47 found
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Elizabeth F. Loftus [42]Elizabeth Loftus [7]
  1.  56
    A Spreading-Activation Theory of Semantic Processing.Allan M. Collins & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1975 - Psychological Review 82 (6):407-428.
  2.  36
    The Reality of Repressed Memories.Elizabeth F. Loftus - unknown
    Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years. With recent changes in legislation, people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for (...)
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  3.  30
    Misinformation and Memory: The Creation of New Memories.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Hunter G. Hoffman - 1989 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118 (1):100-104.
  4.  11
    Spreading Activation Within Semantic Categories: Comments on Rosch's "Cognitive Representation of Semantic Categories.".Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1975 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104 (3):234-240.
  5.  59
    False Claims About False Memory Research☆.Kimberley A. Wade, Stefanie J. Sharman, Maryanne Garry, Amina Memon, Giuliana Mazzoni, Harald Merckelbach & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):18-28.
    Pezdek and Lam [Pezdek, K. & Lam, S. . What research paradigms have cognitive psychologists used to study “False memory,” and what are the implications of these choices? Consciousness and Cognition] claim that the majority of research into false memories has been misguided. Specifically, they charge that false memory scientists have been misusing the term “false memory,” relying on the wrong methodologies to study false memories, and misapplying false memory research to real world situations. We review each of these claims (...)
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  6.  51
    Creating False Memories.Elizabeth Loftus - manuscript
    When Cool finally realized that false memories had been planted, she sued the psychiatrist for malpractice. In March 1997, after five weeks of trial, her case was settled out of court for $2.4 million. Nadean Cool is not the only patient to develop false memories as a result of questionable therapy. In Missouri in 1992 a church counselor helped Beth Rutherford to remember during therapy that her father, a clergyman, had regularly raped her between the ages of seven and 14 (...)
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  7.  49
    Eyewitness Testimony: The Influence of the Wording of a Question.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Guido Zanni - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (1):86-88.
  8.  30
    Emotion and False Memory.Robin L. Kaplan, Ilse Van Damme, Linda J. Levine & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (1):8-13.
    Emotional memories are vivid and lasting but not necessarily accurate. Under some conditions, emotion even increases people’s susceptibility to false memories. This review addresses when and why emotion leaves people vulnerable to misremembering events. Recent research suggests that pregoal emotions—those experienced before goal attainment or failure —narrow the scope of people’s attention to information that is central to their goals. This narrow focus can impair memory for peripheral details, leaving people vulnerable to misinformation concerning those details. In contrast, postgoal emotions—those (...)
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  9.  41
    Imagination Inflation: Imagining a Childhood Event Inflates Confidence That It Occurred.Elizabeth Loftus - manuscript
    Counterfactual imaginings are known to have far reaching implications. In the present experiment, we ask if imagining events from one's past can affect memory for childhood events. We draw on the social psychology literature showing that imagining a future event increases the subjective likelihood that the event will occur. The concepts of cognitive availability and the source monitoring framework provide reasons to expect that imagination may inflate confidence that a childhood event occurred. However, people routinely produce myriad counterfactual imaginings (i.e., (...)
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  10.  37
    Remembering Emotional Events: The Fate of Detailed Information.Sven-Åke Christianson & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1991 - Cognition and Emotion 5 (2):81-108.
  11.  98
    Is the Unconscious Smart or Dumb?Elizabeth F. Loftus & M. R. Klinger - 1992 - American Psychologist 47:761-65.
  12.  20
    Imagination Inflation: Imagining a Childhood Event Inflates Confidence That It Occurred.Charles G. Manning & Elizabeth F. Loftus - unknown
    Counterfactual imaginings are known to have far reaching implications. In the present experiment, we ask if imagining events from one's past can affect memory for childhood events. We draw on the social psychology literature showing that imagining a future event increases the subjective likelihood that the event will occur. The concepts of cognitive availability and the source monitoring framework provide reasons to expect that imagination may inflate confidence that a childhood event occurred. However, people routinely produce myriad counterfactual imaginings (i.e., (...)
