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Elizabeth S. Spelke [83]Elizabeth Spelke [33]
  1. Core Systems of Number.Stanislas Dehaene, Elizabeth Spelke & Lisa Feigenson - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (7):307-314.
  2. Core Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Human cognition is founded, in part, on four systems for representing objects, actions, number, and space. It may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners. Each system has deep roots in human phylogeny and ontogeny, and it guides and shapes the mental lives of adults. Converging research on human infants, non-human primates, children and adults in diverse cultures can aid both understanding of these systems and attempts to overcome their limits.
     
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  3.  49
    Principles of Object Perception.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):29--56.
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  4.  85
    Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.Fei Xu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 74 (1):1-11.
    Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
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  5.  45
    Origins of Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke, Karen Breinlinger, Janet Macomber & Kristen Jacobson - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (4):605-632.
    Experiments with young infants provide evidence for early-developing capacities to represent physical objects and to reason about object motion. Early physical reasoning accords with 2 constraints at the center of mature physical conceptions: continuity and solidity. It fails to accord with 2 constraints that may be peripheral to mature conceptions: gravity and inertia. These experiments suggest that cognition develops concurrently with perception and action and that development leads to the enrichment of conceptions around an unchanging core. The experiments challenge claims (...)
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  6. Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions of the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures.Pierre Pica, Stanislas Dehaene, Elizabeth Spelke & Véronique Izard - 2008 - Science 320 (5880):1217-1220.
    The mapping of numbers onto space is fundamental to measurement and to mathematics. Is this mapping a cultural invention or a universal intuition shared by all humans regardless of culture and education? We probed number-space mappings in the Mundurucu, an Amazonian indigene group with a reduced numerical lexicon and little or no formal education. At all ages, the Mundurucu mapped symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers onto a logarithmic scale, whereas Western adults used linear mapping with small or symbolic numbers and logarithmic (...)
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  7.  32
    Initial Knowledge: Six Suggestions.Elizabeth Spelke - 1994 - Cognition 50 (1-3):431-445.
  8. Symbolic Arithmetic Knowledge Without Instruction.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
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  9.  31
    The Construction of Large Number Representations in Adults.Elizabeth Spelke & Hilary Barth - 2003 - Cognition 86 (3):201-221.
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  10.  27
    The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  11. Core Knowledge of Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2006 - Science 311 (5759)::381-4.
    Does geometry constitues a core set of intuitions present in all humans, regarless of their language or schooling ? We used two non verbal tests to probe the conceptual primitives of geometry in the Munduruku, an isolated Amazonian indigene group. Our results provide evidence for geometrical intuitions in the absence of schooling, experience with graphic symbols or maps, or a rich language of geometrical terms.
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  12. Education Enhances the Acuity of the Nonverbal Approximate Number System.Manuela Piazza, Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2013 - Psychological Science 24 (4):p.
    All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the numbers of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Interindividual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucú, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to mathematics education. (...)
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  13. The Native Language of Social Cognition.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    What leads humans to divide the social world into groups, preferring their own group and disfavoring others? Experiments with infants and young children suggest these tendencies are based on predispo- sitions that emerge early in life and depend, in part, on natural language. Young infants prefer to look at a person who previously spoke their native language. Older infants preferentially accept toys from native-language speakers, and preschool children preferentially select native-language speakers as friends. Variations in accent are sufficient to evoke (...)
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  14.  35
    Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children.Hilary Barth, Kristen La Mont, Jennifer Lipton, Stanislas Dehaene, Nancy Kanwisher & Elizabeth Spelke - 2006 - Cognition 98 (3):199-222.
  15. What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2003 - In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. MIT Press. pp. 277--311.
  16.  45
    Non-Symbolic Arithmetic Abilities and Mathematics Achievement in the First Year of Formal Schooling.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2010 - Cognition 115 (3):394-406.
  17.  18
    Brief Non-Symbolic, Approximate Number Practice Enhances Subsequent Exact Symbolic Arithmetic in Children.Daniel C. Hyde, Saeeda Khanum & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 131 (1):92-107.
  18.  74
    Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children.Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):222-231.
  19.  42
    Human Spatial Representation: Insights From Animals.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (9):376-382.
  20.  38
    Modularity and Development: The Case of Spatial Reorientation.Linda Hermer & Elizabeth Spelke - 1996 - Cognition 61 (3):195-232.
  21. Navigation as a Source of Geometric Knowledge: Young Children’s Use of Length, Angle, Distance, and Direction in a Reorientation Task.Sang Ah Lee, Valeria A. Sovrano & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2012 - Cognition 123 (1):144-161.
  22.  30
    Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants.Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognition 36 (2):97-127.
  23. Science and Core Knowledge.Susan Carey & Elizabeth Spelke - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (4):515 - 533.
    While endorsing Gopnik's proposal that studies of the emergence and modification of scientific theories and studies of cognitive development in children are mutually illuminating, we offer a different picture of the beginning points of cognitive development from Gopnik's picture of "theories all the way down." Human infants are endowed with several distinct core systems of knowledge which are theory-like in some, but not all, important ways. The existence of these core systems of knowledge has implications for the joint research program (...)
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  24.  15
    Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning: Object Terms and Substance Terms.Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1991 - Cognition 38 (2):179-211.
  25.  7
    The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number.Kirsten F. Condry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):22-38.
  26. Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts.Konika Banerjee, Omar S. Haque & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1251-1289.
    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This study examines whether children's concept recall similarly is sensitive to the degree of conceptual counterintuitiveness (operationalized as a concept's number of ontological domain violations) for items presented in the context of a fictional narrative. Seven- to nine-year-old children (...)
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  27. Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well on (...)
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  28.  15
    Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children.Maria-Dolores de Hevia & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):198-207.
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  29. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science?Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    This article considers 3 claims that cognitive sex differ- ences account for the differential representation of men and women in high-level careers in mathematics and sci- ence: (a) males are more focused on objects from the beginning of life and therefore are predisposed to better learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a pro- file of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the upper (...)
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  30. Conceptual Precursors to Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Susan J. Hespos - unknown
    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the (...)
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  31.  32
    Updating Egocentric Representations in Human Navigation.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):215-250.
  32.  59
    Beyond Core Knowledge: Natural Geometry.Elizabeth Spelke, Sang Ah Lee & Véronique Izard - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):863-884.
    For many centuries, philosophers and scientists have pondered the origins and nature of human intuitions about the properties of points, lines, and figures on the Euclidean plane, with most hypothesizing that a system of Euclidean concepts either is innate or is assembled by general learning processes. Recent research from cognitive and developmental psychology, cognitive anthropology, animal cognition, and cognitive neuroscience suggests a different view. Knowledge of geometry may be founded on at least two distinct, evolutionarily ancient, core cognitive systems for (...)
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  33.  68
    Language and Number: A Bilingual Training Study.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2001 - Cognition 78 (1):45-88.
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  34. aCCENT TrumpS raCE iN GuiDiNG ChilDrEN'S SOCial prEfErENCES.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers’ language, accent, and race on children’s social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose (...)
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  35. Infants' Discrimination of Number Vs. Continuous Extent.Elizabeth Spelke - manuscript
    Seven studies explored the empirical basis for claims that infants represent cardinal values of small sets of objects. Many studies investigating numerical ability did not properly control for continuous stimulus properties such as surface area, volume, contour length, or dimensions that correlate with these properties. Experiment 1 extended the standard habituation/dishabituation paradigm to a 1 vs 2 comparison with three-dimensional objects and confirmed that when number and total front surface area are confounded, infants discriminate the arrays. Experiment 2 revealed that (...)
     
