Taxa and homologues can in our view be construed both as kinds and as individuals. However, the conceptualization of taxa as natural kinds in the sense of homeostatic property cluster kinds has been criticized by some systematists, as it seems that even such kinds cannot evolve due to their being homeostatic. We reply by arguing that the treatment of transformational and taxic homologies, respectively, as dynamic and static aspects of the same homeostatic property cluster kind represents a good perspective for (...) supporting the conceptualization of taxa as kinds. The focus on a phenomenon of homology based on causal processes (e.g., connectivity, activity-function, genetics, inheritance, and modularity) and implying relationship with modification yields a notion of natural kinds conforming to the phylogenetic-evolutionary framework. Nevertheless, homeostatic property cluster kinds in taxonomic and evolutionary practice must be rooted in the primacy of epistemological classification (homology as observational properties) over metaphysical generalization (series of transformation and common ancestry as unobservational processes). The perspective of individuating characters exclusively by historical-transformational independence instead of their developmental, structural, and functional independence fails to yield a sufficient practical interplay between theory and observation. Purely ontological and ostensional perspectives in evolution and phylogeny (e.g., an ideographic character concept and PhyloCode’s ‘individualism’ of clades) may be pragmatically contested in the case of urgent issues in biodiversity research, conservation, and systematics. (shrink)
RESUMO: Gostaria aqui de contribuir tanto à compreensão das concepções de Hegel acerca da linguagem quanto para uma apreciação da interlocução entre essas concepções e alguns desenvolvimentos na filosofia pós-hegeliana. O tema mais geral consiste em evidenciar os esforços de Hegel para estabelecer uma relação intrínseca entre experiência e linguagem. Primeiramente, tomando como ponto de partida questões diretivas da epistemologia moderna, gostaria de compreender traços da concepção hegeliana de linguagem no contexto de uma tematização intersubjetivista da validade objetiva. Em segundo (...) lugar, gostaria de refletir sobre a relação entre metafísica inferencial e cognição. Finalmente, depois de tentar respaldar a tese de que Hegel antecipa a questão de uma tensão entre o gramatical e a historicidade do léxico, mostro como a conexão entre a guinada ontológica na hermenêutica e a doutrina hegeliana da sentença especulativa conduz à experiência do inacabamento linguístico do sentido poético. ABSTRACT: This paper attempts to examine Hegel's comprehension of language and evaluate its relation to some themes in contemporary philosophy. The main purpose consists in pointing out Hegel's attempt to account for the linguistic structure of experience. To begin with, I consider Hegel's comprehension of language in an epistemological context as an effort to ground intersubjective justification of objective validity. Then I discuss the relation between cognition and inferential metaphysics. Finally, after arguing that Hegel anticipates the tension between grammar and lexical historicity, I attempt to show how the connection between the ontological turn in hermeneutics and Hegel's idea of the "speculative sentence" leads to the experience of the unfinishedness of poetic meaning. (shrink)
We present Helmholtz's argument against Weber's electrodynamics. It is related with a fixed charged nonconducting spherical shell and a charged particle moving inside it. Then we utilize Weber's electrodynamics plus Schrödinger's expression for gravitational interactions in order to obtain the equation of motion and to study this situation. We show that this approach avoids the problems pointed out by Helmholtz. Moreover, it indicates that the effective inertial mass of the charged particle will depend not only on the electrostatic potential of (...) the shell but also on its velocity. This is a relevant aspect of Weber's theory. (shrink)
This paper reviews the origin of inertia according to Mach's principle and Weber's law of gravitation. The resulting theory is based on simultaneous nonlocal gravitational interactions between particles in the solar system and others in the remote universe beyond the Milky Way galaxy. It explains the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. A most important implication of the Mach-Weber theory of the force of inertia is the necessity for a large amount of uniformly distributed matter in the galactic universe. This (...) matter could be the source of the cosmic background radiation. Nonlocal inertia forces are compatible with a static universe and also with an expanding universe but the latter would demand slow changes in the mass of particles and the gravitational constant. (shrink)
We present the opinion of some authors who believe there is no force between a stationary charge and a stationary resistive wire carrying a constant current. We show that this force is different from zero and present its main components: the force due to the charges induced in the wire by the test charge and a force proportional to the current in the resistive wire. We also discuss briefly a component of the force proportional to the square of the current (...) which should exist according to some models and another component due to the acceleration of the conduction electrons in a curved wire carrying a dc current (centripetal acceleration). Finally, we analyze experiments showing the existence of the electric field proportional to the current in resistive wires. (shrink)
Alguns filósofos e economistas buscam fundamentar eticamente a economia, a fim de voltar a subordiná-la à política, apelando, inclusive, para uma aproximação entre Marx e Aristóteles a partir da teoria da práxis. Este artigo pretende analisar em que sentido os conceitos aristotélicos de ação, produção, ato e potência exercem influência sobre Marx. Afirma que, contrariamente ao que muitos filósofos da moral defendem, são as investigações de Aristóteles sobre economia que serviram como ponto de partida para a fundamentação da crítica à (...) economia política elaborada por Marx, enquanto que a ética e a política aristotélicas são apenas secundárias para a teoria marxiana. Some philosophers and economists have sought an ethical basis for the economy, to subordinate it to politics, and even to appeal for an approximation between Marx and Aristotle based on a theory of praxis. This article analyzes in what sense the Aristotelian concepts of action, production, act, and power influence Marx. It affirms, contrary to many moral philosophers, that it is Aristotle's investigations of the economy that are the basis of the criticism of political economy developed by Marx, while Aristotelian ethics and politics are only secondary to Marxian theory. (shrink)
Exame da trajetória do Teatro Oficina de São Paulo (1958-1972),no que concerne à sua preocupação de militância política. Por meio de encenações como O rei da vela e Galileu Galilei, o Teatro Oficina demonstra rara sensibilidade para captar as angústias sociais de cada momento, detectando o texto que melhor expressa essa inquietação.
