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  1.  21
    Artificial Womb Technology and the Frontiers of Human Reproduction: Conceptual Differences and Potential Implications.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (11):751-755.
    In 2017, a Philadelphia research team revealed the closest thing to an artificial womb the world had ever seen. The ‘biobag’, if as successful as early animal testing suggests, will change the face of neonatal intensive care. At present, premature neonates born earlier than 22 weeks have no hope of survival. For some time, there have been no significant improvements in mortality rates or incidences of long-term complications for preterms at the viability threshold. Artificial womb technology, that might change these (...)
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  2.  20
    Artificial Womb Technology and the Significance of Birth: Why Gestatelings Are Not Newborns.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (11):728-731.
    In a recent publication, I argued that there is a conceptual difference between artificial womb technology, capable of facilitating gestation ex utero, and neonatal intensive care, providing incubation to neonates born prematurely. One of the reasons I provided for this distinction was that the subjects of each process are different entities. The subject of the process of gestation ex utero is a unique human entity: a ‘gestateling’, rather than a fetus or a newborn preterm neonate. Nick Colgrove wrote a response (...)
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  3. Challenging the ‘Born Alive’ Threshold: Fetal Surgery, Artificial Wombs, and the English Approach to Legal Personhood.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2019 - Medical Law Review.
    English law is unambiguous that legal personality, and with it all legal rights and protections, is assigned at birth. This rule is regarded as a bright line that is easily and consistently applied. The time has come, however, for the rule to be revisited. This article demonstrates that advances in fetal surgery and (anticipated) artificial wombs do not marry with traditional conceptions of birth and being alive in law. These technologies introduce the possibility of ex utero gestation, and/or temporary existence (...)
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  4.  11
    Why the Elective Caesarean Lottery is Ethically Impermissible.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (4):249-268.
    In the United Kingdom the law and medical guidance is supportive of women making choices in childbirth. NICE guidelines are explicit that a competent woman’s informed request for MRCS should be respected. However, in reality pregnant women are routinely denied MRCS. In this paper I consider whether there is sufficient justification for restricting MRCS. The physical and emotive significance of childbirth as an event in a woman’s life cannot be understated. It is, therefore, concerning that women are having their wishes (...)
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  5.  5
    Partial Ectogenesis: Freedom, Equality and Political Perspective.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):89-90.
    In this commentary, I consider how Giulia Cavaliere’s arguments about the limited reach of the current justifications offered for full ectogenesis in the bioethical literature apply in the context of partial ectogenesis. I suggest that considering the extent to which partial ectogenesis is freedom or equality promoting is more urgent because of the more realistic prospect of artificial womb technology being utilised to facilitate partial gestation extra uterum as opposed to facilitating complete gestation from conception to term. I highlight concerns (...)
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  6.  7
    Reviewing the Womb.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis, Dunja Begović, Margot R. Brazier & Alexandra Katherine Mullock - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106160.
    Throughout most of human history women have been defined by their biological role in reproduction, seen first and foremost as gestators, which has led to the reproductive system being subjected to outside interference. The womb was perceived as dangerous and an object which husbands, doctors and the state had a legitimate interest in controlling. In this article, we consider how notions of conflict surrounding the womb have endured over time. We demonstrate how concerns seemingly generated by the invisibility of reproduction (...)
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  7.  7
    Addressing Rising Cesarean Rates: Maternal Request Cesareans, Defensive Practice, and the Power of Choice in Childbirth.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (1):1-26.
    The number of cesarean sections performed globally has been consistently rising since the 1980s.1 The number of cesareans performed now greatly exceeds the number that experts predict are necessary.2 In Brazil, the world's "cesarean capital," over half of births are surgical. In the United States, approximately one third of babies are delivered by cesarean, and in the United Kingdom around 26 percent of births are by cesarean.3 Cesarean section can be a life-saving intervention when vaginal birth poses a risk to (...)
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  8.  9
    Artificial Womb Technology and Clinical Translation: Innovative Treatment or Medical Research?Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):392-402.
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  9.  7
    Is ‘Viability’ Viable? Abortion, Conceptual Confusion and the Law in England and Wales and the United States.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 8.
    In this paper, I explore how viability, meaning the ability of the fetus to survive post-delivery, features in the law regulating abortion provision in England and Wales and the USA. I demonstrate that viability is formalized differently in the criminal law in England and Wales and the USA, such that it is quantified and defined differently. I consider how the law might be applied to the examples of artificial womb technology and anencephalic fetuses. I conclude that there is incoherence in (...)
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  10.  3
    Maternal Request Caesareans and COVID-19: The Virus Does Not Diminish the Importance of Choice in Childbirth.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis & Anna Nelson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (11):726-731.
    It has recently been reported that some hospitals in the UK have placed a blanket restriction on the provision of maternal request caesarean sections as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnancy and birthing services are obviously facing challenges during the current emergency, but we argue that a blanket ban on MRCS is both inappropriate and disproportionate. In this paper, we highlight the importance of MRCS for pregnant people’s health and autonomy in childbirth and argue that this remains crucial during (...)
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