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Emiel Krahmer [20]Emiel J. Krahmer [3]
  1. Computational Generation of Referring Expressions: A Survey.Emiel Krahmer & Kees van Deemter - unknown
    This article offers a survey of computational research on referring expressions generation (REG). It introduces the REG problem and describes early work in this area, discussing what basic assumptions lie behind it, and showing how its remit has widened in recent years. We discuss computational frameworks underlying REG, and demonstrate a recent trend that seeks to link up REG algorithms with well-established Knowledge Representation traditions. Considerable attention is given to recent efforts at evaluating REG algorithms and the lessons that they (...)
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  2. A Partial Account of Presupposition Projection.David Beaver & Emiel Krahmer - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):147-182.
    In this paper it is shown how a partial semantics for presuppositions can be given which is empirically more satisfactory than its predecessors, and how this semantics can be integrated with a technically sound, compositional grammar in the Montagovian fashion. Additionally, it is argued that the classical objection to partial accounts of presupposition projection, namely that they lack “flexibility,” is based on a misconception. Partial logics can give rise to flexible predictions without postulating any ad hoc ambiguities. Finally, it is (...)
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  3. Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  4.  52
    How Distractor Objects Trigger Referential Overspecification: Testing the Effects of Visual Clutter and Distractor Distance.Ruud Koolen, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):1617-1647.
    In two experiments, we investigate to what extent various visual saliency cues in realistic visual scenes cause speakers to overspecify their definite object descriptions with a redundant color attribute. The results of the first experiment demonstrate that speakers are more likely to redundantly mention color when visual clutter is present in a scene as compared to when this is not the case. In the second experiment, we found that distractor type and distractor color affect redundant color use: Speakers are most (...)
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  5.  77
    The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference.Ruud Koolen, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):395-411.
    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly include a color attribute when the scene variation is high as compared with when this variation is low (even if this leads to overspecified descriptions). We (...)
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  6.  49
    How Cognitive Load Influences Speakers' Choice of Referring Expressions.Jorrig Vogels, Emiel Krahmer & Alfons Maes - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1396-1418.
    We report on two experiments investigating the effect of an increased cognitive load for speakers on the choice of referring expressions. Speakers produced story continuations to addressees, in which they referred to characters that were either salient or non-salient in the discourse. In Experiment 1, referents that were salient for the speaker were non-salient for the addressee, and vice versa. In Experiment 2, all discourse information was shared between speaker and addressee. Cognitive load was manipulated by the presence or absence (...)
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  7.  8
    Conceptualization in Reference Production: Probabilistic Modeling and Experimental Testing.Roger P. G. van Gompel, Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Rick Snoeren & Emiel J. Krahmer - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (3):345-373.
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  8. Alignment in Interactive Reference Production: Content Planning, Modifier Ordering, and Referential Overspecification.Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):269-289.
    Psycholinguistic studies often look at the production of referring expressions in interactive settings, but so far few referring expression generation algorithms have been developed that are sensitive to earlier references in an interaction. Rather, such algorithms tend to rely on domain-dependent preferences for both content selection and linguistic realization. We present three experiments showing that humans may opt for dispreferred attributes and dispreferred modifier orderings when these were primed in a preceding interaction (without speakers being consciously aware of this). In (...)
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  9. Is It That Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?Emiel Krahmer, Ruud Koolen & Mariët Theune - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):837-841.
    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order. The authors argue that there are potentially many different Preference Orders that could be considered, while often no evidence is available to determine which is a good one. (...)
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  10.  31
    Color in Reference Production: The Role of Color Similarity and Color Codability.Jette Viethen, Thomas Vessem, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S6).
    It has often been observed that color is a highly preferred attribute for use in distinguishing descriptions, that is, referring expressions produced with the purpose of identifying an object within a visual scene. However, most of these observations were based on visual displays containing only colors that were maximally different in hue and for which the language of experimentation possessed basic color terms. The experiments described in this paper investigate whether speakers’ preference for color is reduced if the color of (...)
