29 found
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  1. Presuppositions of Quantified Sentences: Experimental Data. [REVIEW]Emmanuel Chemla - 2009 - Natural Language Semantics 17 (4):299-340.
    Some theories assume that sentences like (i) with a presupposition trigger in the scope of a quantifier carry an existential presupposition, as in (ii); others assume that they carry a universal presupposition, as in (iii). No student knows that he is lucky. Existential presupposition: At least one student is lucky.Universal presupposition: Every student is lucky. This work is an experimental investigation of this issue in French. Native speakers were recruited to evaluate the robustness of the inference from (i) to (iii). (...)
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  2. Color Adjectives, Standards, and Thresholds: An Experimental Investigation.Nat Hansen & Emmanuel Chemla - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (3):1--40.
    Are color adjectives ("red", "green", etc.) relative adjectives or absolute adjectives? Existing theories of the meaning of color adjectives attempt to answer that question using informal ("armchair") judgments. The informal judgments of theorists conflict: it has been proposed that color adjectives are absolute with standards anchored at the minimum degree on the scale, that they are absolute but have near-midpoint standards, and that they are relative. In this paper we report two experiments, one based on entailment patterns and one based (...)
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  3. Experimenting on Contextualism.Nat Hansen & Emmanuel Chemla - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (3):286-321.
    This paper concerns the central method of generating evidence in support of contextualist theories, what we call context shifting experiments. We begin by explaining the standard design of context shifting experiments, which are used in both quantitative surveys and more traditional thought experiments to show how context affects the content of natural language expressions. We discuss some recent experimental studies that have tried and failed to find evidence that confirms contextualist predictions about the results of context shifting experiments, and consider (...)
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  4.  23
    Processing Inferences at the Semantics/Pragmatics Frontier: Disjunctions and Free Choice.Emmanuel Chemla & Lewis Bott - 2014 - Cognition 130 (3):380-396.
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  5.  24
    A Psycholinguistic Study of the Exhaustive Readings of Embedded Questions.Alexandre Cremers & Emmanuel Chemla - 2016 - Journal of Semantics 33 (1):49-85.
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  6. Incremental Vs. Symmetric Accounts of Presupposition Projection: An Experimental Approach.Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):177-226.
    The presupposition triggered by an expression E is generally satisfied by information that comes before rather than after E in the sentence or discourse. In Heim’s classic theory (1983), this left-right asymmetry is encoded in the lexical semantics of dynamic connectives and operators. But several recent analyses offer a more nuanced approach, in which presupposition satisfaction has two separate components: a general principle (which varies from theory to theory) specifies under what conditions a presupposition triggered by an expression E is (...)
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  7.  36
    Scalar Implicatures of Embedded Disjunction.Luka Crnič, Emmanuel Chemla & Danny Fox - 2015 - Natural Language Semantics 23 (4):271-305.
    Sentences with disjunction in the scope of a universal quantifier, Every A is P or Q, tend to give rise to distributive inferences that each of the disjuncts holds of at least one individual in the domain of the quantifier, Some A is P & Some A is Q. These inferences are standardly derived as an entailment of the meaning of the sentence together with the scalar implicature that it is not the case that either disjunct holds of every individual (...)
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  8.  35
    Monkey Semantics: Two ‘Dialects’ of Campbell’s Monkey Alarm Calls.Philippe Schlenker, Emmanuel Chemla, Kate Arnold, Alban Lemasson, Karim Ouattara, Sumir Keenan, Claudia Stephan, Robin Ryder & Klaus Zuberbühler - 2014 - Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (6):439-501.
    We develop a formal semantic analysis of the alarm calls used by Campbell’s monkeys in the Tai forest and on Tiwai island —two sites that differ in the main predators that the monkeys are exposed to. Building on data discussed in Ouattara et al. :e7808, 2009a; PNAS 106: 22026–22031, 2009b and Arnold et al., we argue that on both sites alarm calls include the roots krak and hok, which can optionally be affixed with -oo, a kind of attenuating suffix; in (...)
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  9.  24
    Can We Agree About Agree?Emmanuel Chemla & B. R. George - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):243-264.
    This squib attempts to constrain semantic theories of agree wh constructions by broadening the data set and collecting naive speakers’ intuitions. Overall, our data suggest relatively permissive truth-conditions for these constructions. They also suggest a previously undiscussed presupposition for agree wh and also indicate that agree wh is not straightforwardly reducible to agree that. Although some accounts suggest differences in truth conditions among different asymmetrical agree with constructions and symmetrical agree constructions, we do not find any indication of such truth-conditional (...)
