Emile Durkheim's "Antis?mitisme et crise sociale," written in 1899 during the Dreyfus Affair in France, is introduced. The introduction summarizes the principal contributions that "Antis?mitisme et crise sociale" makes to the sociology of anti-Semitism, relates those contributions to Durkheim's broader theoretical assumptions and concerns, situates his analysis of anti-Semitism in its social and historical context, contrasts it to other analyses of anti-Semitism (Marxist and Zionist) that were prominent in Durkheim's time, indicates some of the revisions and additions that a fuller (...) and more complete Durkheimian theory of anti-Semitism would entail, and highlights the significance of Durkheim's ideas for the contemporary study of ethnic and racial antagonism. While noting the limitations of Durkheim's analysis, the introduction concludes that "Antis?mitisme et crise sociale" has sadly regained its relevance in the light of a revival of anti-Semitism at the turn of the millennium. (shrink)
In Professional Ethics and Civic Morals , Emile Durkheim outlined the core of his theory of morality and social rights which was to dominate his work throughout the course of his life. In Durkheim's view, sociology is a science of morals which are objective social facts, and these moral regulations form the basis of individual rights and obligations. This book is crucial to an understanding of Durkheim's sociology because it contains his much-neglected theory of the state as a moral institution, (...) and it provides an understanding of his critique of anomie and egoistic individualism. The growing interest in cultural revolution and moral regulation make this edition of Durkheim's classic work especially timely. The new preface by Bryan Turner sets the book in its intellectual and historical context, and illustrates the relevance of this work to present day debates on the state, society, and moral regulation. (shrink)
This article aims at a constructive and argumentative engagement between the cognitive science of religion (CSR) and philosophical and theological reflection on the imago Dei. The Swiss theologian Emil Brunner argued that the theological notion that humans were created in the image of God entails that there is a “point of contact” for revelation to occur. This article argues that Brunner's notion resonates quite strongly with the findings of the CSR. The first part will give a short overview of (...) the CSR. The second part deals with Brunner's idea of the imago Dei and the “point of contact.” The third and final part of the article outlines a model of revelation that is in line with Brunner's thought and the CSR. The aim of this article is to show how the naturalistic methodology of the CSR provides a fertile new perspective on several theological issues and thereby enriches theological reflection. (shrink)
This biography of Emil du Bois-Reymond, the most important forgotten intellectual of the nineteenth century, received an Honorable Mention for History of Science, Medicine, and Technology at the 2013 PROSE Awards, was shortlisted for the 2014 John Pickstone Prize (Britain's most prestigious award for the best scholarly book in the history of science), and was named by the American Association for the Advancement of Science as one of the Best Books of 2014. -/- In his own time (1818–1896) du (...) Bois-Reymond grew famous for his groundbreaking research in neuroscience and his provocative addresses on politics and culture. His discovery of the electrical transmission of nerve signals, his innovations in laboratory instrumentation, and his reductionist methodology all helped lay the foundations of modern neuroscience. -/- In addition to describing the pioneering experiments that earned du Bois-Reymond a seat in the Prussian Academy of Sciences and a professorship at the University of Berlin, this book also recounts du Bois-Reymond’s family origins, private life, public service, and lasting influence. In talks that touched on science, philosophy, history, and literature, du Bois-Reymond introduced Darwin to German students (triggering two days of debate in the Prussian parliament), asked on the eve of the Franco-Prussian War whether France had forfeited its right to exist, and proclaimed the mystery of consciousness, heralding the age of doubt. The first modern biography in any language, "Emil du Bois-Reymond" recovers an important chapter in the history of science, the history of ideas, and the history of Germany. (shrink)
We investigate the computational complexity of deciding whether a given inference rule is admissible for some modal and superintuitionistic logics. We state a broad condition under which the admissibility problem is coNEXP-hard. We also show that admissibility in several well-known systems (including GL, S4, and IPC) is in coNE, thus obtaining a sharp complexity estimate for admissibility in these systems.