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  11.  35
    Presupposition and Partiality: Back to the Future.David Beaver & Emiel Krahmer - 1998 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):147-182.
    In this paper it is shown how a partial semantics for presuppositions can be given which is empirically more satisfactory than its predecessors, and how this semantics can be integrated with a technically sound, compositional grammar in the Montagovian fashion. Additionally, it is argued that the classical objection to partial accounts of presupposition projection, namely that they lack “flexibility,” is based on a misconception. Partial logics can give rise to flexible predictions without postulating any ad hoc ambiguities. Finally, it is (...)
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  12.  51
    Negation and Disjunction in Discourse Representation Theory.Krahmer Emiel & Muskens Reinhard - 1995 - Journal of Semantics 12 (4):357-376.
    Classical Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) predicts that an indefinite noun phrase cannot antecede an anaphoric element if the noun phrase is, but the anaphoric element is not, in the scope of a negation; the theory also predicts that no anaphoric links are possible between the two parts of a disjunction. However, it is well known that these predictions meet with counterexamples. In particular, anaphora is often possible if a double negation intervenes between antecedent and anaphoric element, and also if the (...)
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  13.  40
    Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions.Ruud Koolen, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  14. Communicative Gestures and Memory Load.Lisette Mol, Emiel Krahmer, Alfons Maes & Marc Swerts - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
  15.  49
    Imposing Cognitive Constraints on Reference Production: The Interplay Between Speech and Gesture During Grounding.Ingrid Masson‐Carro, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):819-836.
    Past research has sought to elucidate how speakers and addressees establish common ground in conversation, yet few studies have focused on how visual cues such as co-speech gestures contribute to this process. Likewise, the effect of cognitive constraints on multimodal grounding remains to be established. This study addresses the relationship between the verbal and gestural modalities during grounding in referential communication. We report data from a collaborative task where repeated references were elicited, and a time constraint was imposed to increase (...)
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  16.  36
    Editorial: Models of Reference.Kees van Deemter, Emiel Krahmer, Albert Gatt & Roger P. G. van Gompel - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  17.  34
    Talking About Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions.Adriana Baltaretu, Emiel J. Krahmer, Carel van Wijk & Alfons Maes - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  18.  25
    Production and Comprehension of Pantomimes Used to Depict Objects.Karin van Nispen, W. Mieke E. van de Sandt-Koenderman & Emiel Krahmer - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  19.  29
    Children’s Spontaneous Emotional Expressions While Receiving Wanted Prizes in the Presence of Peers.Mandy Visser, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  20.  63
    Description Theory, LTAGs and Underspecified Semantics.Reinhard Muskens & Emiel Krahmer - 1998 - In Anne Abeillé, Tilman Becker, Giorgio Satta & K. Vijay-Shanker (eds.), Fourth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Frameworks. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. pp. 112-115.
    An attractive way to model the relation between an underspecified syntactic representation and its completions is to let the underspecified representation correspond to a logical description and the completions to the models of that description. This approach, which underlies the Description Theory of Marcus et al. 1983 has been integrated in Vijay-Shanker 1992 with a pure unification approach to Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammars (Joshi et al. 1975, Schabes 1990). We generalize Description Theory by integrating semantic information, that is, we propose to (...)
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  21.  12
    The Effect of Interaction Topic and Social Ties on Media Choice and the Role of Four Underlying Mechanisms.Daniëlle N. M. Bleize, Emiel J. Krahmer, Alexander P. Schouten, Marjolijn L. Antheunis & Emmelyn A. J. Croes - 2018 - Communications 43 (1):47-73.
    This study employed a scenario-based approach whereby participants were asked to choose which communication channel they prefer in certain situations. The first aim was to determine the effect of the topic of interactions and social ties on channel choice. The second aim was to examine the underlying mechanisms in the relation between interaction topic and social ties and channel choice. A questionnaire was administered among 238 participants, who were presented five communication scenarios with topics of low and high intimacy and (...)
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