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  13.  58
    Changing Beliefs About Implausible Autobiographical Events: A Little Plausibility Goes a Long Way.Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni, Elizabeth F. Loftus & Irving Kirsch - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 7 (1):51.
  14.  56
    Make My Memory: How Advertising Can Change Our Memories of the Past.Kathryn A. Braun, Rhiannon Ellis & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 2002 - Psychology and Marketing 19 (1):1-23.
    Marketers use autobiographical advertising as a means to create nostalgia for their products. This research explores whether such referencing can cause people to believe that they had experiences as children that are mentioned in the ads. In Experiment 1, participants viewed an ad for Disney that suggested that they shook hands with Mickey Mouse as a child. Relative to controls, the ad increased their confidence that they personally had shaken hands with Mickey as a child at a Disney resort. The (...)
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  15.  22
    Some Characteristics of People’s Traumatic Memories.Sven-Åke Christianson & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):195-198.
  16.  45
    Repeatedly Thinking About a Non-Event: Source Misattributions Among Preschoolers.Stephen J. Ceci, Mary Lyndia Crotteau Huffman, Elliott Smith & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):388-407.
    In this paper we review the factors alleged to be responsible for the creation of inaccurate reports among preschool-aged children, focusing on so-called "source misattribution errors." We present the first round of results from an ongoing program of research that suggests that source misattributions could be a powerful mechanism underlying children′s false beliefs about having experienced fictitious events. Preliminary findings from this program of research indicate that all children of all ages are equally susceptible to making source misattributions. Data from (...)
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  17. Who Abused Jane Doe?Elizabeth F. Loftus - unknown
    Case histories make contributions to science and practice, but they can also be highly misleading. We illustrate with our reexamination of the case of Jane Doe; she was videotaped twice, once when she was six years old and then eleven years later when she was seventeen. During the first interview she reported sexual abuse by her mother. During the second interview she apparently forgot and then remembered the sexual abuse. Jane's case has been hailed by some as the new proof (...)
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  18.  16
    The Pliability of Autobiographical Memory: Misinformation and the False Memory Problem.Robert F. Belli & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1996 - In David C. Rubin (ed.), Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge University Press. pp. 157--179.
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  19.  14
    The Fate of Memory: Comment on McCloskey and Zaragoza.Elizabeth F. Loftus, Jonathan W. Schooler & Willem A. Wagenaar - 1985 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114 (3):375-380.
  20.  13
    Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  21.  75
    Lost in the Mall: Misrepresentations and Misunderstandings.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1999 - Ethics and Behavior 9 (1):51 – 60.
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  22.  32
    Impact of Anxiety and Life Stress Upon Eyewitness Testimony.Judith M. Siegel & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (6):479-480.
  23.  25
    Recoding Processes in Memory.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Jonathan W. Schooler - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):246.
  24.  29
    Memory: A River Runs Through It.Maryanne Garry, Elizabeth F. Loftus & Scott W. Brown - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):438-451.
    Two decades of research using repeated false statements and underhanded information have shown that people can easily be made to believe that they have seen or experienced something they never did. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that the mental health professional and client may unknowingly collaborate to create a client′s false memory of childhood sexual abuse. Both therapist and client bring beliefs into therapy, and the confirmation bias shows that people discover what they already believe to be true. (...)
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  25.  10
    Altering Traumatic Memory.Veronika Nourkova, Daniel Bernstein & Elizabeth Loftus - 2004 - Cognition and Emotion 18 (4):575-585.
  26.  25
    When Dreams Become Reality.Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):442-462.
    In three experiments, we found that after a subtle suggestion, subjects falsely recognized words from their own dreams and thought they had been presented during the waking state. The procedure used in these studies involved three phases. Subjects studied a list of words on Day 1. On Day 2, they received a false suggestion that some words from their previously reported dreams had been presented on the list. On Day 3, they tried to recall only what had occurred on the (...)
