character, and in particular Aristotelian virtue ethics, can be defended against the situationist challenge. After (...)
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  33.  91
    Egoism or the problem of evil: a dilemma for sceptical theism.Benjamin T. Rancourt - 2013 - Religious Studies 49:313-325.
    Sceptical theists undermine the argument from evil by claiming that our ability to distinguish between justified and unjustified evil is weak enough that we must take seriously the possibility that all evil is justified. However, I argue that this claim leads to a dilemma: either our judgements regarding unjustified evil are reliable enough that the problem of evil remains a problem, or our judgements regarding unjustified evil are so unreliable that it would be misguided to use them in our decision-making. (...)
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  34. Egoism, Reason, and the Social Contract.A. P. Martinich - 2012 - Hobbes Studies 25 (2):209-222.
    Bernard Gert’s distinctive interpretation of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes in his recent book may be questioned in at least three areas: (1) Even if Hobbes is not a psychological egoist, he seems to be a desire egoist, which has the consequence, as he understands it, that a person acts at least for his own good in every action. (2) Although there are several senses of reason, it seems that Hobbes uses the idea that reason is calculation of means to (...)
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  35. Philosophical egoism: Its nature and limitations.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2010 - Economics and Philosophy 26 (2):217-240.
    Egoism and altruism are unequal contenders in the explanation of human behaviour. While egoism tends to be viewed as natural and unproblematic, altruism has always been treated with suspicion, and it has often been argued that apparent cases of altruistic behaviour might really just be some special form of egoism. The reason for this is that egoism fits into our usual theoretical views of human behaviour in a way that altruism does not. This is true on (...)
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  36. Psychological Egoism and Hobbes.Hun Chung - 2016 - Filozofia 71 (3):197-208.
    Many commentators think that Hobbes was committed to psychological egoism. Psychological egoism is a theory of human psychology that claims that all human actions are ultimately motivated solely by one’s own self-interest. In this paper, I argue that there are reasons to think that Hobbes was not committed to psychological egoism in any of its plausible formulations.
     
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  37. Ethical egoism and the moral point of view.Chong Kim Chong - 1992 - Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1):23-36.
    Interpretations of ethical egoism as advocating the unconstrained harming of others, or as an absurd meta-ethical definition of morality, are unwarranted. The social definition of morality provided by, e.g., William Frankena, fails to rule out egoism. Instead, it forms the background against which egoism develops as a possible, normative position. Examples from "The Immoralist" and "Zorba the Greek" illustrate this possibility.
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  38. Psychological Egoism Revisited.Norman J. Brown - 1979 - Philosophy 54 (209):293 - 309.
    Psychological egoism is, I suppose, regarded by most philosophers as one of the more simple-minded fallacies in the history of philosophy, and dangerous and seductive too, contriving as it does to combine cynicism about human ideals and a vague sense of scientific method, both of which make the ordinary reader feel sophisticated, with conceptual confusion, which he cannot resist. For all of these reasons it springs eternal, in one form or another, in the breasts of first-year students, and offers (...)
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  39. Egoism, love, and political office in Plato.Richard Kraut - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (3):330-344.
  40. Rationality, Egoism, and Morality.Richard Brandt - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (20):681.
  41.  96
    Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism and the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency.Jonathan Harrison - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (4):595-609.
    In this paper I shall consider the difficulty for Ethical Egoism, Act Utilitarianism and later what I shall call Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism, that they both commit the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency. I shall distinguish various forms of the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency; in particular I shall distinguish between the fallacy of direct and indirect pragmatic inconsistency, and shall argue that though both Ethical Egoism and Act Utilitarianism probably commit both, Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism does not.
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  42. Does Psychological Egoism Entail Ethical Egoism?John J. Tilley - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):115-133.
    [If you find this article interesting, let me mention another of my articles, “On Deducing Ethical Egoism from Psychological Egoism” (Theoria, 2023), which in many ways is a more thorough treatment of the topic. But it’s not an expanded version of this one. For instance, each article addresses arguments not addressed in the other.] Philosophers generally reject the view that psychological egoism (suitably supplemented with further premises) entails ethical egoism. Their rejections are generally unsatisfying. Some are (...)
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  43. Buddhist Egoism and Other Infelicities.Randall Studstill - 2008 - Ars Disputandi 8:1566-5399.
    This article is an evaluation of Christian views about Buddhism based on Paul Williams’ The Unexpected Way: On Converting from Buddhism to Catholicism . Studstill focuses specifically on five Christian claims about Buddhism: Buddhism prevents the recognition of objective reality and objective truth, Buddhism promotes egoism, Buddhism encourages immorality, Buddhism is quite possibly irrational, and Buddhism is excessively pessimistic. Studstill critically examines Williams’ defense of these claims and concludes that each is either false or highly problematic. As a corrective (...)
     
