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Elisabetta Lalumera
University of Bologna
  1.  40
    A Potential Tension in DSM-5: The General Definition of Mental Disorder Versus Some Specific Diagnostic Criteria.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (1):85-108.
    The general concept of mental disorder specified in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is definitional in character: a mental disorder might be identified with a harmful dysfunction. The manual also contains the explicit claim that each individual mental disorder should meet the requirements posed by the definition. The aim of this article is two-fold. First, we shall analyze the definition of the superordinate concept of mental disorder to better understand what necessary criteria actually (...)
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  2.  19
    COVID-19 as the Underlying Cause of Death: Disentangling Facts and Values.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people’s feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization’s rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts and values.
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  3. Concepts: Stored or Created?Marco Mazzone & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (1):47-68.
    Are concepts stable entities, unchanged from context to context? Or rather are they context-dependent structures, created on the fly? We argue that this does not constitute a genuine dilemma. Our main thesis is that the more a pattern of features is general and shared, the more it qualifies as a concept. Contextualists have not shown that conceptual structures lack a stable, general core, acting as an attractor on idiosyncratic information. What they have done instead is to give a contribution to (...)
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  4.  23
    Harm Should Not Be a Necessary Criterion for Mental Disorder: Some Reflections on the DSM-5 Definition of Mental Disorder.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):321-337.
    The general definition of mental disorder stated in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders seems to identify a mental disorder with a harmful dysfunction. However, the presence of distress or disability, which may be bracketed as the presence of harm, is taken to be merely usual, and thus not a necessary requirement: a mental disorder can be diagnosed as such even if there is no harm at all. In this paper, we focus on the (...)
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  5.  34
    Reliability of Molecular Imaging Diagnostics.Elisabetta Lalumera, Stefano Fanti & Giovanni Boniolo - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Advanced medical imaging, such as CT, fMRI and PET, has undergone enormous progress in recent years, both in accuracy and utilization. Such techniques often bring with them an illusion of immediacy, the idea that the body and its diseases can be directly inspected. In this paper we target this illusion and address the issue of the reliability of advanced imaging tests as knowledge procedures, taking positron emission tomography in oncology as paradigmatic case study. After individuating a suitable notion of reliability, (...)
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  6.  19
    Randomized Controlled Trials for Diagnostic Imaging: Conceptual and Pratical Problems.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):395-400.
    We raise a problem of applicability of RCTs to validate nuclear diagnostic imaging tests. In spite of the wide application of PET and other similar techniques that use radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes, RCT-based evidence on their validity is sparse. We claim that this is due to a general conceptual problem that we call Prevalence of Treatment, which arises in connection with designing RCTs for testing any diagnostic procedure in the present context of medical research, and is particularly apparent in this (...)
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  7.  28
    Trust in Health Care and Vaccine Hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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  8.  13
    Il criterio del “danno” nella definizione di disturbo mentale del DSM. Alcune riflessioni epistemologiche.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (2):139-150.
    Riassunto: In questo contributo analizzeremo il criterio del danno, presente nella definizione generale di disturbo mentale del DSM. La questione ha rilevanza sia da un punto di vista filosofico, perché il danno è una componente normativa e valoriale, non oggettiva, sia da un punto di vista clinico, perché chi ha difeso il criterio del danno ha spesso sostenuto che in sua assenza avremmo troppi falsi positivi. Infine, ha importanza dal punto di vista socio-sanitario in relazione al rapporto tra la psichiatria (...)
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  9.  42
    Concepts Are a Functional Kind. Comment on Machery's Doing Without Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):217-18.
    This commentary focuses on Machery's eliminativist claim, that ought to be eliminated from the theoretical vocabulary of psychology because it fails to denote a natural kind. I argue for the more traditional view that concepts are a functional kind, which provides the simplest account of the empirical evidence discussed by Machery.
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  10.  82
    A Simple Realist Account of the Normativity of Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2005 - Disputatio 1 (19):1-17.
    I argue that a concept is applied correctly when it is applied to the kind
    of things it is the concept of. Correctness as successful kind-tracking is
    fulfilling an externally and naturalistically individuated standard. And the normative aspect of concept-application so characterized depends on the relational (non-individualistic) feature of conceptual content. I defend this view against two objections. The first is that norms should provide justifications for action, and the second involves a version of the thesis of indeterminacy of reference.
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  11.  2
    Non-Epistemic Factors in Epidemiological Models. The Case of Mortality Data.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - Mefisto 1 (5):65-78.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has made it especially visible that mortality data are a key component of epidemiological models, being a single indicator that provides information about various health aspects, such as disease prevalence and effectiveness of interventions, and thus enabling predictions on many fronts. In this paper we illustrate the interrelation between facts and values in death statistics, by analyzing the rules for death certification issued by the World Health Organization. We show how the notion of the underlying cause of (...)
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  12.  7
    The concept of disease in the time of COVID-19.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (5):203-221.
    Philosophers of medicine have formulated different accounts of the concept of disease. Which concept of disease one assumes has implications for what conditions count as diseases and, by extension, who may be regarded as having a disease and for who may be accorded the social privileges and personal responsibilities associated with being sick. In this article, we consider an ideal diagnostic test for coronavirus disease 2019 infection with respect to four groups of people—positive and asymptomatic; positive and symptomatic; negative; and (...)
