Results for 'Entity'

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  1. What is Hacking’s Argument for Entity Realism?Boaz Miller - 2016 - Synthese 193 (3):991-1006.
    According to Ian Hacking’s Entity Realism, unobservable entities that scientists carefully manipulate to study other phenomena are real. Although Hacking presents his case in an intuitive, attractive, and persuasive way, his argument remains elusive. I present five possible readings of Hacking’s argument: a no-miracle argument, an indispensability argument, a transcendental argument, a Vichian argument, and a non-argument. I elucidate Hacking’s argument according to each reading, and review their strengths, their weaknesses, and their compatibility with each other.
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  2.  34
    Using Proper Names as Intermediaries Between Labelled Entity Representations.Hans Kamp - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):263-312.
    This paper studies the uses of proper names within a communication-theoretic setting, looking at both the conditions that govern the use of a name by a speaker and those involved in the correct interpretation of the name by her audience. The setting in which these conditions are investigated is provided by an extension of Discourse Representation Theory, MSDRT, in which mental states are represented as combinations of propositional attitudes and entity representations . The first half of the paper presents (...)
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  3. Reference, Success and Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Kairos 5:31-42.
    The paper discusses the version of entity realism presented by Ian Hacking in his book, Representing and Intervening. Hacking holds that an ontological form of scientific realism, entity realism, may be defended on the basis of experimental practices which involve the manipulation of unobservable entities. There is much to be said in favour of the entity realist position that Hacking defends, especially the pragmatist orientation of his approach to realism. But there are problems with the position. The (...)
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  4.  23
    God as a Single Processing Actual Entity.Rem B. Edwards - 2013 - Process Studies 42 (1):77-86.
    This article defends Marjorie Suchocki’s position against two main objections raised by David E. Conner. Conner objects that God as a single actual entity must be temporal because there is succession in God’s experience ofthe world. The reply is that time involves at least two successive occasions separated by perishing, but in God nothing ever perishes. Conner also objects that Suchocki’s personalistic process theism is not experiential but is instead theoretical and not definitive. The reply is that his dismissal (...)
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  5.  16
    Toward a Social Ontology of the Firm: Reconstitution, Organizing Entity, Institution, Social Emergence and Power.Virgile Chassagnon - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):197-208.
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  6.  20
    “Disease Entity” as the Key Theoretical Concept of Medicine.Peter Hucklenbroich - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (6):609-633.
    Philosophical debates about the concept of disease, particularly of mental disease, might benefit from reconsideration and a closer look at the established terminology and conceptual structure of contemporary medical pathology and clinical nosology. The concepts and principles of medicine differ, to a considerable extent, from the ideas and notions of philosophical theories of disease. In medical theory, the concepts of disease entity and pathologicity are, besides the concept of disease itself, of fundamental importance, and they are essentially connected to (...)
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  7. Defensible Territory for Entity Realism.Steve Clarke - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (4):701-722.
    In the face of argument to the contrary, it is shown that there is defensible middle ground available for entity realism, between the extremes of scientific realism and empiricist antirealism. Cartwright's ([1983]) earlier argument for defensible middle ground between these extremes, which depended crucially on the viability of an underdeveloped distinction between inference to the best explanation (IBE) and inference to the most probable cause (IPC), is examined and its defects are identified. The relationship between IBE and IPC is (...)
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  8. Entity Realism Meets the Pessimistic Meta-Induction – The World is Not Enough.Jacob Busch - 2006 - SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 7 (106):26.
    In the following I briefly set out Devitt's (1997) definition of entity realism and compare it to Hacking's (1983) definition. I then set out the pessimistic induction argument as suggested by Putnam (1978). I present an argument developed by Bertolet (1988) to the effect that Devitt's abductive defence of realism fails. In the light of its failure, Devitt offers the ability of his definition of scientific realism to solve the pessimistic induction argument as a tactical advantage for his definition. (...)
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  9.  55
    'Early Terminal Sedation' is a Distinct Entity.Victor Cellarius - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):46-54.
    There has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called ‘early terminal sedation’. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if (...)
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  10.  19
    Entity Realism and Singularist Semirealism.Bence Nanay - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Entity realism is the view that ‘a good many theoretical entities do really exist’. The main novelty of entity realism was that it provided an account of scientific realism that did not have to endorse realism about theories—the general proposal was that entity realism is noncommittal about whether we should be realist about scientific theories. I argue that the only way entity realists can resist the pull of straight scientific realism about theories is by endorsing a (...)
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  11.  60
    A Representation for a Spin-S Entity as a Compound System in R3Consisting of 2S Individual Spin-1/2 Entities.Bob Coecke - 1998 - Foundations of Physics 28 (8):1347-1365.
