Results for 'Elliott Abramson'

997 found
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  1.  10
    I–Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):237-280.
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  2.  23
    Replies to Kristin Andrews’s, Gordon Belot’s, and Patrick Forber’s Reviews: Elliott Sober: Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, 322pp, $29.99 PB, $99.99 HB.Elliott Sober - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):393-403.
  3.  27
    Childhood Maltreatment and Maltreatment-Specific Inferences: A Test of Rose and Abramson's Extension of the Hopelessness Theory. [REVIEW]Brandon Gibb, Lauren Alloy, Lyn Abramson & Brian Marx - 2003 - Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):917-931.
  4.  15
    Childhood Maltreatment and Maltreatment‐Specific Inferences: A Test of Rose and Abramson's Extension of the Hopelessness Theory.Brandon Gibb, Lauren Alloy, Lyn Abramson & Brian Marx - 2003 - Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):917-931.
  5.  23
    Explanation in Biology: Let's Razor Ockham's Razor: Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:73-93.
    When philosophers discuss the topic of explanation, they usually have in mind the following question: given the beliefs one has and some proposition that one wishes to explain, which subset of the beliefs constitutes an explanation of the target proposition? That is, the philosophical ‘problem of explanation’ typically has bracketed the issue of how one obtains the beliefs; they are taken as given. The problem of explanation has been the problem of understanding the relation ‘x explains y’. Since Hempel did (...)
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  6. Turning Up the Lights on Gaslighting.Kate Abramson - 2014 - Philosophical Perspectives 28 (1):1-30.
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  7. Chapter Twelve Growing Minds, Computability, and the Potentially Infinite Darren Abramson.Darren Abramson - 2007 - In Soraj Hongladarom (ed.), Computing and Philosophy in Asia. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 179.
     
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  8. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Elliott Sober - 1984 - University of Chicago Press.
    The Nature of Selection is a straightforward, self-contained introduction to philosophical and biological problems in evolutionary theory. It presents a powerful analysis of the evolutionary concepts of natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and clarifies controversial issues concerning altruism, group selection, and the idea that organisms are survival machines built for the good of the genes that inhabit them. "Sober's is the answering philosophical voice, the voice of a first-rate philosopher and a knowledgeable student of contemporary evolutionary theory. His book merits (...)
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  9. Love as a Reactive Emotion.Kate Abramson & Adam Leite - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (245):673-699.
    One variety of love is familiar in everyday life and qualifies in every reasonable sense as a reactive attitude. ‘Reactive love’ is paradigmatically (a) an affectionate attachment to another person, (b) appropriately felt as a non-self-interested response to particular kinds of morally laudable features of character expressed by the loved one in interaction with the lover, and (c) paradigmatically manifested in certain kinds of acts of goodwill and characteristic affective, desiderative and other motivational responses (including other-regarding concern and a desire (...)
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  10.  27
    Hopelessness Depression: A Theory-Based Subtype of Depression.Lyn Y. Abramson, Gerald I. Metalsky & Lauren B. Alloy - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (2):358-372.
  11.  57
    Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science.Elliott Sober - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent (...)
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  12. Philosophy of Biology.Elliott Sober - 1993 - Westview Press.
    Perhaps because of it implications for our understanding of human nature, recent philosophy of biology has seen what might be the most dramatic work in the philosophies of the ”special” sciences. This drama has centered on evolutionary theory, and in the second edition of this textbook, Elliott Sober introduces the reader to the most important issues of these developments. With a rare combination of technical sophistication and clarity of expression, Sober engages both the higher level of theory and the (...)
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  13.  20
    A Crisis in Comparative Psychology: Where Have All the Undergraduates Gone?Charles I. Abramson - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  14. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior.Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson - 1998 - Harvard University Press.
  15.  13
    The Design Argument.Elliott Sober - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element analyzes the various forms that design arguments for the existence of God can take, but the main focus is on two such arguments. The first concerns the complex adaptive features that organisms have. Creationists who advance this argument contend that evolution by natural selection cannot be the right explanation. The second design argument - the argument from fine-tuning - begins with the fact that life could not exist in our universe if the constants found in the laws of (...)
