This article discusses outcomes of a dialogue conference on ‘The road ahead for ELSA in Norway: Issues of quality, influence and network cooperation’ held in Oslo in December 2012. Norwegian researchers in the field of ethical, legal and social aspects of technologies were invited to discuss conceptual and strategic issues, as well as the setup of a researcher network. In the article I take an institutionalist approach and discuss challenges in institutionalising an ELSA network at a time when (...) a designated ELSA funding programme is coming to an end. The research question is how the Norwegian ELSA network can succeed as a persistent network in times of greater uncertainties. The article claims that the network needs to gain legitimacy, outlines different dimensions of legitimacy and interprets the conference discussions in light of these dimensions. Central challenges and success factors facing the ELSA network are discussed and the article concludes with reflections on the potential future of ELSA in Norway. Although the article has a Norwegian context, the discussions in the article are likely to be relevant for researchers all across Europe, as similar developments are taking place also elsewhere in the European research funding context. (shrink)
While the extended cognition (EC) thesis has gained more followers in cognitive science and in the philosophy of mind and knowledge, our main goal is to discuss a different area of significance of the EC thesis: its relation to philosophy of science. In this introduction, we outline two major areas: (I) The role of the thesis for issues in the philosophy of cognitive science, such as: How do notions of EC figure in theories or research programs in cognitive science? Which (...) versions of the EC thesis appear, and with which arguments to support them? (II) The potentials and limits of the EC thesis for topics in general philosophy of science, such as: Can naturalism perhaps be further advanced by means of the more recent EC thesis? Can we understand “big science” or laboratory research better by invoking some version of EC? And can the EC thesis help in overcoming the notorious cognitive/social divide in science studies? (shrink)
This editorial presents the background for the article collection ‘ELSA and RRI’. It sets the stage for the topics discussed in the collection and briefly presents the different contributions. It concludes by opening up for continued discussion of the relations between ELSA and RRI.
The stakeholder approach offers the opportunity to consider corporate responsibility in a wider sense than that afforded by the stockholder or shareholder approaches. Having said that, this article aims to show that this theory does not offer a normative corporate responsibility concept that can be our response to two basic questions. On the one hand, for what is the company morally responsible and, on the other hand, why is the corporation morally responsible in terms of conventional and post-conventional perspectives? The (...) reason why the stakeholder approach does not offer such a definition, as we shall see, is because the normative stakeholder approaches tend to confuse the social validity with the moral validity or legitimacy. It leads us to a conventional definition of corporate moral responsibility (CMR) that is not relevant to the pluralistic and global framework of our societies and economies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate this intuition. (shrink)
Among various case studies addressing the reception of relativity, very few deal with Portugal at either the international or the national level. The national literature on the topic has mainly concentrated on the reactions to relativity of the Portuguese mathematical community. The absence of Portuguese astronomers alongside Eddington during the 1919 expedition to Principe, then a Portuguese island, has been implicitly equated with the astronomical community's lack of interest in the event. In reception studies dealing with general relativity, analysis has (...) tended to focus on the physics and mathematics communities, less on the astronomers. Given that relativity was born at the interface of physics, mathematics and astronomy, reactions of members of these scientific communities depended on differences in shared traditions, values, problems and expectations, as well as on individual practitioners' idiosyncrasies. This paper addresses the contributions of the overlooked Portuguese astronomical community, evaluates the actions and reactions of its members to the expedition and assesses their role in the process of appropriation of relativity. (shrink)