    We generalize the results of Ref. 7 for the coherent states of a spin-1 entity to spin-S entities with S > 1 and to noncoherent spin states: through the introduction of “hidden correlations” (see Ref. 8) we introduce a representation for a spin-S entity as a compound system consisting of 2S “individual” spin-1/2 entities, each of them represented by a “proper state,” and such that we are able to consider a measurement on the spin-S entity as a (...)
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  12.  7
    "No Entity Without Identity":: A Reductionist Dogma?Dirk Greimann - 2000 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 60:13-29.
    Quine has persuasively shown that the empiricist "dogma of reductionism", which is the belief that each meaningfiil statement of science can be reduced to statements about immediate sense experience, must be abandoned. However, Quine's methodology of ontology seems to incorporate an analogous physicalistic dogma according to which the identity conditions of each scientifically respectable sort of abstract objects can be reduced to the identity conditions of physical objects. This paper aims to show that the latter dogma must be abandoned, too. (...)
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  13.  90
    Entity, but No Identity.Decio Krause - unknown
    Inspired in Quine's well known slogans “To be is to be the value of a variable” and "No entity without identity", we provide a way of enabling that non-individual entities (as characterized in the text) can also be values of variables of an adequate "regimented" language, once we consider a possible meaning of the background theory Quine reports to ground his view. In doing that, we show that there may exist also entities without identity, and emphasize the importance of (...)
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  14.  39
    No Entity Without Identity.Dirk Greimann - 2000 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 60:13-29.
    Quine has persuasively shown that the empiricist "dogma of reductionism", which is the belief that each meaningfiil statement of science can be reduced to statements about immediate sense experience, must be abandoned. However, Quine's methodology of ontology seems to incorporate an analogous physicalistic dogma according to which the identity conditions of each scientifically respectable sort of abstract objects can be reduced to the identity conditions of physical objects. This paper aims to show that the latter dogma must be abandoned, too. (...)
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  15.  27
    Comprehension and the 'Comprehensive Entity'.Phil Mullins - 2006 - Tradition and Discovery 33 (3):26-43.
    This essay discusses Polanyi sideas about the “comprehensive entity.” It shows how Polanyi’s philosophical perspective emphasizes comprehension. It outlines Polanyi’s careful approach to ontological questions and shows how Marjorie Grene and to some degree Polanyi linked the theory of tacit knowing to ideas in Continental philosophy about being-in-the-world. It suggests that Polanyi’s post-critical philosophical realism, like Peirce srealistn, is more akin to medieval realism than contelnporary discussions.
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  16.  21
    An Effective Two-Stage Model for Exploiting Non-Local Dependencies in Named Entity Recognition.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper shows that a simple two-stage approach to handle non-local dependencies in Named Entity Recognition (NER) can outperform existing approaches that handle non-local dependencies, while being much more computationally efficient. NER systems typically use sequence models for tractable inference, but this makes them unable to capture the long distance structure present in text. We use a Conbel.
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  17.  5
    Interpretation, Meaning and the Shaping of Experience: Against Depression Being a Natural Entity and Other Forms of Essentialism.Anastasia Philippa Scrutton - 2015 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 22 (4):299-301.
    Many thanks to Ian Kidd and John Swinton for their most interesting, and extremely different, commentaries on my paper. I agree with the thrust of Kidd’s argument and hope that these possibilities may be explored more fully elsewhere. Swinton’s commentary is far more critical, and raises issues in need of urgent clarification—I therefore focus on these.Swinton begins his critique by saying that, “One of the basic presumptions that underpins the study and its conclusions is that depression is a natural (...) that can be clearly identified and responded to.” This perception of my paper confuses and concerns me, because I am not sure what has given this impression. It has thus far proved impossible to... (shrink)
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  18.  18
    Supplementing Entity Coherence with Local Rhetorical Relations for Information Ordering.Nikiforos Karamanis - 2007 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):445-464.
    This paper investigates whether the model of local rhetorical coherence suggested in Knott et al. (2001) can boost the performance of the Centering-based metrics of entity coherence employed by Karamanis et al. (2004) for the task of information ordering. Rhetorical coherence is integrated into the way Centering’s basic data structures are derived from the annotated features of the GNOME corpus. The results indicate that (a) the simplest metric continues to perform better than its competitors even when local rhetorical coherence (...)
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  19.  28
    Nested Named Entity Recognition.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Many named entities contain other named entities inside them. Despite this fact, the field of named entity recognition has almost entirely ignored nested named entity recognition, but due to technological, rather than ideological reasons. In this paper, we present a new technique for recognizing nested named entities, by using a discriminative constituency parser. To train the model, we transform each sentence into a tree, with constituents for each named entity (and no other syntactic structure). We present results (...)