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  16.  70
    From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy.Elliott Sober - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Elliott Sober is one of the leading philosophers of science and is a former winner of the Lakatos Prize, the major award in the field. This new collection of essays will appeal to a readership that extends well beyond the frontiers of the philosophy of science. Sober shows how ideas in evolutionary biology bear in significant ways on traditional problems in philosophy of mind and language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Amongst the topics addressed are psychological egoism, solipsism, and the interpretation (...)
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  17.  87
    Protecting the Vulnerable: A Reanalysis of Our Social Responsibilities. Robert E. Goodin.Jeffrey Abramson - 1987 - Ethics 97 (3):659-661.
  18.  43
    Love as a Reactive Emotion.Adam Leite Kate Abramson - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (245):673-699.
    One variety of love is familiar in everyday life and qualifies in every reasonable sense as a reactive attitude. ‘Reactive love’ is paradigmatically an affectionate attachment to another person, appropriately felt as a non‐self‐interested response to particular kinds of morally laudable features of character expressed by the loved one in interaction with the lover, and paradigmatically manifested in certain kinds of acts of goodwill and characteristic affective, desiderative and other motivational responses . ‘Virtues of intimacy’ as expressed in interaction with (...)
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  19.  21
    Learning in Plants: Lessons From Mimosa Pudica.Charles I. Abramson & Ana M. Chicas-Mosier - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  20. Sympathy and the Project of Hume's Second Enquiry.Kate Abramson - 2001 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (1):45-80.
    More than two hundred years after its publication, David Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is still widely regarded as either a footnote to the more philosophically interesting third book of the Treatise, or an abbreviated, more stylish, version of that earlier work. These standard interpretations are rather difficult to square with Hume's own assessment of the second Enquiry. Are we to think that Hume called the EPM “incomparably the best” of all his writings only because he preferred that (...)
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  21.  45
    From “Either-Or” to “When and How”: A Context-Dependent Model of Culture in Action.Corey M. Abramson - 2012 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (2):155-180.
    In this article, I outline a framework for the sociological study of culture that connects three intertwined elements of human culture and demonstrates the concrete contexts under which each most critically influences actions and their subsequent outcomes. In contrast to models that cast motivations, resources, and meanings as competing explanations of how culture affects action, I argue that these are fundamental constituent elements of culture that are inseparable, interdependent, and simultaneously operative. Which element provides the strongest link to action, and (...)
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  22. Philosophy of Mind Is (in Part) Philosophy of Computer Science.Darren Abramson - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):203-219.
    In this paper I argue that whether or not a computer can be built that passes the Turing test is a central question in the philosophy of mind. Then I show that the possibility of building such a computer depends on open questions in the philosophy of computer science: the physical Church-Turing thesis and the extended Church-Turing thesis. I use the link between the issues identified in philosophy of mind and philosophy of computer science to respond to a prominent argument (...)
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  23.  28
    Journalistic Truth: An Essay Review by Deni Elliott.Deni Elliott - 1994 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (3):184 – 186.
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  24.  25
    Flipping Properties: A Unifying Thread in the Theory of Large Cardinals.F. G. Abramson, L. A. Harrington, E. M. Kleinberg & W. S. Zwicker - 1977 - Annals of Mathematical Logic 12 (1):25.
  25.  57
    Reply to Alexander Rosenberg's Review of The Nature of Selection.Elliott Sober - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (1):77-88.
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  26.  5
    Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual.Elliott Sober - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Ockham's razor, the principle of parsimony, states that simpler theories are better than theories that are more complex. It has a history dating back to Aristotle and it plays an important role in current physics, biology, and psychology. The razor also gets used outside of science - in everyday life and in philosophy. This book evaluates the principle and discusses its many applications. Fascinating examples from different domains provide a rich basis for contemplating the principle's promises and perils. It is (...)
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  27. Hume on Cultural Conflicts of Values.Kate Abramson - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 94 (1-2):173-187.
  28. A Sentimentalist's Defense of Contempt, Shame and Disdain.K. Abramson - 2009 - In Peter Goldie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. Oxford University Press.
  29.  13
    A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2017 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how (...)
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  30. Turing’s Responses to Two Objections.Darren Abramson - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (2):147-167.
