Results for 'Elie Kaplan Spitz'

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  1.  6
    Letters, Notes, & Comments.Aaron L. Mackler, Elie Kaplan Spitz & G. Scott Davis - 1999 - Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (2):361 - 374.
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  2.  9
    Sweet Gifts: A Jewish Response to Gilbert Meilaender.Elie Spitz - 2001 - Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (1):19 - 23.
    Judaism, like Gilbert Meilaender, analogizes food and sex. Traditionally, Judaism saw the primary purpose of sex as procreation, the fulfillment of a biblical mandate. It did not, however, link sex to the Garden of Eden story, and it acknowledged that sex was also important for couples' bonding. While Meilaender sees bonding as a value co-equal with procreation, Judaism traditionally kept procreation as the primary goal. Couples were encouraged to have sex when infertile and were permitted contraception when pregnancy endangered life, (...)
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  3.  10
    "Through Her I Too Shall Bear a Child": Birth Surrogates in Jewish Law.Elie Spitz - 1996 - Journal of Religious Ethics 24 (1):65-97.
    Weighing the benefit of the blessing of a child against the potential abuses of a surrogate mother, Jewish law should permit a woman to serve as a surrogate, whether as an ovum surrogate or a gestational surrogate. Because it is a last resort solution to a couple's infertility, payment to a surrogate should be permitted. In discussing the ethics of surrogacy, it is essential to go beyond theoretical concerns and to examine the actual data concerning this new form of procreation. (...)
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  4. Comment on Rampley, Matthew Review of The'arts, a Social Perspective'by Kaplan, Max.M. Kaplan - 1992 - British Journal of Aesthetics 32 (3):287-287.
     
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  5. Demonstratives.David Kaplan - 1989 - In Joseph Almog, John Perry & Howard Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press. pp. 481-563.
  6. Decision Theory as Philosophy.Mark Kaplan - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (4):549-577.
    Is Bayesian decision theory a panacea for many of the problems in epistemology and the philosophy of science, or is it philosophical snake-oil? For years a debate had been waged amongst specialists regarding the import and legitimacy of this body of theory. Mark Kaplan had written the first accessible and non-technical book to address this controversy. Introducing a new variant on Bayesian decision theory the author offers a compelling case that, while no panacea, decision theory does in fact have (...)
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  7. Afterthoughts.David Kaplan - 1989 - In J. Almog, J. Perry & H. Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press. pp. 565-614.
  8. Explanation Revisited.David Kaplan - 1961 - Philosophy of Science 28 (4):429-436.
    In 'Hempel and Oppenheim on Explanation', (see preceding article) Eberle, Kaplan, and Montague criticize the analysis of explanation offered by Hempel and Oppenheim in their 'Studies in the Logic of Explanation'. These criticisms are shown to be related to the fact that Hempel and Oppenheim's analysis fails to satisfy simultaneously three newly proposed criteria of adequacy for any analysis of explanation. A new analysis is proposed which satisfies these criteria and thus is immune to the criticisms brought against the (...)
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  9. The Philosophy of Food.David M. Kaplan (ed.) - 2012 - University of California Press.
    This book explores food from a philosophical perspective, bringing together sixteen leading philosophers to consider the most basic questions about food: What is it exactly? What should we eat? How do we know it is safe? How should food be distributed? What is good food? David M. Kaplan’s erudite and informative introduction grounds the discussion, showing how philosophers since Plato have taken up questions about food, diet, agriculture, and animals. However, until recently, few have considered food a standard subject (...)
     