Two decades ago, in 1994, in the context of the 4th EU Framework Programme, ELSA was introduced as a label for developing and funding research into the ethical, legal and social aspects of emerging sciences and technologies. Currently, particularly in the context of EU funding initiatives such as Horizon2020, a new label has been forged, namely Responsible Research and Innovation. What is implied in this metonymy, this semantic shift? What is so new about RRI in comparison to ELSA? (...) First of all, for both labels, the signifier was introduced in a top-down manner, well before the concept that was signified by it had acquired a clear and stable profile. In other words, the signifier preceded the research strategies actually covered by these labels. Moreover, the newness of RRI does not reside in its interactive and anticipatory orientation, as is suggested by authors who introduced the term, but rather in its emphases on social-economic impacts. (shrink)
Traditionally, liberals have confined religion to the sphere of the ‘private’ or ‘non-political’. However, recent debates over the place of religious symbols in public spaces, state financing of faith schools, and tax relief for religious organisations suggest that this distinction is not particularly useful in easing the tension between liberal commitments to equality on the one hand, and freedom of religion on the other. This article deals with one aspect of this debate, which concerns whether members of religious communities should (...) receive exemptions from regulations that place a distinctively heavy burden on them. Drawing on Habermas’ understanding of churches as ‘communities of interpretation’, we explore possible alternatives to both the ‘rule-and-exemption’ approach and the ‘neutralist’ approach. Our proposal rests on the idea of mutual learning between secular and religious perspectives. On this interpretation, what is required is (i) the generation and maintenance of public spaces in which there could be discussion and dialogue about particular cases, and (ii) evaluation of whether the basic conditions of moral discourse are present in these spaces. Thus deliberation becomes a touchstone for the building of a shared democratic ethos. (shrink)
Qoheleth speaks most profoundly to men and women most disillusioned with a world governed by efficiency, technology, and profit. To them, the sage offers both an affirmation of faith and a call to value the concrete and the sensuous.
O artigo aborda aspectos do percurso profissional e teórico de D. W. Winnicott que exerceram influência marcante no seu pensamento. São ainda destacadas algumas linhas do debate que ele, implícita ou explicitamente, travou com as diferentes áreas do conhecimento científico de sua época - a pediatria, a psiquiatria, em especial a infantil, a psicologia acadêmica e sua principal interlocutora, a psicanálise tradicional, representada por Freud e Melanie Klein - sobre temas centrais de sua obra, tais como a natureza do psíquico, (...) a hereditariedade, o desenvolvimento humano e a saúde e a doença psíquicas. (shrink)
O artigo busca examinar o sentido do termo "confia- bilidade" no interior da teoria winnicottiana do amadurecimento pessoal e com relação à tarefa terapêutica. Em Winnicott, mais do que uma qualidade desejável em qualquer relação humana, a confiabilidade é a característica central do ambiente facilitador, materno e terapêutico, e está intimamente ligada à dependência. O ponto específico no qual o estudo se detém é a função essencial da confiabilidade durante o período inicial da vida, em que estão sendo constituídas as (...) bases da personalidade, com o bebê em estado de dependência absoluta da mãe. Nesse momento, a confiabilidade ambiental está diretamente implicada na constituição da identidade e dos sentidos de realidade, do si-mesmo e do mundo, tendo implicações clínicas importantes, sobretudo no que se refere ao tratamento de pacientes que usam a situação analítica para regredir à dependência.The purpose of this essay is to examine the meaning of the term "reliability" within the winnicottian maturacional process theory and its relevance to therapeutic task. According to Winnicott, reliability is more than just a desirable quality in human relations: it is the central characteristic of the facilitating - maternal and therapeutic - environment. The specific point to be examined is the essential function of reliability during the earlier stages, when the bases of the personality are being built and the baby is in a state of absolute dependence on the mother. At this moment, the environmental reliability is directly implicated in the constitution of the self as identity and the world's sense of reality. This point has significant clinical implications specially in the treatment of patients who need to regress to the dependence. (shrink)
_Defenderse: Una filosofía de la violencia_ de Elsa Dorlin —profesora de filosofía política de París 8 actualmente dedicada al campo de los estudios decoloniales y de género— es un fantástico ensayo sobre la violencia donde la autora acomete una historia constelar de la autodefensa a través de un trabajo genealógico organizado en ocho capítulos precedidos por un prólogo. En este trabajo, la autora se preguntará cuál es el destino de nuestras resistencias en el contexto de técnicas de poder cuyo (...) proverbio es “Cuanto más te defiendas, más sufrirás y con seguridad, morirás”. Aún más, indagará y se preguntará qué le hace la violencia a nuestras vidas, a nuestros cuerpos y a nuestros músculos. Y ellos, a su vez, ¿qué pueden hacer y no hacer dentro de y a través de la violencia? (shrink)
