Climate change is a threat to food system stability, with small islands particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events. In Puerto Rico, a diminished agricultural sector and resulting food import dependence have been implicated in reduced diet quality, rural impoverishment, and periodic food insecurity during natural disasters. In contrast, smallholder farmers in Puerto Rico serve as cultural emblems of self-sufficient food production, providing fresh foods to local communities in an informal economy and leveraging traditional knowledge systems to manage varying ecological and (...) climatic constraints. The current mixed methods study sought to document this expertise and employed a questionnaire and narrative interviewing in a purposeful sample of 30 smallholder farmers after Hurricane María to identify experiences in post-disaster food access and agricultural recovery and reveal underlying socioecological knowledge that may contribute to a more climate resilient food system in Puerto Rico. Although the hurricane resulted in significant damages, farmers contributed to post-disaster food access by sharing a variety of surviving fruits, vegetables, and root crops among community members. Practices such as crop diversification, seed banking, and soil conservation were identified as climate resilient farm management strategies, and smallholder farmer networks were discussed as a promising solution to amass resources and bolster agricultural productivity. These recommendations were shared in a narrative highlighting socioecological identity, self-sufficiency, community and cultural heritage, and collaborative agency as integral to agricultural resilience. Efforts to promote climate resilience in Puerto Rico must leverage smallholder farmers’ socioecological expertise to reclaim a more equitable, sustainable, and community-owned food system. (shrink)
In the anthropology of Gregory of Elvira there converge different lines of thought. On the one hand he is very dependent on Origen, on the other there is to be found in him the mental framework of Irenaeus and he quotes word for word long passages from Tertullian. The article attempts to determine to what extent, starting from those influences he encountered, Gregory has developed a personal vision of the relationship between Adam and Christ along the double line of (...) the Pauline parallel : sin and grace, initial creation and eschatological fulfilment. If some characteristic passages stress much this second aspect, the majority of the texts analyzed concentrate primarily on the theme of redemption. The reason for the prefiguration of Christ in the creation of Adam, so important for Irenaeus and Tertullian, does not have in Gregory the prominent place which one might have expected to find. (shrink)
Al-ʽĀmirī’s Chapters on Metaphysical Topics are an impressive example of the fusing of Greek Neoplatonism with Islamic Theology. Being a paraphrase of the Proclean Elements of Theology , they provide a better understanding of the tradition of the Liber de Causis in Arabic.
The relation between Jesus and the Spirit appears in diverse occasions and in different contexts in Gregory. Jesus has sanctified the waters in his baptism, from his body springs the Spirit whom he has received in the Jordan, he is the «anointed», the «Christ» par excellence who gives the Holy Spirit to people at Pentecost. The theology of the baptism of the Lord calls for special attention; it takes place at an interesting moment of transition. On the one hand, the (...) effusion of the Spirit on the humanity of Jesus does not create any problem for Gregory who distinguishes it clearly from the incarnation of the Son. On the other hand, the initiative of the Father in this unction is not paid special attention to, nor does it seem that it has a special significance for Jesus himself and the beginning of his mission in the world. However, much stress is given to the ecclesiological dimension of the descent of the Spirit in the baptism of Christ. On him comes the Spirit in fullness, as he will also abide in fullness in the whole Church which is his Body. Each of the Christians receives only a partial gift which must contribute to the perfection of the whole. (shrink)
Ce compte rendu a déjà paru sous le titre « Le rythme : une des formes concrètes du temps. » sur EspacesTemps.net le 2 août 2021. M. Antonioli, G. Drevon, L. Gwiazdzinski, V. Kaufmann & L. Pattaroni, Manifeste pour une politique des rythmes, Lausanne, EPFL Press, 2021, 168 p. Le Manifeste pour une politique des rythmes est un argumentaire pour la reconnaissance de la nature rythmique des pathologies du capitalisme et la nécessité de politiques y répondant en termes d'émancipation, de (...) mise - Recensions. (shrink)
