En el presente artículo se trata un problema filosófico clásico : el camino epistémico entre la percepción y la formación de conceptos. Se propone una posición doctrinal que afirma que la cognición comienza sin lenguaje pero que gracias a él se asciende hasta la inteligencia humana. Se incluye una referencia a dos momentos de la historia de la gnoseología: la tradición aristotélica enriquecida por la filosofía andalusí y el debate filosófico sobre el tema dentro del empirismo inglés del siglo XVII.
This article is devoted to give reasons against the naturalization of logic, in a sense which entails a revision of this science. The paper criticizes each historical important attempt to revise logical laws – intuitionism, quantum logic, alternative logics – and also it tries to argue that the explanation problem of quantum mechanics has nothing to do with a naturalization of logic.
Volumi e saggi Jay Schulkin, Reflections on the Musical Mind. An Evolutionary Perspective , [Michele Gardini, p. 202] • Hans Belting, Faces. Eine Geschichte des Gesichts [Pietro Conte, p. 205] • Aby Warburg, Il primo Rinascimento italiano. Sette conferenze inedite [Alice Barale, p. 207] • Laura Anna Macor , Reading Schiller: Ethics, Aesthetics and Religion [Lorenzo Leonardo Pizzichemi, p. 209] • Bernard Lafargue, Stéphanie Cardoso , Figures de l’art n° 25, Philosophie du design [Claire Azéma, Anne Beyaert Geslin, Stéphanie Cardoso, (...) Cécile Croce, p. 212] • Helmut Leder et al., What Makes an Art Expert? Emotion and Evaluation in Art Appreciation , “Cognition and Emotion”, 2013, 28, pp. 1-11; Enric Munar et al., Aesthetic Appreciation: Event-Related Field and Time-Frequency Analyses , “Frontiers in Human Neurosciences”, 2012, 5, pp. 1-11; Gerald C. Cupchik et al., Viewing Artworks: Contributions of Cognitive Control and Perceptual Facilitation to Aesthetic Experience , “Brain and Cognition”, 2009, 70, pp. 84-91 [Gianluca Consoli, p. 217]. (shrink)
In this study a combination of computer tools for coupling and virtual screening is detailed, in 108 active molecules and 3620 decoys to find stabilizers for G quadruplex. To have more precise results, combinations of coupling programs with fifteen energy scoring functions were applied. The validation and evaluation of the metrics was done with the CompScore genetic algorithm. The results showed an increase in BEDROC and EF of 50% compared to other strategies, as well as reflecting early recognition of active (...) molecules. From these results it is possible to work with the molecules that showed a good early recognition and evaluate their effect as G4 stabilizers. This ensures more efficient and accurate results in the preclinical stage for the development of anticancer drugs. Keywords: Enrichment metrics; telomere; G quadruplex ; CompScore. References M. Porru, P. Zizza, M. Franceschin, C. Leonetti and A. Biroccio. «EMICORON: A multi-targeting G4 ligand with a promising preclinical profile» 2017. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, 1861, 1362–1370. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-0836-6. K. Tomita. «How long does telomerase extend telomeres? Regulation of telomerase release and telomere length homeostasis». Current Genetics, 64, 1177–1181. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen. 2016.11.010. M. Jafri, S. Ansari, M. Alqahtani and J. Shay. «Roles of telomeres and telomerase in cancer, and advances in telomerase-targeted therapies. Genome Medicine., 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020482. J. Huppert and S. Balasubramanian. «G-quadruplexes in promoters throughout the human genome». 35, 406–413. 2007. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.06.012. S. Joy, Vijayakumar, S. Choi and H. Sunhye. «Role of computer-aided drug design in modern drug discovery». Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-015-0640-5. S. Asamitsu, S. Obata, Z. Yu, T. Bando and H. Sugiyama. «Recent Progress of Targeted G-Quadruplex-Preferred Ligands Toward Cancer Therapy». Molecules, 24, 429. 2019. [En línea]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030429. R. Monsen and J. Trent. «Biochimie G-quadruplex virtual drug screening : A review». Biochimie, 152, 134–148. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1039/c9cc06748e. J. Beauvarlet, P. Bensadoun, E. Darbo, G. Labrunie, E. Richard, I. Draskovic and M. Djavaheri-mergny. «Modulation of the ATM / autophagy pathway by a G-quadruplex ligand tips the balance between senescence and apoptosis in cancer cells». 1–18. 2019. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz095. .Z. Crees, J. Girard, Z. Rios, G. Botting, K. Harrington and C. Shearrow. « Oligonucleotides and G-quadruplex stabilizers: targeting telomeres and telomerase in cancer therapy».2014. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612820666140630100702. .M. Meier, A. Moya-torres, N. Krahn, M. Mcdougall, L. Orriss, E. Mcrae and T. Patel. «Structure and hydrodynamics of a DNA Gquadruplex with a cytosine bulge»., 1–13. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky307. (shrink)
