83 found
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  1. Core Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Human cognition is founded, in part, on four systems for representing objects, actions, number, and space. It may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners. Each system has deep roots in human phylogeny and ontogeny, and it guides and shapes the mental lives of adults. Converging research on human infants, non-human primates, children and adults in diverse cultures can aid both understanding of these systems and attempts to overcome their limits.
     
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  2.  45
    Principles of Object Perception.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):29--56.
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  3.  74
    Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.Fei Xu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 74 (1):1-11.
    Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
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  4.  38
    Origins of Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke, Karen Breinlinger, Janet Macomber & Kristen Jacobson - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (4):605-632.
    Experiments with young infants provide evidence for early-developing capacities to represent physical objects and to reason about object motion. Early physical reasoning accords with 2 constraints at the center of mature physical conceptions: continuity and solidity. It fails to accord with 2 constraints that may be peripheral to mature conceptions: gravity and inertia. These experiments suggest that cognition develops concurrently with perception and action and that development leads to the enrichment of conceptions around an unchanging core. The experiments challenge claims (...)
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  5. Symbolic Arithmetic Knowledge Without Instruction.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
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  6. The Native Language of Social Cognition.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    What leads humans to divide the social world into groups, preferring their own group and disfavoring others? Experiments with infants and young children suggest these tendencies are based on predispo- sitions that emerge early in life and depend, in part, on natural language. Young infants prefer to look at a person who previously spoke their native language. Older infants preferentially accept toys from native-language speakers, and preschool children preferentially select native-language speakers as friends. Variations in accent are sufficient to evoke (...)
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  7.  13
    Brief Non-Symbolic, Approximate Number Practice Enhances Subsequent Exact Symbolic Arithmetic in Children.Daniel C. Hyde, Saeeda Khanum & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 131 (1):92-107.
  8. What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2003 - In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. MIT Press. pp. 277--311.
  9.  60
    Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children.Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):222-231.
  10.  34
    Non-Symbolic Arithmetic Abilities and Mathematics Achievement in the First Year of Formal Schooling.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2010 - Cognition 115 (3):394-406.
  11.  35
    Human Spatial Representation: Insights From Animals.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (9):376-382.
  12. Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts.Konika Banerjee, Omar S. Haque & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1251-1289.
    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This study examines whether children's concept recall similarly is sensitive to the degree of conceptual counterintuitiveness (operationalized as a concept's number of ontological domain violations) for items presented in the context of a fictional narrative. Seven- to nine-year-old children (...)
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  13.  5
    The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number.Kirsten F. Condry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):22-38.
  14.  27
    Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants.Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognition 36 (2):97-127.
  15. Navigation as a Source of Geometric Knowledge: Young Children’s Use of Length, Angle, Distance, and Direction in a Reorientation Task.Sang Ah Lee, Valeria A. Sovrano & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2012 - Cognition 123 (1):144-161.
  16.  11
    Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning: Object Terms and Substance Terms.Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1991 - Cognition 38 (2):179-211.
  17.  12
    Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children.Maria-Dolores de Hevia & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):198-207.
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  18. Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well on (...)
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  19. Conceptual Precursors to Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Susan J. Hespos - unknown
    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the (...)
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  20.  24
    Updating Egocentric Representations in Human Navigation.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):215-250.
  21.  12
    Preverbal Infants Identify Emotional Reactions That Are Incongruent with Goal Outcomes.Amy E. Skerry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 130 (2):204-216.
  22. aCCENT TrumpS raCE iN GuiDiNG ChilDrEN'S SOCial prEfErENCES.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers’ language, accent, and race on children’s social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose (...)
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  23. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science?Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    This article considers 3 claims that cognitive sex differ- ences account for the differential representation of men and women in high-level careers in mathematics and sci- ence: (a) males are more focused on objects from the beginning of life and therefore are predisposed to better learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a pro- file of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the upper (...)
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  24.  62
    Language and Number: A Bilingual Training Study.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2001 - Cognition 78 (1):45-88.
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  25. Object Permanence in Five-Month-Old Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1985 - Cognition 20 (3):191-208.
    A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Fivemonth-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In the possible event, the screen stopped when it reached the occluded box; in the impossible event, the screen moved through the space (...)
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  26.  5
    Human Infants’ Understanding of Social Imitation: Inferences of Affiliation From Third Party Observations.Lindsey J. Powell & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2018 - Cognition 170:31-48.
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  27. Perception of Partly Occluded Objects in Infancy* 1.Philip J. Kellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1983 - Cognitive Psychology 15 (4):483–524.
    Four-month-old infants sometimes can perceive the unity of a partly hidden object. In each of a series of experiments, infants were habituated to one object whose top and bottom were visible but whose center was occluded by a nearer object. They were then tested with a fully visible continuous object and with two fully visible object pieces with a gap where the occluder had been. Pattems of dishabituation suggested that infants perceive the boundaries of a partly hidden object by analyzing (...)
     