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  10.  35
    The Paradox of Stasis and the Nature of Explanations in Evolutionary Biology.Jonathan Kaplan - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):797-808.
    Recently, Estes and Arnold claimed to have “solved” the paradox of evolutionary stasis; they claim that stabilizing selection, and only stabilizing selection, can explain the patterns of evolutionary divergence observed over “all timescales.” While Estes and Arnold clearly think that they have identified the processes that produce evolutionary stasis, they have not. Instead, Estes and Arnold identify a particular evolutionary pattern but not the processes that produce that pattern. This mistake is important; the slippage between pattern and process is common (...)
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  11.  20
    Evolutionary Innovations and Developmental Resources: From Stability to Variation and Back Again.Jonathan Kaplan - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):861-873.
    Will a synthesis of developmental and evolutionary biology require a focus on the role of nongenetic resources in evolution? Nongenetic variation may exist but be hidden because the phenotypes are stable (developmentally canalized) under certain background conditions. In this case, those differences may come to play important roles in evolution when background conditions change. If this is so, then a focus on the way that developmental resources are made reliable, and the ways in which reliability fails, may prove to be (...)
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  12.  6
    Sexual Justice: Democratic Citizenship and the Politics of Desire.Morris B. Kaplan - 1997 - Routledge.
    Sexual Justice defends a robust a robust conception of lesbian and gay rights, emphasizing protection against discrimination and recognition of queer relationships and families. Synthesizing materials from law, philosophy, psychoanalysis and literature, Kaplan argues that sexual desire is central to the pursuit of happiness: equal citizenship requires individual freedom to shape oneself through a variety of intimate associations.
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  13. Conscience and Memory: Meditations in a Museum of the Holocaust.Harold Kaplan - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    Kaplan simulates the response to a long visit to the new Holocaust museum in Washington, D.C., which, crucially for Kaplan, is sited in direct view of the Jefferson and Lincoln monuments, powerful symbols of humanist democracy.
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  14. Cultures of Fetishism.Louise J. Kaplan - 2006 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In her latest book, Dr. Louise Kaplan, author of the groundbreaking Female Perversions, explores the fetishism strategy, a psychological defense that aims to tame, subdue, and if necessary, murder human vitalities. Through an exploration of such cultural phenomena as footbinding, reality television, and the construction of robots, Kaplan demonstrates how, in a technology-driven world, an understanding of the fetishism strategy can help to preserve the human dialogue that is the basis of all human relationships. Kaplan writes from (...)
     
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  15. Climate Trauma: Foreseeing the Future in Dystopian Film and Fiction.E. Ann Kaplan - 2015 - Rutgers University Press.
    Each month brings new scientific findings that demonstrate the ways in which human activities, from resource extraction to carbon emissions, are doing unprecedented, perhaps irreparable damage to our world. As we hear these climate change reports and their predictions for the future of Earth, many of us feel a sickening sense of _déjà vu_, as though we have already seen the sad outcome to this story. Drawing from recent scholarship that analyzes climate change as a form of “slow violence” that (...)
     
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  16.  8
    Democratic Humanism and American Literature.Harold Kaplan - 1972 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kaplan suggests that these major figures works are linked by the myths of genesis of a new political culture.
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  17. Decision Theory as Philosophy.Mark Kaplan - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Is Bayesian decision theory a panacea for many of the problems in epistemology and the philosophy of science, or is it philosophical snake-oil? For years a debate had been waged amongst specialists regarding the import and legitimacy of this body of theory. Mark Kaplan had written the first accessible and non-technical book to address this controversy. Introducing a new variant on Bayesian decision theory the author offers a compelling case that, while no panacea, decision theory does in fact have (...)
     
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  18. Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right.Jeffrey Kaplan (ed.) - 2000 - Altamira Press.
    "The demonization of the radical right ill serves us when now, more than ever before, it is vitally important to know all we can about this esoteric milieu's nature and potentialities…by…demonizing the many, we cloak the few, and, however unwittingly, facilitate the existence of evil in the world." —From the Introduction by Jeffrey Kaplan White power groups are universally vilified and feared. But to better understand the threat they pose, scholars and activists must try to better understand their disturbing (...)
     
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  19. Sexual Justice: Democratic Citizenship and the Politics of Desire.Morris B. Kaplan - 2013 - Routledge.
    _Sexual Justice_ defends a robust a robust conception of lesbian and gay rights, emphasizing protection against discrimination and recognition of queer relationships and families. Synthesizing materials from law, philosophy, psychoanalysis and literature, Kaplan argues that sexual desire is central to the pursuit of happiness: equal citizenship requires individual freedom to shape oneself through a variety of intimate associations.
     