El uso de las Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación ha permitido introducir mejoras en la forma como se desarrollan los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, así como los procesos propios a la gestión y administración de las actividades académicas. Sin embargo, el índice de adopción de estas herramientas es reducido en cobertura y en profundidad. No obstante, para el uso de la herramienta Teams hay que detallar las ventajas y desventajas encontradas y finalizar con conclusiones en base a (...) las experiencias personales. Palabras Clave: software, Microsoft Teams, herramienta, ventajas, experiencia. Referencias C. E. F. Pabón, «MÁS ALLÁ DE ZOOM, GOOGLE MEET, TEAMS…,» Slidesgo, vol. 1, nº 1, p. 12, 2020. F. García, A. Correl, V. Abella y M. Grande, «La evaluación online en la educación superior en tiempos de la COVID-19,» EDUCATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, vol. 21, nº 1, pp. 1-12, 2020. G. Jose, C. Alfredo, G. Victor y GrandeMario, «Education in the Knowledge Society,» Ediciones Universal Salamanca, vol. 1, nº 12, p. 26, 14 05 2020. E. Dans, «Educacion online: Plataformas educativas y el dilema de la apertura,» Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, vol. 6, nº 1, p. 10, 02 03 2009. A. Mauricio, A. Roberto, V. Edgar y F. Karen, «Convergencia de procesos de docencia universitaria: El uso de la aplicacion Teams de Microsoft,» ResearchGate, vol. 1, nº 1, p. 9, 21 11 2019. B. Jose, L. Lina, H. Maria y J. Eusebio, «Utilización del alfa de Cronbach para validar la confiabilidad,» Engineering and Technology, vol. 11, nº 1, p. 9, 16 08 2013. J.-J. a. C.-R. D. a. D. P. Monedero-Moya, «Usabilidad y satisfacción en herramientas de anotaciones multimedia para MOOC = Usability and Satisfaction in Multimedia Annotation Tools for MOOCs,» e-Lis, vol. 22, nº 44, p. 62, 2018. I. Ros Martínez de Lahidalga, «Moodle, la plataforma para la enseñanza y organización escolar,» Ikastorratza, e- Revista de Didáctica, vol. 2, nº 50, p. 12, 2008. D. Marlene, «Herramientas para la producción de materiales didácticos para las modalidades de enseñanza semipresencial y a distancia,» ACIMED, vol. 16, nº 2, p. 5, 2007. C. Barbara, «Diseño y validación de un instrumento,» Universitat Illes Balears, vol. 4, nº 50, p. 415, 10 2006. (shrink)
This new textbook is an exceptionally clear and concise introduction to the philosophy of action, suitable for students interested in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of social sciences. Moya begins by considering the problem of agency: how are we to understand the distinction between actions and happenings, between actions we perform and things that happen to us? Moya outlines and examines a range of philosophical responses to this problem. He also develops his own original view, treating (...) the analysis of meaningful action as the basis for understanding the distinctive interplay of agency, intention and commitment. Subsequent chapters examine recent attempts to integrate our understanding of action with the view of the world provided by the natural sciences. The work of Donald Davidson is examined in detail. Moya also discusses the views of many other authors who have contributed to recent debates in the philosophy of action, including Anscombe, Churchland, Harman, Hornsby, Goldman and O'Shaughnessy. (shrink)