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  44. Egoism and the Imitation of Affects in Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2004 - In Yirmiahu Yovel (ed.), Spinoza on Reason and the Free Man. Little Room Press.
     
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  45.  21
    Egoism as a way out of existential crisis for a person in disability situation.N. A. Mrinskaya - 2020 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 17:65-75.
    Purpose of the article is to establish the role of egoism in the life of a person faced with a disability situation, as a moment of self-determination in an existential crisis. I set the task to evaluate the influence of egoism and find out its significance in the prospect of the person’s further existence in the conditions of disability using the philosophical anthropology based on the meta-anthropology principle. Theoretical basis. Based on the fact that the role of (...) is perceived by public opinion as a vice and entails the absorption by a person of the benefits intended for others, I find them inappropriate for a person in a situation of disability. Taking into account the concepts of ego of altruism and altruistic egoism, which partially justify the positive influence of egoism, are only a product of the symbiotic interaction of altruism and egoism. The combination of egoism with altruism cannot reveal the essence of the crisis for a person in a disability situation. In a situation of disability, a person cannot synthesize altruism, as part of the egoism symbiosis. Methodological system in the study of the positive role of egoism, the modern theory of meta-anthropology by Nazip Khamitov is used. The theory that divides the being of a person into various types is able to most fully structure the concept of egoism in the being of a person who has disability. Originality. I made an attempt to prove the positive role of egoism in a situation related to the body transformation into new conditions. The analysis of evidence of the need for the egoism development, as a function capable of actualizing a person in the formed crisis circumstances is carried out. A theory about the need for egoism to get a person out of the existential crisis situation in which he stays due to a disability situation was proposed. Conclusions. I show that taking care of oneself is a balancing factor for a person, as opposing a fatally unfair situation in which a person has received disability. Rational egoism is able to bring a person out of ultimate being and allow him to transform into a new, changed reality. (shrink)
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    Psychological Egoism.Wayne G. Johnson - 1992 - Journal of Philosophical Research 17:239-264.
    While psychological egoism “A”, the theory that all human actions are selfish, is easily defeated, an alternative formulation, “B”, is defended: “AU deliberate human actions are either self-interested or self-referential.” While “B” is not empirically testable, neither is any alternative altruistic theory. “B” escapes criticisms leveled at “A”, including those of Joseph Butler. “B” is shown to be theoretically superior to any theory of altruism since it brings coherence to moral theory by explaining the nature of moraI motivation.
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    Psychological Egoism.Wayne G. Johnson - 1992 - Journal of Philosophical Research 17:239-264.
    While psychological egoism “A”, the theory that all human actions are selfish, is easily defeated, an alternative formulation, “B”, is defended: “AU deliberate human actions are either self-interested or self-referential.” While “B” is not empirically testable, neither is any alternative altruistic theory. “B” escapes criticisms leveled at “A”, including those of Joseph Butler. “B” is shown to be theoretically superior to any theory of altruism since it brings coherence to moral theory by explaining the nature of moraI motivation.
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  48. Egoism and altruism.Alasdair MacIntyre - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of philosophy. New York,: Macmillan. pp. 2--462.
     
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  49.  6
    Egoism or Altruism? The Influence of Cause-Related Marketing on Customers’ Extra-Role Behavior.Zhang Hui & Hu Wenan - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:799336.
    Based on attribution theory and regulatory focus theory, this paper discusses the influence mechanism of cause-related marketing on customers’ extra-role behavior and the moderating effects of customer promotion focus and customer prevention focus. The results show that egoistic cause-related marketing (ECRM) has a negative impact on customer extra-role behavior, while altruistic cause-related marketing has a positive impact on customer extra-role behavior. Customer promotion focus has a significant positive moderating effect on the negative impact of ECRM on customer extra-role behavior; customer (...)
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  50. Eudaimonism, Egoism, and Responsibility for Oneself.Micah Lott - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Research 45:35-56.
    This paper considers the following claim: In order to live well, your first concern must be with yourself. I show how the truth in this claim can be captured by a eudaimonist framework. I distinguish two sorts of self-concern: self-care and self-responsibility. I examine each of these notions. I also consider different senses in which either sort of self-concern might be one’s first concern. I identify the place of each of these ideas in a properly developed eudaimonism. As part of (...)
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