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  27.  17
    Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
  28.  13
    False Memories: A Kind of Confabulation in Non-Clinical.Lauren French, Maryanne Garry & Elizabeth Loftus - 2009 - In William Hirstein (ed.), Confabulation: Views From Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 33.
  29.  12
    Retrieval of Words From Well-Learned Sets: The Effect of Category Size.Jonathan L. Freedman & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1085.
  30.  11
    Development of Coded Emergency Alarms Through Word-Association Tasks.Norman Groner, John P. Keating & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (2):139-140.
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  31.  1
    Remembering Facts Versus Feelings in the Wake of Political Events.Linda J. Levine, Gillian Murphy, Heather C. Lench, Ciara M. Greene, Elizabeth F. Loftus, Carla Tinti, Susanna Schmidt, Barbara Muzzulini, Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Shauna M. Stark & Craig E. L. Stark - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-20.
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  32.  13
    Broadbent's Maltese Cross Memory Model: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Missing.Elizabeth F. Loftus, Geoffrey R. Loftus & Earl B. Hunt - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):73-74.
  33.  40
    Dream Interpretation and False Beliefs.Elizabeth Loftus - manuscript
    Dream interpretation is a common practice in psychotherapy. In the research presented in this article, each participant saw a clinician who interpreted a recent dream report to be a sign that the participant had had a mildly traumatic experience before age 3 years, such as being lost for an extended time or feeling abandoned by his or her parents. This dream intervention caused a majority of participants to become more confident that they had had such an experience, even though they (...)
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  34.  10
    Desperately Seeking Memories of the First Few Years of Childhood: The Reality of Early Memories.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1993 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (2):274-277.
  35.  32
    Elizabeth F. Loftus & William H. Calvin , "Memory's Future,".Elizabeth Loftus - manuscript
    Psychology's fascination with memory and its imperfections dates back further than we can remember. The first careful experimental studies of memory were published in 1885 by German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, and tens of thousands of memory studies have been conducted since. What has been learned, and what might the future of memory be?
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  36.  15
    False Memory.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 2003 - In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
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  37.  14
    How Deep is the Meaning of Life?Elizabeth F. Loftus, Edith Greene & Kirk H. Smith - 1980 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 15 (4):282-284.
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  38.  25
    Nouns, Adjectives, and Semantic Memory.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):213.
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  39.  12
    Natural and Unnatural Cognition.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1981 - Cognition 10 (1-3):193-196.
  40.  15
    Retrieving Attribute and Name Information From Semantic Memory.Elizabeth F. Loftus & William Cole - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1116.
  41.  13
    Retrieval of Superordinates and Subordinates.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Martin Bolton - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):121.
  42.  36
    Strong Memories Are Made of This.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Daniel Bernstein - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (5):199-201.
  43.  37
    The Price of Bad Memories.Elizabeth F. Loftus - unknown
    After hundreds of articles on recovered memory therapy, one might have thought there was not much left to say. But a November 1997 front-page article in the New York Times headlined '"Memory' Therapy Leads to a Lawsuit and Big Settlement" suggested that the repressed memory controversy had broken new records (Belluck 1997).
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  44.  15
    Visual Perception: The Shifting Domain of Discourse.Geoffrey R. Loftus & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):391-392.
  45.  10
    Influencing Memory for People and Their Actions.David G. Miller & Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1976 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (1):9-11.
  46.  5
    Belief in Unconscious Repressed Memory is Widespread: A Comment on Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsworth, and McNeilis (2019).Henry Otgaar, Jianqin Wang, Mark L. Howe, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Elizabeth F. Loftus, Steven Jay Lynn, Harald Merckelbach & Lawrence Patihis - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 149 (10):1996-2000.
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  47.  3
    Skirting the Issue: What Does Believing in Repression Mean?Henry Otgaar, Jianqin Wang, Olivier Dodier, Mark L. Howe, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Elizabeth F. Loftus, Steven Jay Lynn, Harald Merckelbach & Lawrence Patihis - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 149 (10):2005-2006.
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