We are strongly inclined to believe in moral responsibility - the idea that certain human agents truly deserve moral praise or blame for some of their actions. However, recent philosophical discussion has put this natural belief under suspicion, and there are important reasons for thinking that moral responsibility is incompatible with both determinism and indeterminism, therefore potentially rendering it an impossibility. Presenting the major arguments for scepticism about moral responsibility, and subjecting them to sustained and penetrating critical analysis, _Moral Responsibility_ (...) lays out the intricate dialectic involved in these issues in a helpful and accessible way. A well-written and lively account, the book then goes on to suggest a way in which scepticism can be avoided, arguing that excessive pre-eminence given to the will might lie at its root. Offering an alternative to this scepticism, Carlos Moya shows how a cognitive approach to moral responsibility that stresses the importance of belief would rescue our natural and centrally important faith in the reality of moral responsibility. (shrink)
Recent debates in contemporary feminist theory have been dominated by the relation between identity and politics. Beyond Identity Politics examines the implications of recent theorizing on difference, identity and subjectivity for theories of patriarchy and feminist politics. Organised around the three central themes of subjectivity, power and politics, this book focuses on a question which feminists struggled with and were divided by throughout the last decade, that is: how to theorize the relation between the subject and politics. In this thoughtful (...) engagement with these debates Moya Lloyd argues that the turn to the subject in process does not entail the demise of feminist politics as many feminists have argued. She demonstrates how key ideas such as agency, power and domination take on a new shape as a consequence of this radical rethinking of the subject-politics relation and how the role of feminist political theory becomes centred upon critique. A resource for feminist theorists, women's and gender studies students, as well as political and social theorists, this is a carefully composed and wide-ranging text, which provides important insights into one of contemporary feminism's most central concerns. (shrink)
This article offers a comprehensive critical review of the most popular theoretical accounts on the recent processes of deinstitutionalization and reform of mental health services and their possible underlying factors, focusing in the sharp contrast between the straightforward ideas and models maintained by mainstream psychiatry and the different interpretations delivered by authors coming from the social sciences or applying conceptual tools stemming from diverse social theories. Since all these appraisals tend to illuminate only some aspects of the process while obscuring (...) others, or do not fit at all with some important points of the actual changes, it is concluded that the quest for an adequate explanation is far from having been completed. Finally, some methodological and conceptual strategies for a renewed theoretical understanding of these significant transformations are also briefly discussed, including a comprehensive empirical evaluation of the facts, the consideration of the shifting social values and needs involved in mental health care provision and the historical analysis of deinstitutionalization policies within the framework of the broader social and cultural trends of the decades following World War II. (shrink)
It is not possible to talk about bioethics without recognizing the plurality inherent in it. In this sense, the notion of person is important due to its multiplicity of possible interpretations depending on its cultural context. This fact is highlighted in the case of organ transplantation in Japan. While there are many critiques against this procedure from scholars in various fields, those that deal with the problem of brain death are especially problematic. This is because the definition of person that (...) is invoked in such debates does not seem to coincide with how the notion of person has been understood in the Japanese tradition. Hence, investigating the Japanese concept of ningen could be helpful in not only partially clarifying some of the attitudes that exist in Japan towards the notion of brain death, but also to illustrate the need to recognize the plurality of views in modern bioethics. (shrink)
Ethicists struggle to take reductive views seriously. They also have trouble conceiving of some supervenience failures. Understanding why provides further evidence for a kind of hybrid view of normative concept use.
Introduction -- Unintended consequences -- The origin of money -- Segregation -- The invisible hand -- The origin of money reconsidered -- Models and representation -- Game theory and conventions -- Conclusion.