    In this paper I argue that Turing’s responses to the mathematical objection are straightforward, despite recent claims to the contrary. I then go on to show that by understanding the importance of learning machines for Turing as related not to the mathematical objection, but to Lady Lovelace’s objection, we can better understand Turing’s response to Lady Lovelace’s objection. Finally, I argue that by understanding Turing’s responses to these objections more clearly, we discover a hitherto unrecognized, substantive thesis in his philosophical (...)
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  31. Two Portraits of the Humean Moral Agent.Kate Abramson - 2002 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):301–334.
    Among contemporary ethicists, Hume is perhaps best known for his views about morality’s practical import and his spectator-centered account of moral evaluation. Yet according to the so-called “spectator complaint”, these two aspects of Hume’s moral theory cannot be reconciled with one another. I argue that the answer to the spectator complaint lies in Hume’s account of “goodness” and “greatness of mind”. Through a discussion of these two virtues, Hume makes clear the connection between his views about moral motivation and his (...)
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  32.  35
    Models Without Indiscernibles.Fred G. Abramson & Leo A. Harrington - 1978 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):572-600.
    For T any completion of Peano Arithmetic and for n any positive integer, there is a model of T of size $\beth_n$ with no (n + 1)-length sequence of indiscernibles. Hence the Hanf number for omitting types over T, H(T), is at least $\beth_\omega$ . (Now, using an upper bound previously obtained by Julia Knight H (true arithmetic) is exactly $\beth_\omega$ ). If T ≠ true arithmetic, then $H(T) = \beth_{\omega1}$ . If $\delta \not\rightarrow (\rho)^{ , then any completion of (...)
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  33. Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism.Elliott Sober - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383.
    Ernst Mayr has argued that Darwinian theory discredited essentialist modes of thought and replaced them with what he has called "population thinking". In this paper, I characterize essentialism as embodying a certain conception of how variation in nature is to be explained, and show how this conception was undermined by evolutionary theory. The Darwinian doctrine of evolutionary gradualism makes it impossible to say exactly where one species ends and another begins; such line-drawing problems are often taken to be the decisive (...)
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  34.  6
    Reconstructing The Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference.Elliott Sober - 1988 - MIT Press.
  35. Descartes' Influence on Turing.Darren Abramson - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):544-551.
  36.  54
    Judgment of Contingency in Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Sadder but Wiser?Lauren B. Alloy & Lyn Y. Abramson - 1979 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (4):441-485.
  37. The Multiple Realizability Argument Against Reductionism.Elliott Sober - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (4):542-564.
    Reductionism is often understood to include two theses: (1) every singular occurrence that the special sciences can explain also can be explained by physics; (2) every law in a higher-level science can be explained by physics. These claims are widely supposed to have been refuted by the multiple realizability argument, formulated by Putnam (1967, 1975) and Fodor (1968, 1975). The present paper criticizes the argument and identifies a reductionistic thesis that follows from one of the argument's premises.
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  38. Simplicity.Elliott Sober - 1975 - Clarendon Press.
    Attempts to show that the simplicity of a hypothesis can be measured by attending to how well it answers certain kinds of questions.
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  39. Hume's Distinction Between Philosophical Anatomy and Painting.Kate Abramson - 2007 - Philosophy Compass 2 (5):680–698.
    Although the implications of Hume's distinction between philosophical anatomy and painting have been the subject of lively scholarly debates, it is a puzzling fact that the details of the distinction itself have largely been a matter of interpretive presumption rather than debate. This would be unproblematic if Hume's views about these two species of philosophy were obvious, or if there were a rich standard interpretation of the distinction that we had little reason to doubt. But a careful review of the (...)
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  40.  14
    Quine.Elliott Sober & Peter Hylton - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 74:237-299.
    [Elliott Sober] In 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism', Quine attacks the analytic/synthetic distinction and defends a doctrine that I call epistemological holism. Now, almost fifty years after the article's appearance, what are we to make of these ideas? I suggest that the philosophical naturalism that Quine did so much to promote should lead us to reject Quine's brief against the analytic/synthetic distinction; I also argue that Quine misunderstood Carnap's views on analyticity. As for epistemological holism, I claim that this thesis (...)
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  41. A Critical Review of Philosophical Work on the Units of Selection Problem.Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):534-555.