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  20.  1
    Entity Metaphor, Object Gesture, and Context of Use.Chui Kawai - 2017 - Metaphor and Symbol 32 (1):30-51.
    The study investigates the manifestation of the “IDEA-IS-AN-ENTITY” metaphor across the linguistic and manual modalities by the use of the object gesture in daily conversation, to understand the relationship between metaphorical conceptualization and the context of use. Two types of the entity metaphor were distinguished: “cross-modal entity metaphor” and “gesture-only entity metaphor.” For the former, the metaphor was expressed by metaphorical speech and the object gesture simultaneously. Among all of the 67 cross-modal instances, a wide variety (...)
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  21.  8
    Mind as an Evolving Triadic Entity.Francesco Belfiore - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 42:5-12.
    In this paper, through external and internal observation (introspection), it is shown that the human mind (or spirit) can be defined as an evolving, conscious, triadic entity consisting of unitary-multiple components - intellect, sensitiveness, and power - which in turn are made of multiple ideas, sentiments, and actions, respectively. The three mind components are interdependent, each needing the support of the other two for its activity. This interdependence, which is linked to the problem of mind-body relationship, is explained by (...)
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  22.  4
    The Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan: A Rhetoric of Ideological Pronouncement.Takeshi Suzuki - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (3):251-266.
    One manifestation of argumentation is in critical discussions where people genuinely strive cooperatively to achieve critical decisions. Hence, argumentation can be recognized as the process of advancing, supporting, modifying, and criticizing claims so that appropriate decision makers may grant or deny adherence. This audience-centered definition holds the assumption that the participants must willingly engage in public debate and discussion, and their arguments must function to open a critical space and keep it open. This essay investigates `ideological pronouncement,' a kind of (...)
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  23.  6
    Named Entity Recognition with Character-Level Models.Dan Klein - unknown
    We discuss two named-entity recognition models which use characters and character n-grams either exclusively or as an important part of their data representation. The first model is a character-level HMM with minimal context information, and the second model is a maximum-entropy conditional markov model with substantially richer context features. Our best model achieves an overall F1 of 86.07% on the English test data (92.31% on the development data). This number represents a 25% error reduction over the same model without (...)
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  24. ‘Early Terminal Sedation’ is a Distinct Entity.Cellarius Victor - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):46-54.
    ABSTRACTThere has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called ‘early terminal sedation’. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if (...)
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  25. Metaphysical Perspectives on YHWH as a Fictional Entity in the Hebrew Bible.Jacobus W. Gericke - 2017 - Hts Theological Studies 73 (3):1-6.
    Within a literary ontology, YHWH in the Hebrew Bible is technically also a fictional entity or object. In Hebrew Bible scholarship, a variety of philosophical issues surrounding fiction have received sustained and in-depth attention. However, the mainstream research on these matters tends to focus on the philosophical foundations of or backgrounds to a particular literary theory, rather than on metaphysical puzzles as encountered in the philosophy of fiction proper. To fill this gap, the present article seeks to provide a (...)
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  26. Análisis Nominalista de Una Entidad Que Está Siendo Caracterizada / “Nominalist Analyses of an Entity Being Charactered.Michael Anthony Istvan - 2013 - Discusiones Filosóficas 21 (July-December):87-93.
    This paper is intended primarily as a reference tool for participants in the debate between realism and nominalism concerning universals. It provides an exhaustive catalogue of the basic analyses of an entity being charactered that nominalists can employ in both a constituent and nonconstituent ontology.
     
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  27. Minkowski Space-Time: A Glorious Non-Entity.Harvey R. Brown & Oliver Pooley - 2006 - In Dennis Dieks (ed.), The Ontology of Spacetime. Elsevier. pp. 67--89.
    It is argued that Minkowski space-time cannot serve as the deep structure within a ``constructive'' version of the special theory of relativity, contrary to widespread opinion in the philosophical community.
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  28. Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence.E. J. Lowe - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83 (62):23-48.
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  29.  20
    Austin, Hart, and Shapiro: Three Variations on Law as an Entity Grounded in a Social Practice.Carlos Bernal - 2013 - Rechtstheorie 44 (2):157-188.
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  30. The Semantic Stance of Scientific Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Philosophia 25 (1 - 4):481-482.
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  31.  36
    Entity and Identity: And Other Essays.P. F. Strawson - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    P. F. Strawson here presents a selection of his shorter writings from the 1970s to the 1990s in the two areas of philosophy to which he has contributed most notably: philosophy of language and Kantian studies. One of these essays is published here for the first time, and one for the first time in English; several others have been difficult to find. A new introduction offers an overview of the essays, their topics, and their interrelations. This book represents some of (...)
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  32.  12
    Emotion is an Entity at Both Biological and Ecological Levels: The Ghost in the Machine is Language.Ross Buck - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (3):286-287.