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  20. Le Signifiable Par Complexe: La Proposition Et Son Objet Grégoire de Rimini, Meinong, Russell.Hubert Élie - 1937 - Vrin.
    En 1936, Hubert Élie, ancien élève de l’École des Chartes, qui avait commencé quinze ans plus tôt une carrière diplomatique, publiait chez Vrin une thèse remarquable, récemment soutenue, sous le titre assez curieux : Le complexe significabile.Hors du cercle des médiévistes, Hubert Élie est certainement plus connu pour avoir initié la traduction française des Recherches Logiques de Husserl, en 1959 les Prolégomènes à la logique pure, puis, avec la collaboration de plus jeunes chercheurs l’ensemble des six Recherches . On ne (...)
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  21. Freedom and Terror: Reason and Unreason in Politics.Gabriel Weimann & Abraham Kaplan - 2011 - Routledge.
    This book examines reason and unreason in the legal and political responses to terrorism. Terrorism is often perceived as sheer madness, unreasonable use of extreme violence and senseless, futile political action. These assertions are challenged by this book. Combining ‘traditional’ thought on reason and unreason in terrorism with empirical explorations of post-modern terrorism and its use of communication platforms the work uses interdisciplinary and cross disciplinary dimensions to provide a multidimensional picture of critical issues in current politics and a deeper (...)
     