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  36. Object Permanence in Five-Month-Old Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1985 - Cognition 20 (3):191-208.
    A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Fivemonth-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In the possible event, the screen stopped when it reached the occluded box; in the impossible event, the screen moved through the space (...)
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  37.  15
    Preverbal Infants Identify Emotional Reactions That Are Incongruent with Goal Outcomes.Amy E. Skerry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 130 (2):204-216.
  38. Perception of Partly Occluded Objects in Infancy* 1.Philip J. Kellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1983 - Cognitive Psychology 15 (4):483–524.
    Four-month-old infants sometimes can perceive the unity of a partly hidden object. In each of a series of experiments, infants were habituated to one object whose top and bottom were visible but whose center was occluded by a nearer object. They were then tested with a fully visible continuous object and with two fully visible object pieces with a gap where the occluder had been. Pattems of dishabituation suggested that infants perceive the boundaries of a partly hidden object by analyzing (...)
     
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  39.  38
    Infants' Ability to Connect Gaze and Emotional Expression to Intentional Action.Ann T. Phillips, Henry M. Wellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Cognition 85 (1):53-78.
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  40.  97
    Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers.Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
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  41.  8
    Human Infants’ Understanding of Social Imitation: Inferences of Affiliation From Third Party Observations.Lindsey J. Powell & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2018 - Cognition 170:31-48.
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  42. Evolutionary and Developmental Foundations of Human Knowledge.Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth Spelke - 2004 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. MIT Press.
    What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook soufflés, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this chapter, we argue against this seemingly sensible conclusion. When human adults exhibit complex, uniquely human, culture-specific skills, they draw on a (...)
     
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  43. Core Systems in Human Cognition.Elizabeth Spelke - manuscript
    Research on human infants, adult nonhuman primates, and children and adults in diverse cultures provides converging evidence for four systems at the foundations of human knowledge. These systems are domain specific and serve to represent both entities in the perceptible world (inanimate manipulable objects and animate agents) and entities that are more abstract (numbers and geometrical forms). Human cognition may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners and for categorizing the social world into groups. Research (...)
     
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  44. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2005 - American Psychologist 60 (9):950-958.
  45. All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations.Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    & Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive (...)
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  46.  10
    Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race?Katherine D. Kinzler & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):1-9.
  47. Conceptual Pecursors to Language.SusanJ Hespos & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2004 - Nature 430:453-456.
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  48. Flexible Intuitions of Euclidean Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2011 - Pnas 23.
    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that (...)
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  49. Perceiving and Reasoning About Objects: Insights From Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Gretchen A. Van de Walle - 1993 - In Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.), Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology. Blackwell.
     
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  50. Natural Number and Natural Geometry.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 287--317.
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