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  28.  35
    Infants' Ability to Connect Gaze and Emotional Expression to Intentional Action.Ann T. Phillips, Henry M. Wellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Cognition 85 (1):53-78.
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  29.  70
    Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers.Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
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  30. All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations.Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    & Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive (...)
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  31. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2005 - American Psychologist 60 (9):950-958.
  32. Conceptual Pecursors to Language.SusanJ Hespos & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2004 - Nature 430:453-456.
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  33.  4
    Six-Month-Old Infants Expect Agents to Minimize the Cost of Their Actions.Shari Liu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2017 - Cognition 160:35-42.
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  34.  7
    Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race?Katherine D. Kinzler & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):1-9.
  35. Natural Number and Natural Geometry.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 287--317.
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  36. Young Children Reorient by Computing Layout Geometry, Not by Matching Images of the Environment.Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D (...)
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  37. Perceiving and Reasoning About Objects: Insights From Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Gretchen A. Van de Walle - 1993 - In Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.), Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology. Blackwell.
     
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  38. A Modular Geometric Mechanism for Reorientation in Children.Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout, cognitive accounts of this ability vary. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations, an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability, and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties (...)
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  39.  22
    Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks to Reorient in an Open Space.Stéphane Gouteux & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2001 - Cognition 81 (2):119-148.
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  40.  9
    Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes in Children and Adults: Tests in the Domain of Religion.Larisa Heiphetz, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Mahzarin R. Banaji - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (3):864-879.
  41. Predictive Reaching for Occluded Objects by 6-Month-Old Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Infants were presented with an object that moved into reaching space on a path that was either continuously visible or interrupted by an occluder. Infants’ reaching was reduced sharply when an occluder was present, even though the occluder itself was out of reach and did not serve as a barrier to direct reaching for the object. We account for these findings and for the apparently contrasting findings of experiments using preferential looking methods to assess infants’ object representations, by proposing that (...)
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  42. Perception of Unity, Persistence, and Identity: Thoughts on Infants' Conceptions of Objects.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1985 - In Jacques Mehler & R. Fox (eds.), Neonate Cognition: Beyond the Blooming Buzzing Confusion. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 89--113.
     
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  43. Judgments of the Lucky Across Development and Culture.Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    For millennia, human beings have believed that it is morally wrong to judge others by the fortuitous or unfortunate events that befall them or by the actions of another person. Rather, an individual’s own intended, deliberate actions should be the basis of his or her evaluation, reward, and punishment. In a series of studies, the authors investigated whether such rules guide the judgments of children. The first 3 studies demonstrated that children view lucky others as more likely than unlucky others (...)
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  44.  5
    Cognitive Effects of Language on Human Navigation.Anna Shusterman, Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - Cognition 120 (2):186-201.
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  45.  42
    Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2006 - Cognition 98 (3):57-66.
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  46.  23
    Core Multiplication in Childhood.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2010 - Cognition 116 (2):204-216.
  47. Infants' Sensitivity to Effects of Gravity on Visible Object Motion.In Kyeong Kim & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    A preference method probed infants` perception of object motion on an inclined plane. Infants viewed videotaped events in which a ball rolled downward (or upward) while speeding up (or slowing down). Then infants were tested with events in which the ball moved in the opposite direction with appropriate or inappropriate acceleration. Infants aged 7 months, but not 5 months, looked longer at the test event with inappropriate acceleration, suggesting emerging sensitivity to gravity. A further study tested whether infants appreciate that (...)
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  48. Number-Space Mapping in Human Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke & William James Hall - unknown
    Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a ‘mental number line’. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. Here we show that preverbal infants transfer the discrimination of an ordered series of numerosities to the discrimination of an ordered series of line lengths. Moreover, infants construct relationships between individual numbers (...)
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  49.  80
    Perception, Ontology, and Word Meaning.Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1992 - Cognition 45 (1):101-107.
  50. Perceiving Bimodally Specified Events in Infancy.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Four-month-old infants can perceive bimodally speciiied events. They respond to relationships between the optic and acoustic stimulation that carries information about an object. Infants can do this by detecting the temporal synchrony of an object’s sounds and its optically specified impacts. They are sensitive both to the common tempo and to the simultaneity of such sounds and visible impacts. These findings support the view that intermodal perception depends at least in part on the detection of invariant relationships in patterns of (...)
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