Tradicionalmente el discurso narrativo, poético o mítico ha servido de vehículo para trasmitir contenidos de orden teológico y metafísico. Es decir, el concepto necesita de la representación para un mejor y más profundo desarrollo temático. Un caso ejemplar de este fenómeno lo encontramos en el llamado swedenborgismo literario, esto es, en la utilización de la figura de Emanuel Swedenborg como motivo y argumento en poetas y novelistas. La pregunta es si el swerdenborgismo literario es tan solo un pretexto estilístico o (...) bien obedece a razones de mayor calado filosófico o religioso. J. L. Borges se nos presenta como modelo de este planteamiento. (shrink)
InhaltVorwortSiglenverzeichnisDaniel BREAZEALE: »Der Blitz der Einsicht« and »der Akt der Evidenz«. A Theme from Fichte’s Berlin Introductions to PhilosophyJürgen STAHL: Von der Form der Anschauung zur Anschauung der Form. Zu Fichtes Verständnis des Formbegriffs Albert MUES: Die Position der Anschauung im Wissen oder Die Position der Anschauung in der Welt. Der Unsinn der SubjektphilosophieChristoph ASMUTH: Transzendentalphilosophie oder absolute Metaphysik? Grundsätzliche Fragen an Fichtes SpätphilosophieMarek J. SIEMEK: Unendlichkeit und Schranke. Zum Fichteschen Entwurf einer transzendentalen Ontologie des WissensTom ROCKMORE: On Fichte and (...) IdealismSabine AMMON: Realismus oder Idealismus? – Irrealismus!Akira OMINE: Der Begriff des Übersinnlichen in der Philosophie FichtesRoderich BARTH: Wahrheit als Sein von Einheit. Die gewißheitstheoretische Reformulierung des absoluten Wahrheitsbegriffs in Fichtes Phänomenologie von 1804-IIArkadij LUKJANOW: Auf der Suche nach einer neuen Theorie des Absoluten. Die Idee der Synthesis in den späteren Systemen von Fichte und Schelling«Lu De VOS: Der Gedanke des Lebens in den späten Schriften FichtesMichael GERTEN: Geistige Blindheit und der Sinn für Philosophie. Das systematische Problem einer Einleitung in Fichtes WissenschaftslehreKai GREGOR: »Revolution der Gesinnung« und »Vollendung der Freiheit« – Wesen und Möglichkeit höherer Lebensformen bei Kant und FichteVioletta L. WAIBEL: Die bildende Kraft des Wissens vom Wissen in der Spätphilosophie Johann Gottlieb Fichtes Elvira GAREEWA: Wissen als ein freies und selbständiges Leben in den »Thatsachen des Bewußtseyns« Franco GILLI: Die Präsenz der ›Populärphilosophie‹ im Spätwerk FichtesHans Georg von MANZ: Die Funktion der »Tatsachen des Bewußtseins« im Blick auf die Wissenschaftslehre George di GIOVANNI: Sacramentalizing the World: On Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre of 1810Stamatios D. GEROGIORGAKIS: Der Begriff Schema in Fichtes Spätwerk. Seine Unterschiede zum Schemabegriff in Fichtes Frühwerk und seine Einbettung in der philosophischen Tradition vor KantJacinto Rivera de ROSALES: Die transzendentale Logik . Ihr systematischer Ort und ihre BedeutungAlessandro BERTINETTO: Die transzendentale Argumentation in der Transzendentalen Logik FichtesMarc MAESSCHALCK: Attention et réflexivité dans la Logique de 1812 et la dernière philosophie de Fichte. (shrink)
Reviewed Works:Andrea Sorbi, Complexity, Logic, and Recursion Theory.Klaus Ambos-Spies, Elvira Mayordomo, Resource-Bounded Measure and Randomness.Marat Arslanov, Degree Structures in Local Degree Theory.Jose L. Balcazar, Ricard Gavalda, Montserrat Hermo, Compressibility of Infinite Binary Sequences.S. Barry Cooper, Beyond Godel's Theorem: The Failure to Capture Information Content.Robert A. Di Paola, Franco Montagna, Progressions of Theories of Bounded Arithmetic.Rodney G. Downey, On Presentations of Algebraic Structures.Sophie Fischer, Lane Hemaspaandra, Leen Torenvliet, Witness-Isomorphic Reductions and Local Search.William Gasarch, Carl H. Smith, A Survey of Inductive (...) Inference with an Emphasis on Queries.Andre Nies, A Uniformity of Degree Structures.Piergiorgio Odifreddi, Short Course on Logic, Algebra, and Topology.Andrea Sorbi, The Enumeration Degrees of the $\sigma^0_2$ Sets.Peter van Emde Boas, The Convenience of Tilings. (shrink)
I explore some of the ways that assumptions about the nature of substance shape metaphysical debates about the structure of Reality. Assumptions about the priority of substance play a role in an argument for monism, are embedded in certain pluralist metaphysical treatments of laws of nature, and are central to discussions of substantivalism and relationalism. I will then argue that we should reject such assumptions and collapse the categorical distinction between substance and property.