In search of human uniqueness Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9472-6 Authors Elsa Addessi, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Via Ulisse Aldrovandi, 16/b, 00197 Rome, Italy Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
Le interpretazioni di Walter Benjamin si estendono dall’estremo di considerarlo l’ultimo significativo uomo di lettere del periodo precedente alla seconda guerra mondiale fino all’estremo opposto di ritenerlo un rabbino hassidico. C’è accordo sul fatto che circa dal 1916-1920 Benjamin fu interessato alla teologia e alla metafisica ebraica e cristiana e che dal 1925 circa fino alla sua morte nel 1940 fu apertamente marxista e giunse fino alla quasi esclusione della metafisica. L’articolo individua le ambiguità della cosmologia teistica del primo Benjamin, (...) sostenendo che l’instabilità intrinseca delle sue considerazioni, specialmente su linguaggio, giudizio e allegoria, lo ha costretto ad abbandonare il platonismo giovanile e ad abbracciare una cosmologia in cui Dio è nascosto. Proprio come i primi atei si ispirarono alla speculazione di Duns Scoto secondo il quale un triangolo avrebbe avuto ancora tre angoli in un universo in cui Dio non esistesse, la visione di Benjamin di un mondo abbandonato da Dio lo condusse, nel corso degli anni Venti, al materialismo ateo. Poiché il materialista Benjamin continuò, nonostante se stesso, a incontrare tracce divine e teleologia nelle sue escursioni letterarie, concluse che doveva cacciare Dio ancora più lontano dalla sua creazione per permettere all’umanità di percepirla come realmente è. Questo atteggiamento si protrasse fino all’ultimo anno di vita di Benjamin, durante il quale scelse di abbracciare la teologia come lo spirito nascosto nella lettera del materialismo storico. Interpretations of Walter Benjamin have ranged from the last pre-war man of letters to a Hasidic rabbi. There is consensus that from roughly 1916-1920 Benjamin was interested in Jewish and Christian theology and metaphysics and that from about 1925 to his death in 1940 he was vocally Marxist to the near exclusion of metaphysics. This article identifies ambiguities in Benjamin’s early, theistic cosmology, arguing that the inherent instability of Benjamin’s accounts especially of language, judgment and allegory compelled him to discard his early Platonism and embrace a cosmology in which God is abscondite. Just as early atheists took inspiration from Duns Scotus’s speculation that a triangle would still have three angles in a universe in which God does not exist, Benjamin’s vision of a world abandoned by God led him, over the course of the 1920s, into atheistic materialism. When the materialist Benjamin continued, despite himself, to encounter divine traces and teleology in his literary excursions, he concluded that he had to chase God even further from his creation in order for humanity to perceive the latter as it really was. This state of affairs continued until the last year of Benjamin’s life, during which he chose to embrace theology as the hidden spirit lurking within the letter of historical materialism. (shrink)
This paper examines what social auditing has to offer Oxfam and similar organisations involved in the collection of charitable donations for international development and relief operations in terms of improving the quality of their work, increasing their accountability to stakeholders, and their capacity to achieve impact in terms of their institutional goals. In looking at the particular case of Oxfam, it discusses issues in relation to the establishment of social auditing with relevance for similar organisations.The paper points out that since (...) Oxfam is not a profit-making organisation, but one based on a humanitarian impulse, there are many ways in which it already lives up to the ideals of social audit. The paper lists areas of governance and systems where Oxfam is currently responding to the major principles of social audit, and some of the issues encountered in doing so. These principles have been defined by Zadek (1997) as follows. (shrink)