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  10. Linguistic Experiments and Ordinary Language Philosophy.Nat Hansen & Emmanuel Chemla - unknown
    J.L. Austin is regarded as having an especially acute ear for fine distinctions of meaning overlooked by other philosophers. Austin employs an informal experimental approach to gathering evidence in support of these fine distinctions in meaning, an approach that has become a standard technique for investigating meaning in both philosophy and linguistics. In this paper, we subject Austin's methods to formal experimental investigation. His methods produce mixed results: We find support for his most famous distinction, drawn on the basis of (...)
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  11.  5
    What Do Monkey Calls Mean?Philippe Schlenker, Emmanuel Chemla & Klaus Zuberbühler - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (12):894-904.
  12.  21
    Two Methods to Find Truth-Value Gaps and Their Application to the Projection Problem of Homogeneity.Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla - 2015 - Natural Language Semantics 23 (3):205-248.
    Presupposition, vagueness, and oddness can lead to some sentences failing to have a clear truth value. The homogeneity property of plural predication with definite descriptions may also create truth-value gaps: The books are written in Dutch is true if all relevant books are in Dutch, false if none of them are, and neither true nor false if, say, half of the books are written in Dutch. We study the projection property of homogeneity by deploying methods of general interest to identify (...)
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  13.  20
    Experiments on the Acceptability and Possible Readings of Questions Embedded Under Emotive-Factives.Alexandre Cremers & Emmanuel Chemla - 2017 - Natural Language Semantics 25 (3):223-261.
    Emotive-factive predicates, such as surprise or be happy, are a source of empirical and theoretical puzzles in the literature on embedded questions. Although they embed wh-questions, they seem not to embed whether-questions. They have complex interactions with negative polarity items such as any or even, and they have been argued to preferentially give rise to weakly exhaustive readings with embedded questions. We offer an empirical overview of the situation in three experiments collecting acceptability judgments, monotonicity judgments, and truth-value judgments. The (...)
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  14.  7
    Connectedness as a constraint on exhaustification.Émile Enguehard & Emmanuel Chemla - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-34.
    “Scalar implicatures” is a phrase used to refer to some inferences arising from the competition between alternatives: typically, “Mary read some of the books” ends up conveying that Mary did not read all books, because one could have said “Mary read all books”. The so-called grammatical theory argues that these inferences obtain from the application of a covert operator \, which not only has the capability to negate alternative sentences, but also the capability to be embedded within sentences under other (...)
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  15.  15
    Training and Timing Local Scalar Enrichments Under Global Pragmatic Pressures.Emmanuel Chemla, Chris Cummins & Raj Singh - 2016 - Journal of Semantics:ffw006.
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  16.  36
    Connecting Content and Logical Words.Emmanuel Chemla, Brian Buccola & Isabelle Dautriche - 2019 - Journal of Semantics 36 (3):531-547.
    Content words are generally connected: there are no gaps in their denotations; no noun means ‘table or shoe’ or ‘animal or house’. We explore a formulation of connectedness which is applicable to content and logical words alike, and which compares well with the classic notion of monotonicity for quantifiers. On a first inspection, logical words satisfy this generalized version of the connectedness property at least as well as content words do — that is, both in terms of what may be (...)
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  17.  2
    Connectedness as a constraint on exhaustification.Émile Enguehard & Emmanuel Chemla - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-34.
    “Scalar implicatures” is a phrase used to refer to some inferences arising from the competition between alternatives: typically, “Mary read some of the books” ends up conveying that Mary did not read all books, because one could have said “Mary read all books”. The so-called grammatical theory argues that these inferences obtain from the application of a covert operator \, which not only has the capability to negate alternative sentences, but also the capability to be embedded within sentences under other (...)
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  18.  6
    From Many-Valued Consequence to Many-Valued Connectives.Emmanuel Chemla & Paul Egré - forthcoming - Synthese:1-38.
    Given a consequence relation in many-valued logic, what connectives can be defined? For instance, does there always exist a conditional operator internalizing the consequence relation, and which form should it take? In this paper, we pose this question in a multi-premise multi-conclusion setting for the class of so-called intersective mixed consequence relations, which extends the class of Tarskian relations. Using computer-aided methods, we answer extensively for 3-valued and 4-valued logics, focusing not only on conditional operators, but also on what we (...)