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  22. The Explanatory Force of Dynamical and Mathematical Models in Neuroscience: A Mechanistic Perspective.David Michael Kaplan & Carl F. Craver - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (4):601-627.
    We argue that dynamical and mathematical models in systems and cognitive neuro- science explain (rather than redescribe) a phenomenon only if there is a plausible mapping between elements in the model and elements in the mechanism for the phe- nomenon. We demonstrate how this model-to-mechanism-mapping constraint, when satisfied, endows a model with explanatory force with respect to the phenomenon to be explained. Several paradigmatic models including the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model of bimanual coordination and the difference-of-Gaussians model of visual receptive fields are (...)
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  23. Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  24. Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  25. Dynamical Models: An Alternative or Complement to Mechanistic Explanations?David M. Kaplan & William Bechtel - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):438-444.
    Abstract While agreeing that dynamical models play a major role in cognitive science, we reject Stepp, Chemero, and Turvey's contention that they constitute an alternative to mechanistic explanations. We review several problems dynamical models face as putative explanations when they are not grounded in mechanisms. Further, we argue that the opposition of dynamical models and mechanisms is a false one and that those dynamical models that characterize the operations of mechanisms overcome these problems. By briefly considering examples involving the generation (...)
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  26. Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  27.  39
    Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Theory.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    Making Sense of Evolution explores contemporary evolutionary biology, focusing on the elements of theories—selection, adaptation, and species—that are complex and open to multiple possible interpretations, many of which are incompatible with one another and with other accepted practices in the discipline. Particular experimental methods, for example, may demand one understanding of “selection,” while the application of the same concept to another area of evolutionary biology could necessitate a very different definition.
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  28. Explanation and Description in Computational Neuroscience.David Michael Kaplan - 2011 - Synthese 183 (3):339-373.
    The central aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of explanation in computational neuroscience. I argue that computational models in this domain possess explanatory force to the extent that they describe the mechanisms responsible for producing a given phenomenon—paralleling how other mechanistic models explain. Conceiving computational explanation as a species of mechanistic explanation affords an important distinction between computational models that play genuine explanatory roles and those that merely provide accurate descriptions or predictions of phenomena. It (...)
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  29. How to Demarcate the Boundaries of Cognition.David Michael Kaplan - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):545-570.
    Advocates of extended cognition argue that the boundaries of cognition span brain, body, and environment. Critics maintain that cognitive processes are confined to a boundary centered on the individual. All participants to this debate require a criterion for distinguishing what is internal to cognition from what is external. Yet none of the available proposals are completely successful. I offer a new account, the mutual manipulability account, according to which cognitive boundaries are determined by relationships of mutual manipulability between the properties (...)
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  30. Quantifying In.David Kaplan - 1968 - Synthese 19 (1-2):178-214.
  31. Words.David Kaplan - 1990 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 64 (1):93-119.
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  32.  14
    Trade-Offs Between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care Among Hiwi and Ache Foragers.A. Magdalena Hurtado, Kim Hill, Ines Hurtado & Hillard Kaplan - 1992 - Human Nature 3 (3):185-216.
    Even though female food acquisition is an area of considerable interest in hunter-gatherer research, the ecological determinants of women’s economic decisions in these populations are still poorly understood. The literature on female foraging behavior indicates that there is considerable variation within and across foraging societies in the amount of time that women spend foraging and in the amount and types of food that they acquire. It is possible that this heterogeneity reflects variation in the trade-offs between time spent in food (...)
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  33. The Fall and Rise of Dr. Pangloss: Adaptationism and the Spandrels Paper 20 Years Later.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2000 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 (2):66-77.
    Twenty years have passed since Gould and Lewontin published their critique of ‘the adaptationist program’ – the tendency of some evolutionary biologists to assume, rather than demonstrate, the operation of natural selection. After the ‘Spandrels paper’, evolutionists were more careful about producing just-so stories based on selection, and paid more attention to a panoply of other processes. Then came reactions against the excesses of the anti-adaptationist movement, which ranged from a complete dismissal of Gould and Lewontin’s contribution to a positive (...)
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  34. On the Concept of Biological Race and its Applicability to Humans.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1161-1172.
    Biological research on race has often been seen as motivated by or lending credence to underlying racist attitudes; in part for this reason, recently philosophers and biologists have gone through great pains to essentially deny the existence of biological human races. We argue that human races, in the biological sense of local populations adapted to particular environments, do in fact exist; such races are best understood through the common ecological concept of ecotypes. However, human ecotypic races do not in general (...)
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  35. On the Logic of Demonstratives.David Kaplan - 1979 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):81 - 98.
  36.  16
    Ethically Related Judgments by Observers of Earnings Management.Steven E. Kaplan - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (4):285 - 298.
    Merchant and Rockness (1994, p. 92) characterize earnings management as "probably the most important ethical issue facing the accounting profession" and provide initial evidence of the ethical judgments of various organizational members. The current study extends their work by examining the extent to which an individual''s ethically-related judgments in response to earnings management activities are associated with the individual''s role.In an experimental study, evening MBA students read three hypothetical scenarios involving a manager engaging in earnings management. The scenarios involved a (...)