This essay develops Kant’s theory of reform to theorize racial justice reform. I assess the function of Kant’s philosophy of race as part of his nonideal theory of justice, which offers a racist pragmatic anthropology that uses the concept of race to determine the practical effectiveness of legislative reason. His philosophy of race defends a teleological account of the natural history of the human species to fulfill the requirements of justice and assumes that certain racial groups have failed to develop (...) their innate capacity for legislative reason. I show that we need an alternative Kantian nonideal theory of justice that demonstrates how legislative reason actualizes practical freedom. Rather than appeal to anthropology, I expand Kant’s model of public reason to advance racial justice reform under the conditions of partial compliance to the requirements of justice in a profoundly nonideal republic such as the U.S. I then showcase the promise—and limits—of the a priori ideals of citizenship and publicity for racial justice reform and introduce the ideal of interracial civic fellowship to guide the public use of reason in nonideal circumstances. (shrink)
The article analyses whether it is correct to extrapolate the concept of "meaning in life" developed by Thaddeus Metz to the doctrines of ancient philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas. Is Metz’ concept of "purposes" that make "human life" meaningful analogous to Aquinas’ concept of "ultimate goal of man"? Significant points of Metz’ conception of "meaning in life" in our article are described and compared with Aquinas’ conception of "ultimate goal of man." As it turns out, these conceptions are only superficially similar. (...) In fact, they are profoundly different: (1) Aquinas is talking about the "goal of man", which implies objective teleology incompatible with Metz’ "naturalism", and is not talking about "meaning in life" (and even "purpose of life"); (2) "ultimate goal of man", for Aquinas, is intended to provide salvation and eternal life for man, not to make life "significant" in this world. -/- Thus, Metz and Thomas not only use different terminology, but also address different problems. They deal with different questions, not just give different answers to the same question (about the "meaning in life"). Metz’s extrapolation may be correct, when viewed as a kind of rational reconstruction. However, Metz does not make appropriate reservations and groundlessly unifies heterogeneous problems. The article shows that more historically oriented methodology avoids impropriety in the exercise of rational reconstruction of "meaning in life" in the field of ancient and medieval philosophies. (shrink)
The structure of Chiodi's book is based on Vuillemin's important hermeneutical thesis that existentialism is one more step in the program of the romantics to give an absolute foundation to finite reality through the establishment of necessary relations between subjectivity and being. These relations, once revealed, would dispel the facticity and contingency in which the natural world is enshrouded. The role of Heidegger in this tradition involves one further dialectical twist, since Heidegger centers all Western Philosophy, including his own, around (...) the problem of ground in the manner proposed by the romantics. The suggested dialectical twist is then Heidegger's Kehre, a step beyond the radical contingency of Dasein in Sein und Zeit. Indeed, this contingency, once reached, shows unequivocally the failure of the romantic program. The ground cannot be ontologically connected with any object nor with the subject; it is rather the necessary history of the ground that determines all categorial differentiations in the world, including the reflective differentiation of subject-objects. Thus it becomes important to distinguish Heidegger from Hegel since, in both, history and necessity are characteristics of the ground. Chiodi gets to the bottom of this matter by pointing to the transfer of negativity from the process of history to the end of history. For Heidegger what is necessary is the repeated withdrawal of the ground so that it may never be confused with that which is known in any revelation or through all of them. This move, though clear, would still leave a fundamental ambiguity in the later philosophy of Heidegger: language, which acts as messenger from the ground to the world, must reflect the superabundance of Being from the standpoint of the ground while it only reflects possibilities of being from the standpoint of the world. This is an ambiguity that Heidegger would want to maintain. Chiodi's interpretation of Heidegger as a neo-platonist totally destroys this ambiguity and with it the very delicate balance created by Heidegger between infinite meaning and the ability of finite words to dwell upon it.--A. de L. M. (shrink)