Standard accounts of civil disobedience include nonviolence as a necessary condition. Here I argue that such accounts are mistaken and that civil disobedience can include violence in many aspects, primarily excepting violence directed at other persons. I base this argument on a novel understanding of civil disobedience: the special character of the practice comes from its combination of condemnation of a political practice with an expressed commitment to the political. The commitment to the political is a commitment to engaging with (...) others as co-members in the on-going political project of living together. I show how such an understanding of civil disobedience is superior to the Rawlsian strain of thought, which focuses on fidelity to law. Rawls was concerned with civil disobedience solely in the context of overriding political obligation. The project of characterizing a contestatory political practice that can be distinguished and used in a wider variety of contexts than Rawls is concerned with, including under illegitimate regimes, beyond the nation-state, or on behalf of anarchism, requires a different understanding of civil disobedience. (shrink)
According to familiar accounts, Rousseau held that humans are actuated by two distinct kinds of self love: amour de soi, a benign concern for one's self-preservation and well-being; and amour-propre, a malign concern to stand above other people, delighting in their despite. I argue that although amour-propre can (and often does) assume this malign form, this is not intrinsic to its character. The first and best rank among men that amour-propre directs us to claim for ourselves is that of occupying (...) 'man's estate'. This does not require, indeed it precludes, subjection of others. Amour-propre does not need suppression or circumscription if we are to live good lives; it rather requires direction to its proper end, not a delusive one. (shrink)
The focus of this paper is Butler's recent work on Antigone, kinship and the state. Like many advocates of radical democracy, Butler is suspicious of attempts to enlist state support for political demands, preferring politics at the level of civil society. Butler turns to the narrative of Antigone, in part, to explore just such a version of resistance to the state but also, crucially, to contemplate the constitutive role that Antigone represents in respect of the formation of the state and (...) politics. While sympathetic to Butler's thesis in general, in this paper, I raise three sets of questions concerning her reading of the state. First, I explore the ambiguity surrounding her conceptualization of the state. Next, I turn to the tension between the state's purported efficacy in achieving its aims and the theory of resignification that Butler deploys widely throughout her work. Finally, I look at the understated role of Creon whose failure to compel obedience from Antigone is largely occluded in Butler's re-reading of Antigone. (shrink)
In a pair of very important papers, namely “Space, Time and Individuals” in the Journal of Philosophy for October 1955 and “The Indestructibility and Immutability of Substances” in Philosophical Studies for April 1956, Professor N. L. Wilson began something which badly needed beginning, namely the construction of a logically rigorous “substance-language” in which we talk about enduring and changing individuals as we do in common speech, as opposed to the “space-time” language favoured by very many mathematical logicians, perhaps most notably (...) by Quine. This enterprise of Wilson's is one with which I could hardly sympathize more heartily than I do; and one wishes for this logically rigorous “substance-language” not only when one is reading Quine but also when one is reading many other people. How fantastic it is, for instance, that Kotarbinski1 should call his metaphysics “Reism” when the very last kind of entity it has room for is things —instead of them it just has the world-lines or life-histories of things; “fourdimensional worms”, as Wilson says. Wilson, moreover, has at least one point of superiority to another rebel against space-time talk, P. F. Strawson; namely he does seriously attempt to meet formalism with formalism—to show that logical rigour is not a monopoly of the other side. At another point, however, Strawson seems to me to see further than Wilson; he is aware that substance-talk cannot be carried on without tenses, whereas Wilson tries to do without them. Wilson, in short, has indeed brought us out of Egypt; but as yet has us still wandering about the Sinai Peninsula; the Promised Land is a little further on than he has taken us. (shrink)
This book provides a welcome assessment of the wide-ranging impact of Michel Foucault's work upon a number of disciplines within the social sciences and humanities. It offers close textual readings of Foucault's work along with clear overviews of how his work has been taken up in subjects such as history, philosophy and international relations. It also offers original applications of his work to important topics within feminist theory, political theory, the sociology of race, and socio-legal studies.
Divided into two parts, the first concentrates on the logical properties of propositions, their relation to facts and sentences, and the parallel objects of commands and questions. The second part examines theories of intentionality and discusses the relationship between different theories of naming and different accounts of belief.