    The evolutionary problem of the units of selection has elicited a good deal of conceptual work from philosophers. We review this work to determine where the issues now stand.
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  42.  95
    Introduction to Mathematical Logic.Elliott Mendelson - 1964 - Princeton: Van Nostrand.
    The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in ...
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  43.  90
    Artifact, Cause and Genic Selection.Elliott Sober & Richard C. Lewontin - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (2):157-180.
    Several evolutionary biologists have used a parsimony argument to argue that the single gene is the unit of selection. Since all evolution by natural selection can be represented in terms of selection coefficients attaching to single genes, it is, they say, "more parsimonious" to think that all selection is selection for or against single genes. We examine the limitations of this genic point of view, and then relate our criticisms to a broader view of the role of causal concepts and (...)
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  44.  52
    The Impossibility of a Satisfactory Population Prospect Axiology (Independently of Finite Fine-Grainedness).Elliott Thornley - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Arrhenius’s impossibility theorems purport to demonstrate that no population axiology can satisfy each of a small number of intuitively compelling adequacy conditions. However, it has recently been pointed out that each theorem depends on a dubious assumption: Finite Fine-Grainedness. This assumption states that there exists a finite sequence of slight welfare differences between any two welfare levels. Denying Finite Fine-Grainedness makes room for a lexical population axiology which satisfies all of the compelling adequacy conditions in each theorem. Therefore, Arrhenius’s theorems (...)
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  45. Absence of Evidence and Evidence of Absence: Evidential Transitivity in Connection with Fossils, Fishing, Fine-Tuning, and Firing Squads.Elliott Sober - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):63-90.
    “Absence of evidence isn’t evidence of absence” is a slogan that is popular among scientists and nonscientists alike. This article assesses its truth by using a probabilistic tool, the Law of Likelihood. Qualitative questions (“Is E evidence about H ?”) and quantitative questions (“How much evidence does E provide about H ?”) are both considered. The article discusses the example of fossil intermediates. If finding a fossil that is phenotypically intermediate between two extant species provides evidence that those species have (...)
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  46. Equilibrium Explanation.Elliott Sober - 1983 - Philosophical Studies 43 (2):201 - 210.
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  47.  12
    From “Longshot” to “Fantasy”: Obligations to Pediatric Patients and Families When Last-Ditch Medical Efforts Fail.Elliott Mark Weiss & Autumn Fiester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (1):3-11.
    Clinicians at quaternary centers see part of their mission as providing hope when others cannot. They tend to see sicker patients with more complex disease processes. Part of this mission is offering longshot treatment modalities that are unlikely to achieve their stated goal, but conceivably could. When patients embark on such a treatment plan, it may fail. Often treatment toward an initial goal continues beyond the point at which such a goal is feasible. We explore the progression of care from (...)
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  48. Evolutionary Theory and the Reality of Macro Probabilities.Elliott Sober - 2010 - In Ellery Eells & James H. Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. pp. 133--60.
    Evolutionary theory is awash with probabilities. For example, natural selection is said to occur when there is variation in fitness, and fitness is standardly decomposed into two components, viability and fertility, each of which is understood probabilistically. With respect to viability, a fertilized egg is said to have a certain chance of surviving to reproductive age; with respect to fertility, an adult is said to have an expected number of offspring.1 There is more to evolutionary theory than the theory of (...)
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  49. The Two Faces of Fitness.Elliott Sober - manuscript
    The concept of fitness began its career in biology long before evolutionary theory was mathematized. Fitness was used to describe an organism’s vigor, or the degree to which organisms “fit” into their environments. An organism’s success in avoiding predators and in building a nest obviously contribute to its fitness and to the fitness of its offspring, but the peacock’s gaudy tail seemed to be in an entirely different line of work. Fitness, as a term in ordinary language (as in “physical (...)
     
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  50. The Evolution of Rationality.Elliott Sober - 1981 - Synthese 46 (January):95-120.
    How could the fundamental mental operations which facilitate scientific theorizing be the product of natural selection, since it appears that such theoretical methods were neither used nor useful "in the cave"-i.e., in the sequence of environments in which selection took place? And if these wired-in information processing techniques were not selected for, how can we view rationality as an adaptation? It will be the purpose of this paper to address such questions as these, and in the process to sketch some (...)
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