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  37. Dthat.David Kaplan - 1978 - In Peter Cole (ed.), Syntax and Semantics. Academic Press. pp. 221--243.
  38. How to Russell a Frege-Church.David Kaplan - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (19):716-729.
  39.  4
    Sexual Strategies and Social-Class Differences in Fitness in Modern Industrial Societies.Hillard Kaplan & Kim Hill - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):198.
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  40.  14
    Forking and Dividing in NTP₂ Theories.Artem Chernikov & Itay Kaplan - 2012 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (1):1-20.
    We prove that in theories without the tree property of the second kind (which include dependent and simple theories) forking and dividing over models are the same, and in fact over any extension base. As an application we show that dependence is equivalent to bounded non-forking assuming NTP 2.
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  41.  37
    Wrongdoing by Consultants: An Examination of Employees' Reporting Intentions. [REVIEW]Susan Ayers & Steven E. Kaplan - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):121 - 137.
    Organizations are increasingly embedded with consultants and other non-employees who have the opportunity to engage in wrongdoing. However, research exploring the reporting intentions of employees regarding the discovery of wrongdoing by consultants is scant. It is important to examine reporting intentions in this setting given the enhanced presence of consultants in organizations and the fact that wrongdoing by consultants changes a key characteristic of the wrongdoing. Using an experimental approach, the current paper reports the results of a study examining employees (...)
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  42. Reading ‘On Denoting’ on its Centenary.David Kaplan - 2005 - Mind 114 (456):933-1003.
    Part 1 sets out the logical/semantical background to ‘On Denoting’, including an exposition of Russell's views in Principles of Mathematics, the role and justification of Frege's notorious Axiom V, and speculation about how the search for a solution to the Contradiction might have motivated a new treatment of denoting. Part 2 consists primarily of an extended analysis of Russell's views on knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description, in which I try to show that the discomfiture between Russell's semantical and (...)
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  43.  14
    Determinants of Time Allocation Across the Lifespan.Michael Gurven & Hillard Kaplan - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (1):1-49.
    This paper lays the groundwork for a theory of time allocation across the life course, based on the idea that strength and skill vary as a function of age, and that return rates for different activities vary as a function of the combination of strength and skills involved in performing those tasks. We apply the model to traditional human subsistence patterns. The model predicts that young children engage most heavily in low-strength/low-skill activities, middle-aged adults in high-strength/high-skill activities, and older adults (...)
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  44.  47
    Active Symbols and Internal Models: Towards a Cognitive Connectionism. [REVIEW]S. Kaplan, M. Weaver & Robert M. French - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (1):51-71.
    In the first section of the article, we examine some recent criticisms of the connectionist enterprise: first, that connectionist models are fundamentally behaviorist in nature (and, therefore, non-cognitive), and second that connectionist models are fundamentally associationist in nature (and, therefore, cognitively weak). We argue that, for a limited class of connectionist models (feed-forward, pattern-associator models), the first criticism is unavoidable. With respect to the second criticism, we propose that connectionist modelsare fundamentally associationist but that this is appropriate for building models (...)
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  45. Words on Words.David Kaplan - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy 108 (9):504-529.
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  46. How to Reconcile Physicalism and Antireductionism About Biology.Alex Rosenberg & David Michael Kaplan - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (1):43-68.
    Physicalism and antireductionism are the ruling orthodoxy in the philosophy of biology. But these two theses are difficult to reconcile. Merely embracing an epistemic antireductionism will not suffice, as both reductionists and antireductionists accept that given our cognitive interests and limitations, non-molecular explanations may not be improved, corrected or grounded in molecular ones. Moreover, antireductionists themselves view their claim as a metaphysical or ontological one about the existence of facts molecular biology cannot identify, express, or explain. However, this is tantamount (...)
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  47.  77
    Bob and Carol and Ted and Alice.David Kaplan - 1973 - In Jaakko Hintikka (ed.), Approaches to Natural Language. D. Reidel Publishing. pp. 490--518.
  48. It's Not What You Know That Counts.Mark Kaplan - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (7):350-363.
  49.  6
    An Examination of the Effect of CEO Social Ties and CEO Reputation on Nonprofessional Investors’ Say-on-Pay Judgments.Steven E. Kaplan, Janet A. Samuels & Jeffrey Cohen - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):103-117.
    CEO compensation has received much attention from both academics and regulators. However, academics have given scant attention to understanding judgments about CEO compensation by third parties such as investors. Our study contributes to the ethics literature on CEO compensation by examining whether judgments about CEO compensation are influenced by two aspects of a company’s tone at the top—social ties between the CEO and members of the Executive Compensation Committee and the CEO’s Reputation, particularly for financial reporting and disclosures. Although, stock (...)
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  50.  36
    The End of the Adaptive Landscape Metaphor?Jonathan Kaplan - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):625-638.
    The concepts of adaptive/fitness landscapes and adaptive peaks are a central part of much of contemporary evolutionary biology; the concepts are introduced in introductory texts, developed in more detail in graduate-level treatments, and are used extensively in papers published in the major journals in the field. The appeal of visualizing the process of evolution in terms of the movement of populations on such landscapes is very strong; as one becomes familiar with the metaphor, one often develops the feeling that it (...)
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