In this paper, using a multilevel approach, we defend the positive role of natural selection in the generation of organismal form. Despite the currently widespread opinion that natural selection only plays a negative role in the evolution of form, we argue, in contrast, that the Darwinian factor is a crucial (but not exclusive) factor in morphological organization. Analyzing some classic arguments, we propose incorporating the notion of ‘downward causation’ into the concept of ‘natural selection.’ In our opinion, this kind of (...) causation is fundamental to the operation of selection as a creative evolutionary process. (shrink)
Our object in this paper is to study the antecedents, contents, implications, and impact of a not well-known or appreciated paper by EHRENFEST in 1911 on the essential nature of the different quantum hypotheses in radiation theory. After a careful analysis of EHRENFEST’s notebooks, correspondence, and publications, we conclude that the essential points of EHRENFEST’s paper were not perceived to a large extent, and hence that its implications were not considered thoroughly. Specifically, we show that EHRENFEST contributed significantly to the (...) clarifications of the differences between PLANCK’s and EINSTEIN’s respective quantum hypotheses, as well as to those of the concepts ‘‘discontinuity,’’ ‘‘quantization,’’ and ‘‘corpuscularity.’’. (shrink)
This is a revised and expanded edition of a seminal work in the logic and philosophy of time, originally published in 1968. Arthur N. Prior (1914-1969) was the founding father of temporal logic, and his book offers an excellent introduction to the fundamental questions in the field. Several important papers have been added to the original selection, as well as a comprehensive bibliography of Prior's work and an illuminating interview with his widow, Mary Prior. In addition, the Polish logic which (...) made Prior's writings difficult for many readers has been replaced by standard logical notation. This new edition will secure the classic status of the book. (shrink)
The relationship between formal logic and general philosophy is discussed under headings such as A Re-examination of Our Tense-Logical Postulates, Modal Logic in the Style of Frege, and Intentional Logic and Indeterminism.
As we move around in our environment, and interact with it, many of the most important problems we face involve the processing of spatial information. We have to be able to navigate by perceiving and remembering the locations and orientations of the objects around us relative to ourself; we have to sense and act upon these objects; and we need to move through space to position ourselves in favourable locations or to avoid dangerous ones. While this appears so simple that (...) we don't even think about it, the difficulty of solving these problems has been shown in the repeated failure of artificial systems to perform these kinds of tasks efficiently. In contrast, humans and other animals routinely overcome these problems every single day. This book examines some of the neural substrates and mechanisms that support these remarkable abilities. The hippocampus and the parietal cortex have been implicated in various core spatial behaviours, such as the ability to localise an object and navigate to it. Damage to these areas in humans and animals leads to impairment of these spatial functions. This collection of papers, written by internationally recognized experts in the field, reviews the evidence that each area is involved in spatial cognition, examines the mechanisms underlying the generation of spatial behaviours, and considers the relative roles of the parietal and hippocampal areas, including how each interacts with the other. The papers integrate a wide range of theoretical and experimental approaches, and touch on broader issues relating to memory and imagery. As such, this book represents the state of the art of current research into the neural basis of spatial cognition. It should be of interest to anyone - researchers or graduate students - working in the areas of cognitive neuroscience, neuroanatomy, neuropsychology, and cognition generally. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to examine both the work of Judith Butler on gender performativity and examples of how Butler's writings have been appropriated by certain other writers. I explore three areas in particular: the relation between performance and performativity in the work of Butler and her `adherents'; the developmental changes in Butler's argument between Gender Trouble and Bodies That Matter; and the question of the effectiveness of the politics of parody. I argue that it is the ambiguities (...) in Butler's own several accounts of the distinction between performance and performativity that fuel the readings of the politics of performance as the province of the autonomous subject - a perspective at variance with Butler's own. In addition, I explore the deficiencies in Butler's account of politics, especially her denial of the significance of the context on the efficacy of political interventions. (shrink)
This paper will examine the violence of heteronormativity: the violence that constitutes and regulates bodies according to normative notions of sex, gender, and sexuality. This violence, I will argue, requires more than a focus on gendered or sexualized physical harms of the kinds normally examined when studying violence against sexual minorities or women. Rather, it necessitates focusing on the multiple modalities through which heteronormativity performs its violence on, through, and against bodies and persons, including through the production of certain bodies (...) and persons as inciting violence in their very being. To establish my argument, I explore the killing in 2002 of trans woman Gwen Araujo and the violence of the legal strategy (the trans panic defense) used in the legal trials that followed her killing. Both forms of violence, I suggest, operate in a similar way, albeit through different mechanisms, to maintain and extend the system of binary morphology that itself entails the perpetual violent materialization of sexed bodies. (shrink)