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  13. Introduction.Marta Boniardi & Elisabetta Lalumera - forthcoming - Phenomenology and Mind:10.
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  14. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage of (...)
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  15. Fanti, S., Oyen, W., & Lalumera, E. (2019). Consensus Procedures in Oncological Imaging: The Case of Prostate Cancer.Stefano Fanti, Wim Oyen & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Cancers 11:1178-1190.
    Recently, there has been increasing interest in methodological aspects of advanced imaging, including the role of guidelines, recommendations, and experts’ consensus, the practice of self-referral, and the risk of diagnostic procedure overuse. In a recent Delphi study of the European Association for Nuclear Medicine (EANM), panelists were asked to give their opinion on 47 scientific questions about imaging in prostate cancer. Nine additional questions exploring the experts’ attitudes and opinions relating to the procedure of consensus building itself were also included. (...)
     
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  16. Concepts as Abilities and Concepts as Representations.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2008 - Epistemologia 31 (1):75-95.
  17.  7
    Concepts, Conceptions and Psychological Explanation.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2006 - SWIF Philosophy of Mind 5 (2).
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  18.  29
    Overcoming Expert Disagreement In A Delphi Process. An Exercise In Reverse Epistemology.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2015 - Humana Mente 8 (28).
    Disagreement among experts is a central topic in social epistemology. What should an expert do when confronted with the different opinion of an epistemic peer? Possible answers include the steadfast view, the abstemious view, and moderate conciliatory views, which specify criteria for belief change when a peer’s different opinion is encountered. The practice of Delphi techniques in healthcare, medicine, and social sciences provides a real-life case study of expert disagreement, where disagreement is gradually transformed into consensus. An analysis of Delphi (...)
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  19.  14
    Introduction.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2010 - Dialectica 64 (1):1-9.
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  20. More Than Words.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2009 - In Kissine De Brabanter (ed.), Utterance Interpretation and Cognitive Models. Emerald.
  21. Normativita del significato: una proposta naturalista.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2005 - Epistemologia 28 (2):293-320.
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  22.  5
    Normativity of Meaning and Semantic Naturalism.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2005 - Epistemologia 28 (2).
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  23. Philosophy of Advanced Medical Imaging.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2021 - Springer International.
    This is the first book to explore the epistemology and ethics of advanced imaging tests, in order to improve the critical understanding of the nature of knowledge they provide and the practical consequences of their utilization in healthcare. Advanced medical imaging tests, such as PET and MRI, have gained center stage in medical research and in patients’ care. They also increasingly raise questions that pertain to philosophy: What is required to be an expert in reading images? How are standards for (...)
     
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  24.  19
    Reasons and Causes in Psychiatry: Ideas From Donald Davidson’s Work.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - In Annalisa Coliva, Paolo Leonardi & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Eva Picardi on Language, Analysis and History. Palgrave. pp. 281-296.
    Though the divide between reason-based and causal-explanatory approaches in psychiatry and psychopathology is old and deeply rooted, current trends involving multi-factorial explanatory models and evidence-based approaches to interpersonal psychotherapy, show that it has already been implicitly bridged. These trends require a philosophical reconsideration of how reasons can be causes. This paper contributes to that trajectory by arguing that Donald Davidson’s classic paradigm of 1963 is still a valid option.
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  25.  56
    Reference, Knowledge, and Scepticism About Meaning.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2007 - Sorites (19):1-18.
    This paper explores the possibility of resisting meaning scepticism – the thesis that there are many alternative incompatible assignments of reference to each of our terms - by appealing to the idea that the nature of reference is to maximize knowledge. If the reference relation is a knowledge maximizing-relation, then some candidate referents are privileged among the others - i.e., those referents we are in a position to know about – and a positive reason against meaning scepticism is thus individuated. (...)
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  26. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders. MEDICINA & STORIA, 109-128.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia (9-10):109-129.
    Abstract: At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a cer- tain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main rea- sons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative fail- ure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descrip- tivism (...)
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  27.  22
    Whorfian Effects in Color Perception: Deep or Shallow?Elisabetta Lalumera - 2014 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9.
    This paper discusses, from the point of view of the philosophy of psychology, recent behavioral and brain studies showing effects of the diversity of language vocabulary on color perception. I show that in the domain of colors the traditional Relativism-Universalism dychotomy is explanatorily inadequate. The interesting alternative on the table is rather whether language affects perception by establishing long-term, stable habits of seeing the world (habitual or deep whorfianism), or rather by providing short-term online cues during the perceptual process (Language-as-a-Meddler (...)
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  28.  22
    Not Understanding Others. The RdoC Approach to Theory of Mind and Empathy Deficits in Schizophrenia, Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.Elisa Melloni, Francesco Benedetti, Benedetta Vai & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2020 - Phenomenology and Mind 2:162-181.
    The Research Domani Criteria framework (RdoC) encourages research on specific impairments present across traditional nosological categories and suggests a list of biological and behavioral measures for assessing them. After a description of RdoC, in this article we focus on impairments of the ability of understanding others, specifically in Theory of Mind and empathy. We illustrate recent evidence on brain anomalies correlating with these deficits in Schizophrenia, Addiction Disorders and Mood Disorders populations. In the last section, we zoom out and consider (...)
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