O artigo mostra como Winnicott, a partir de uma experiência assistencial de caráter institucional, soube observar o que era propriamente terapêutico para as crianças envolvidas, e formular os princípios em que essa ação terapêutica estava baseada, relacionando-os com a teoria que ele começara a desenvolver: a teoria do amadurecimento pessoal. Um desses princípios é o da sobrevivência, conceito-chave do cuidado materno e terapêutico. Na continuação, estão descritos alguns aspectos essenciais da capacidade de sobrevivência da mãe e do analista.The article starts (...) by showing that Winnicott, by considering the practice of institutional assintance, was able to find what was therapeutic for the children involved and to formulate principles upon which these therapeutic effects were based, putting them in the context of the theory he began to develop: the theory of personal development. One of these principles is survival, which is also the key concept for characterizing maternal and therapeutic care. After making that point, the article studies various essential aspects of the capacity of survival of both mothers and analysts. (shrink)
The Technology Assessment (TA) Program established in 2003 as part of the Dutch R&D consortium NanoNed is interesting for what it did, but also as an indication that there are changes in how new science and technology are pursued: the nanotechnologists felt it necessary to spend part of their funding on social aspects of nanotechnology. We retrace the history of the TA program, and present the innovative work that was done on Constructive TA of emerging nanotechnology developments and on aspects (...) of embedding of nanotechnology in society. One achievement is the provision of tools and approaches to help make the co-evolution of technology and society more reflexive. We briefly look forward by outlining its successor program, TA NanoNextNL, in place since 2011. (shrink)
Cities of the past enjoyed rich soundscapes full of organic sounds. Such sounds can be hard to hear, even for those that are listening, in many of today’s cities and neighborhoods. Evaluating the sounds of life in urban neighborhoods can be one method of determining the health and vibrancy of an area. A silent neighborhood, one not devoid of sound or noise, but rather missing the sounds of human and animal life, can be detrimental to the community and its residents. (...) This paper both investigates the history of and loss of the diverse urban soundscape and how it can be reclaimed in modern cities. (shrink)
A radical thinking of space remains for phenomenology a difficulty, which Heidegger has been concerned with. He developed an existential conception of the spatiality of Dasein in Being and Time, which he abandoned in his later philosophy; according to its “turn,” this philosophy proposes a notion of emptiness to describe spatial experience. The paper endorses the view that this notion makes possible a thinking of space in its essence. Pursuing further the reflection concerning the empty space, Maldiney advocates the influence (...) of the East Asian tradition on this issue. However, given that none of these authors considers dance as an art susceptible to disclose space in its essential vacuity, this paper aims to argue that there is a true choreographic empty space. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThis article makes the hypothesis that it is the relation to work, and not work itself, that holds subversive, or even liberating, potential for women. We begin by showing the theoretical convergence between this hypothesis and feminist epistemology. In order to test the hypothesis empirically, we then look at the paradoxical ways in which many women relate to paid work. In order to understand this paradox, we argue that it is necessary to go back to a feminist definition of work (...) by calling into question the separation between professional and domestic work. Finally, we attempt to make suggestions to transform this subversive potential into collective emancipatory practices. We insist on the necessity for the feminist movement to put domestic work back at the center of its reflection on work and on the emancipation of women. (shrink)
Estas páginas examinan la naturaleza del desafío presente a las democracias latinoamericanas desde la perspectiva de relevantes compromisos democráticos hemisféricos. A la luz de tales compromisos, la reciente crisis política hondureña puede ser considerada una grave regresión: no simplemente por la intervención militar en el derrocamiento de José Manuel Zelaya, sino por el abandono del concepto de que la democracia es un derecho humano y es deber de los gobiernos preservarla y defenderla. Palabras clave: OEA; Carta Democrática Interamericana; Perú; Venezuela; (...) Honduras OEA and Democracy in the XXI Century: These pages examine the nature of the present challenge to Latin American democracies, from the perspective of relevant hemispheric democratic commitments. In light of such commitments, the recent political crisis in Honduras can be considered as a serious regression: not simply because of the military intervention in the overthrowing of José Manuel Zelaya, but because of the abandonment of the principle according to which democracy is a human right, and it is a duty of governments to preserve and defend it. Keywords: OEA; Inter-American Democratic Charter; Peru; Venezuela; Honduras. (shrink)