This paper offers a panoramic assessment of the significant changes experienced by psychiatric care in Western Europe and North America in the course of the last decades of deinstitutionalization and reform. Drawing on different comparative studies and an own review of relevant data and reports, the main transformations in the mental health field are analyzed around seven major topics: the expanding scope of psychiatry; the decline and metamorphosis of the asylum; the introduction of alternative and diversified forms of care; the (...) new challenges posed by chronic mental illness; the emergence of modern psychopharmacology; the deployment of subspecialization; and the new forms of coercion implemented with community mental health practices. Following a renewed diagnosis on the essential features of the reformed mental health systems based on the pattern of social inclusion inherent to the new devices and philosophies of care, some major challenges for the future such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant part of potential users are also identified and briefly discussed. (shrink)
El cálculo proposicional se basa proposiciones que son tautologías, antilogías y de tipo contingente, construidas con las operaciones de disyunción, conjunción, y negación, así como con el llamado condicional material para trasladar los enunciados condicionales. Con todo ello se obtiene una estructura de álgebra de Boole, que permite equiparar el cálculo proposicional al cálculo algebraico booleano. En parte, la simplificación conceptual que se obtiene resulta de ser el orden parcial del álgebra equivalente a la afirmación del condicional material. Además, con (...) tal metodología cabe ver qué partes del cálculo proposicional clásico pueden trasladarse, aun con limitaciones, a estructuras más débiles y, a la vez, más generales, como son los ortoretículos no booleanos o las álgebras de De Morgan.El cálculo proposicional trata con la deducción. Por ello, el artículo lo desarrolla a partir de un operador de consecuencias en el sentido de Tarski. Ampliado el modelo deductivo, es fácil ver otras consecuencias que las usualmente consideradas en los textos elementales; en particular, se analizan cuatro esquemas de razonamiento deductivo típicos y, entre ellos, se presta especial atención a los usuales Modus Ponens y Modus Tollens. En el caso de las estructuras algebraicas de conjuntos ‘borrosos’, ninguna es de álgebra de Boole ni siquiera de orto-retículo y sólo cabe trabajar, en algunos casos, con álgebras de De Morgan-Kleene. Por lo tanto el cálculo proposicional ‘fuzzy’ debe construirse de acuerdo con la estructura algebraica que corresponda en cada caso y una vez elegida como representación del condicional una función que verifique el Modus Ponens. (shrink)
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate ethical problems caused by teachers accepting gifts in schools. The viewpoints of teachers, administrators, and parents who were involved in the process of gift giving at schools in Turkey were recorded. To facilitate a deeper investigation of ethical problems caused by gift culture in schools, qualitative research methods were used in the study. Data collected through interviews with the participants were analyzed using content analysis techniques largely based on inductive reasoning. The (...) results of the study revealed that gifts affected teachers’ objectivity and prevented them from treating students equally. (shrink)
In 1961, Ernst Mayr published a highly influential article on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr argued that proximate causes (e.g. physiological factors) and ultimate causes (e.g. natural selection) addressed distinct ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions and were not competing alternatives. That distinction retains explanatory value today. However, the adoption of Mayr’s heuristic led to the widespread belief that ontogenetic processes are irrelevant to evolutionary questions, a belief that has (1) hindered (...) progress within evolutionary biology, (2) forged divisions between evolutionary biology and adjacent disciplines and (3) obstructed several contemporary debates in biology. Here we expand on our earlier (Laland et al. in Science 334:1512–1516, 2011) argument that Mayr’s dichotomous formulation has now run its useful course, and that evolutionary biology would be better served by a concept of reciprocal causation, in which causation is perceived to cycle through biological systems recursively. We further suggest that a newer evolutionary synthesis is unlikely to emerge without this change in thinking about causation. (shrink)
Contrary to frequent characterisations, exotic species should not be identified as damaging species, species introduced by humans, or species originating from some other geographical location. Exotics are best characterised ecologically as species that are foreign to an ecological assemblage in the sense that they have not significantly adapted with the biota constituting that assemblage or to the local abiotic conditions. Exotic species become natives when they have ecologically naturalised and when human influence over their presence in an assemblage (if any) (...) has washed away. Although the damaging nature and anthropogenic origin of many exotic species provide good reasons for a negative evaluation of such exotics, even naturally-dispersing, nondamaging exotics warrant opposition. Biological nativists' antagonism toward exotics need not be xenophobic and can be justified as a way of preserving the diversity of ecological assemblages from the homogenising forces of globalisation. Implications for Yellowstone National Park policy are explored. (shrink)
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