Paru pour la première fois en 1908, l’essai d’Émile Meyerson Identité et réalité demeure aujourd’hui un classique de la philosophie des sciences, dont A. Koyré a salué l’importance.Un premier aspect important de cet ouvrage concerne la conception et le statut même de la science . Meyerson développe une critique profonde de la conception positiviste de la science formulée par Auguste Comte, en montrant l’impossibilité de penser des rapports phénoménaux sans leur présupposer des supports : la « légalité » ne peut (...) pas se résoudre dans la « causalité ». C’est la raison pour laquelle l’auteur s’efforce de définir un substantialisme renouvelé, apte à échapper aux critiques positivistes.L’autre thèse essentielle de cet essai se rapporte bien entendu au célèbre concept de « causalité scientifique » : le concept de légalité mis en jeu dans la conception positiviste de la science ne suffit pas, car la science cherche également à expliquer les phénomènes; et c’est précisement cette explication, qui consiste dans l’identification de l’antécédent au conéquent, que l’auteur appelle la causalité scientifique, et qu’il distingue et oppose à la causalité théologique aussi bien qu’à la causalité efficiente. (shrink)
We develop canonical rules capable of axiomatizing all systems of multiple-conclusion rules over K4 or IPC, by extension of the method of canonical formulas by Zakharyaschev . We use the framework to give an alternative proof of the known analysis of admissible rules in basic transitive logics, which additionally yields the following dichotomy: any canonical rule is either admissible in the logic, or it is equivalent to an assumption-free rule. Other applications of canonical rules include a generalization of the Blok–Esakia (...) theorem and the theory of modal companions to systems of multiple-conclusion rules or (finitary structural global) consequence relations, and a characterization of splittings in the lattices of consequence relations over monomodal or superintuitionistic logics with the finite model property. (shrink)
We study the extension 123) of the theory S21 by instances of the dual weak pigeonhole principle for p-time functions, dWPHPx2x. We propose a natural framework for formalization of randomized algorithms in bounded arithmetic, and use it to provide a strengthening of Wilkie's witnessing theorem for S21+dWPHP. We construct a propositional proof system WF , which captures the Π1b-consequences of S21+dWPHP. We also show that WF p-simulates the Unstructured Extended Nullstellensatz proof system of Buss et al. 256). We prove that (...) dWPHP is equivalent to a statement asserting the existence of a family of Boolean functions with exponential circuit complexity. Building on this result, we formalize the Nisan–Wigderson construction in a conservative extension of S21+dWPHP. (shrink)
We develop an arithmetical theory and its variant , corresponding to “slightly nonuniform” . Our theories sit between and , and allow evaluation of log-depth bounded fan-in circuits under limited conditions. Propositional translations of -formulas provable in admit L-uniform polynomial-size Frege proofs.
Historians have convincingly shown the extent to which Protestantism played a role in the founding of the Third Republic, undermining the once canonical claim that republicanism and religion were implacably hostile opponents in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Catholics, however, continue to be viewed as nearly universally antirepublican. Analyzing the writings of philosopher Emile Boutroux and his students, this article shows how the specifically Catholic concern with the relationship between free will and scientific concepts of determinism both influenced (...) the direction of French philosophy of science into the twentieth century and provided a framework for defending the Republic at the height of the Dreyfus affair. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between various conditions implying essential undecidability: our main result is that there exists a theory T in which all partially recursive functions are representable, yet T does not interpret Robinson’s theory R. To this end, we borrow tools from model theory — specifically, we investigate model-theoretic properties of the model completion of the empty theory in a language with function symbols. We obtain a certain characterization of ∃∀ theories interpretable in (...) existential theories in the process. (shrink)
We investigate the substitution Frege () proof system and its relationship to extended Frege () in the context of modal and superintuitionistic propositional logics. We show that is p-equivalent to tree-like , and we develop a “normal form” for -proofs. We establish connections between for a logic L, and for certain bimodal expansions of L.We then turn attention to specific families of modal and si logics. We prove p-equivalence of and for all extensions of , all tabular logics, all logics (...) of finite depth and width, and typical examples of logics of finite width and infinite depth. In most cases, we actually show an equivalence with the usual system for classical logic with respect to a naturally defined translation.On the other hand, we establish exponential speed-up of over for all modal and si logics of infinite branching, extending recent lower bounds by P. Hrubeš. We develop a model-theoretical characterization of maximal logics of infinite branching to prove this result. (shrink)
We show how to formalize approximate counting via hash functions in subsystems of bounded arithmetic, using variants of the weak pigeonhole principle. We discuss several applications, including a proof of the tournament principle, and an improvement on the known relationship of the collapse of the bounded arithmetic hierarchy to the collapse of the polynomial-time hierarchy.
This article provides a summary overview of the ideas on medical anthropology and anthropological medicine of the German philosopher-psychiatrist Viktor Emil von Gebsattel (1883–1974), and discusses in more detail his views on the doctor-patient relationship. It is argued that Von Gebsattel''s warning against a dehumanization of medicine when the person of both patient and physician are not explicitly present in their relationship remains valid notwithstanding the modern emphasis on respect for patient (and provider) autonomy.