We derive the equation describing the flow of a variable current in straight wires and in coaxial cables from Newton's second law of motion plus Weber's electrodynamics. We show that in both cases the signal propagates at light velocity.
A Síndrome de Kabuki é um distúrbio bastante raro, com múltiplas anomalias congênitas. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever características comportamentais, cognitivas e sociais de uma criança com seis anos de idade com Síndrome de Kabuki, e suas implicações no processo escolar. Como resultados, verif..
Trata de uma leitura do papel da tecnociência no que tange ao esvaziamento ético com o qual nos deparamos. Para tanto, vale-se das abordagens feitas por Jürgen Habermas e Hans Jonas. Neste sentido, opera com alguns conceitos fundamentais de ambos os teóricos, no que se refere ao tema posto. Do primeiro filósofo refletir-se-á acerca do esvaziamento dos significados do mundo da vida face ao caráter instrumentalizador que a razão assumiu após o iluminismo. Do segundo, analisar-se-á o vácuo ético operante diante (...) do poder que foi outorgado ao homem pela tecnociência. (shrink)
ABSTRACT The disparity in the venezuelan demographic transition is a fact known by experts. On this setting, there are four municipalities in Falcón State with a high elder population, one of them is Tocópero. This research had as general objectives to study the estimations of demographic risks and the social politics for elders, people who are 75 and more, from Tocópero Municipality, considering that specialists indicate that, once the demographic oldness has arrived, it is important to study thoroughly the elder (...) population in order to design relevant politics and programs, taking into consideration that it is a vulnerable group. It was an exploratory and descriptive study, with a field-no experimental-transectional design. The sample was intentional. Structured interviews and questionnaires were applied to elders and municipal officials. The data processing was carried out by using quantitative methods. The conclusions indicated that the elder population in Tocópero Municipality had a marked female tendency. In general terms, the adverse effects associated to the estimations of demographic risk were not present in the studied sample. There was no relation between the demographic reality of this municipality and the social politics and programs implemented. The programs concentrated the elder and suppressed the intergenerational contact; the centralism was the key element to understand the present politics of the Venezuelan state towards the oldness. The demographic oldness of this municipality was determined by the way in which the birth of the municipality was approved. (shrink)
In this work we analyze the case of resistive conductor plates carrying constant currents, utilizing surface charge distributions. We obtain the electric potential in the plates and in the space surrounding them. We obtain a non-vanishing electric field outside the conductors. We compare the theoretical results with experimental data present in the literature.
The paper aims at considering Hegel’s concept of right, as it is presented in the Philosophy of Spirit (1805/06). First I attempt to reconstruct the intersubjective ties which ground the development of Hegel’s concept of right in the above-mentioned project of system. Then I present my interpretation for Hegel’s attempt to reformulate the “naturalistic” premises of the contractualist tradition. As it will be shown, my interpretation differs considerably from that defended by Axel Honneth. Finally the paper attempts to compare the (...) discussion of the concept of right in Philosophy of Spirit (1805/06) with the Philosophy of Right (1821). (shrink)
Este trabajo plantea el papel que juega la Providencia tanto en el curso de la historia como en el posible conocimiento de ésta. En ambos casos la Providencia es un factor 'ad extra' en los hechos históricos, que dependen del arbitrio del hombre .This paper questions the role of Providence, as much in the course of history as in the possible knowledge of it. In both cases Providence is an 'ad extra' factor in historical facts, that depend on the freedom (...) of man. (shrink)
Resumo. Neste artigo apontaremos a filosofia kantiana como um sistema que tem como preocupação fundamental o a priori. Isto envolve tanto a razão teórica quanto a razão prática. Esta, por sua vez, dividida em ética e direito. Palavras-chave. Kant, razão teórica, razão prática, ética e direito, a priori.: In this article we will identify the Kantian philosophy as a system, whose fundamental concern a priori. This involves both theoretical reason and practical reason. This, in turn, divided into ethics and law. (...) Keywords. Kant, theoretical reason, practical reason, ethics and law, a priori. (shrink)
Na análise do equilíbrio trabalho-família, tem-se salientado o efeito de extravasamento (spillover). Neste estudo, realizado por entrevista semiestruturada a uma amostra de 102 mães portuguesas (incluindo 79 sinalizadas por mau trato e negligência), abordam-se os impactos da situação profissional da..
A pauta musical foi o primeiro gráfico da Europa”, afirma o autor à página 144 de seu “A Medida da Realidade. Essa é, de fato, a primeira afirmação pretensamente original do livro, já passados quase dois terço da leitura.
This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne's phenomenological analysis of the art spectator's experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.
In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961), and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964) turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with (...) Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982), as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970), I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975) and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986) holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved. (shrink)