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  19. Modularity and Intuitions in Formal Semantics: The Case of Polarity Items.Emmanuel Chemla, Vincent Homer & Daniel Rothschild - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (6):537-570.
    Linguists often sharply distinguish the different modules that support linguistics competence, e.g., syntax, semantics, pragmatics. However, recent work has identified phenomena in syntax (polarity sensitivity) and pragmatics (implicatures), which seem to rely on semantic properties (monotonicity). We propose to investigate these phenomena and their connections as a window into the modularity of our linguistic knowledge. We conducted a series of experiments to gather the relevant syntactic, semantic and pragmatic judgments within a single paradigm. The comparison between these quantitative data leads (...)
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  20.  13
    Suszko’s Problem: Mixed Consequence and Compositionality.Emmanuel Chemla & Paul Égré - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (4):736-767.
    Suszko’s problem is the problem of finding the minimal number of truth values needed to semantically characterize a syntactic consequence relation. Suszko proved that every Tarskian consequence relation can be characterized using only two truth values. Malinowski showed that this number can equal three if some of Tarski’s structural constraints are relaxed. By so doing, Malinowski introduced a case of so-called mixed consequence, allowing the notion of a designated value to vary between the premises and the conclusions of an argument. (...)
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  21.  5
    Competition and Symmetry in an Artificial Word Learning Task.Brian Buccola, Isabelle Dautriche & Emmanuel Chemla - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  22.  84
    Predicting Moral Judgments From Causal Judgments.Emmanuel Chemla, Paul Egré & Philippe Schlenker - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (1):21-48.
    Several factors have been put forward to explain the variability of moral judgments for superficially analogous moral dilemmas, in particular in the paradigm of trolley cases. In this paper we elaborate on Mikhail's view that (i) causal analysis is at the core of moral judgments and that (ii) causal judgments can be quantified by linguistic methods. According to this model, our moral judgments depend both on utilitarian considerations (whether positive effects outweigh negative effects) and on a representation of the causal (...)
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  23.  36
    An Experimental Approach to Adverbial Modification.Emmanuel Chemla - 2009 - In Uli Sauerland & Kazuko Yatsushiro (eds.), Semantics and Pragmatics: From Experiment to Theory. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 249--263.
  24.  38
    Expressible Semantics for Expressible Counterfactuals.Emmanuel Chemla - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):63-80.
    Lewis (1981) showed the equivalence between two dominant semantic frameworks for counterfactuals: ordering semantics, which relies on orders between possible worlds, and premise semantics, which relies on sets of propositions (so-called ordering sources). I define a natural, restricted version of premise semantics, expressible premise semantics, which is based on ordering sources containing only expressible propositions. First, I extend Lewis’ (1981) equivalence result to expressible premise semantics and some corresponding expressible version of ordering semantics. Second, I show that expressible semantics are (...)
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    Connectedness as a constraint on exhaustification.Émile Enguehard & Emmanuel Chemla - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-34.
    “Scalar implicatures” is a phrase used to refer to some inferences arising from the competition between alternatives: typically, “Mary read some of the books” ends up conveying that Mary did not read all books, because one could have said “Mary read all books”. The so-called grammatical theory argues that these inferences obtain from the application of a covert operator \, which not only has the capability to negate alternative sentences, but also the capability to be embedded within sentences under other (...)
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  26.  8
    Revealing Abstract Semantic Mechanisms Through Priming: The Distributive/Collective Contrast.Mora Maldonado, Emmanuel Chemla & Benjamin Spector - 2019 - Cognition 182:171-176.
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  27.  11
    Priming Methods in Semantics and Pragmatics.Mora Maldonado, Benjamin Spector & Emmanuel Chemla - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  28.  1
    Connectedness as a constraint on exhaustification.Émile Enguehard & Emmanuel Chemla - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-34.
    “Scalar implicatures” is a phrase used to refer to some inferences arising from the competition between alternatives: typically, “Mary read some of the books” ends up conveying that Mary did not read all books, because one could have said “Mary read all books”. The so-called grammatical theory argues that these inferences obtain from the application of a covert operator \, which not only has the capability to negate alternative sentences, but also the capability to be embedded within sentences under other (...)
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  29.  1
    Children's Acquisition of Homogeneity in Plural Definite Descriptions.Lyn Tieu, Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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