G. Deledalle is the author of a Histoire de la philosophie américaine, and of some excellent studies on Dewey, such as La pédagogie de Dewey, philosophie de la continuité, and "Durkheim et Dewey". These are all works that deserve full attention by students of the Golden Age of American philosophy. For a European, Deledalle has an unusual capacity to detect the vitality and freshness, but also the depth, of the growth of higher education in the U.S. in the first half (...) of this century. At the heart of this growth were philosophical ideas, and in particular those of Dewey. Philosophy did not have then dictatorial or competitive designs regarding education, the social and political sciences, psychology, or the natural sciences. It freely mingled with them, not just imparting methodological or epistemological rigor but also contributing some insights and giving the hypotheses and conclusions in these fields the character of "experiences." Experience is the guiding theme of this rich and complicated work, covering a multitude of subjects and positions. The treatment is divided into six parts dealing respectively with Dewey's leanings toward unitary experience, organic experience, dynamic experience, functional experience, instrumental experience, and transactional experience. In the study of the intellectual of Dewey's life practically all of his production is critically examined by Deledalle: a monumental task in itself, made possible by the critical bibliography of Milton Hasley Thomas. There is enough early biographical detail to make this work an effective and affectionate intellectual portrait. The best pages of this work are devoted to a thorough explication and comparative study of Dewey's final synthesis of experience. There are very helpful comparative references to Marx, Freud, Bergson, and Heidegger, and also indispensable parallels and contrasts with Peirce, James, and Whitehead. This is not a modest contribution from a regional point of view: Deledalle is, perhaps more than anybody else, aware of an ongoing international dialogue on Dewey, a dialogue that is preserving experience as a problem-complex at the front line of contemporary reflection.--A. de L. M. (shrink)
This chapter introduces W.E.B. Du Bois’s original political thought and his strategies for political advocacy. It is limited to explaining the pressure he puts on the liberal social contract tradition, which prioritizes the public values of freedom and equality for establishing fair and inclusive terms of political membership. However, unlike most liberal theorists, Du Bois’s political thought concentrates on the politics of race, colonialism, gender, and labor, among other themes, in order to redefine how political theorists and activists should build (...) a democratic polity that is truly free and equal for all. Additionally, this chapter defines some key concepts Du Bois developed to scrutinize a white-controlled world that does not welcome black and brown persons as moral equals. These trailblazing concepts include: the doctrine of racialism, double consciousness, and Pan-Africanism. Finally, this chapter defends Du Bois’s contributions to black feminist thought and American labor politics, which inspired major social justice movements in the twentieth century, in which he played a notable role. (shrink)
This article provides the foundation for a new predictive theory of animal learning that is based upon a simple logical model. The knowledge of experimental subjects at a given time is described using logical equations. These logical equations are then used to predict a subject’s response when presented with a known or a previously unknown situation. This new theory suc- cessfully anticipates phenomena that existing theories predict, as well as phenomena that they cannot. It provides a theoretical account for phenomena (...) that are beyond the domain of existing models, such as extinction and the detection of novelty, from which “external inhibition” can be explained. Examples of the methods applied to make predictions are given using previously published results. The present theory proposes a new way to envision the minimal functions of the nervous system, and provides possible new insights into the way that brains ultimately create and use knowledge about the world. (shrink)
Using a sample of 124 managers and 248 subordinates, this study examines the mediating effect of subordinates’ job satisfaction in the relationship between ethical leadership and subordinate organizational citizenship and counter-productive work behaviour in the Colombian context. We additionally analyse the effect of ethical leadership on subordinates’ perception of leaders’ performance. Factor analyses of the ethical leadership scale revealed two factors, ethical person and ethical guidance, which were differentially associated to the outcomes. We offer an explanation from three cultural dimensions (...) by which Colombian employees seem to be more willing to follow leaders’ ethical example as a way to strengthen their membership to the leader's group, than leaders ethical disciplining by which norms are imposed. These findings have a number of implications for organizations and managers who aim to improve their employees’ behaviour. Our advice to them is that leaders’ deeds have a greater impact than their ethical words. (shrink)