    In “Emergent Ghosts of the Emotion Machine,” James Coan neglects emotion displays involved in social communication and activity in central neurochemical systems associated with drug-induced changes in feelings and desires. Also, he fails to recognize that emotions are not rigidly bound to action tendencies, but rather have evolved internal signals to afford flexibility of response. Emotion indices naturally lack close coordination because different aspects—physiological arousal, expressive display, subjective experience—are differentially accessible to the responder and interaction partner, and therefore undergo different (...)
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  33.  41
    No Identity Without an Entity.Luke Manning - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):279-305.
    Peter Geach's puzzle of intentional identity is to explain how the claim ‘Hob thinks a witch has blighted Bob's mare, and Nob wonders whether she killed Cob's sow’ is compatible with there being no such witch. I clarify the puzzle and reduce it to the familiar problem of negative existentials. That problem is a paradox of representations that seem to include denials of commitment , to carry commitment to what they deny commitment to, and to be true. The best proposed (...)
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  34.  13
    Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83 (62):23-48.
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  35.  93
    Causation in Medicine: The Disease Entity Model.Caroline Whitbeck - 1977 - Philosophy of Science 44 (4):619-637.
    This paper examines the way in which causal relations are understood in the dominant model in contemporary medicine. It argues that the causal relation is not definable in terms of the condition relation, but that in general for conditions of an occurrence to be among its causes they must answer instrumental interests in a certain way, and there are further criteria for distinguishing 'the' cause of a disease (i.e., its etiological agent) from other causal factors, which are based upon instrumental (...)
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  36.  45
    The Master-Slave Dialectic and the “Sado-Masochistic Entity”.Jack Reynolds - 2009 - Angelaki 14 (3):11-26.
  37.  39
    Cain on Linnaeus: The Scientist-Historian as Unanalysed Entity.Mary P. Winsor - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (2):239-254.
    Zoologist A. J. Cain began historical research on Linnaeus in 1956 in connection with his dissatisfaction over the standard taxonomic hierarchy and the rules of binomial nomenclature. His famous 1958 paper ‘Logic and Memory in Linnaeus's System of Taxonomy’ argues that Linnaeus was following Aristotle's method of logical division without appreciating that it properly applies only to ‘analysed entities’ such as geometric figures whose essential nature is already fully known. The essence of living things being unanalysed, there is no basis (...)
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  38.  82
    Entity, Identity and Unity.E. J. Lowe - 1998 - Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):191-208.
    I propose a fourfold categorisation of entities according to whether or not they possess determinate identity-conditions and whether or not they are determinately countable. Some entities – which I call ‘individual objects’ – have both determinate identity and determinate countability: for example, persons and animals. In the case of entities of a kind K belonging to this category, we are in principle always entitled to expect there to be determinate answers to such questions as ‘Is x the same K as (...)
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  39. The Semantic Stance of Scientific Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 1995 - Philosophia 24 (3-4):481-482.
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  40. The Body as a Biological and Genetic Entity.Elof Axel Carlson - 2011 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (2):349-358.
    What is meant by a genetic disorder? To the biologist, the lack of pigment when the typical situation is pigmentation is an abnormality. An albino alligator, an albino giraffe, or an albino tiger stands out and surprises the beholder, because in the experience of those who have observed populations of alligators, giraffes, or tigers, these are rare. We may have difficulty defining what is normal among humans but there is a huge quantitative distinction between the words "typical" and "atypical." When (...)
     
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  41.  19
    Problems with the Platonist Exemplification Tie Between Located Entities and an Unlocated Entity.Jeffrey Grupp - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (3):491-498.
    Selon une ontologie platonicienne, il faut qu’une exemplification platonicienne lie des particuliers physiques et un universel non localisé pour qu’i! y ait connexion entre propriété et choses. Dans cet article, je discute du lien d’exemplification platonicien, lequel a l’intéressante faculté de lier des entités localisées à une entité non localisée et donc, pour reprendre les mots d’Armstrong, la faculté de traverser le domaine du non spatialement localisé et celui du spatialement localisé. La littérature ne contient à peu près aucune discussion (...)
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  42. The Master-Slave Dialectic and the 'Sado-Masochistic Entity': Some Objections.Jack Reynolds - 2009 - Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities 14 (3):11-25.
    Hegel’s famous analyses of the ‘master-slave dialectic’, and the more general struggle for recognition which it is a part of, have been remarkably influential throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Bound up with the dominance of this idea, however, has been a corresponding treatment of sadism and masochism as complicit projects that are mutually necessary for one another in a manner that is structurally isomorphic with the way in which master and slave depend on one another. In clinical diagnoses it (...)
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  43.  43
    The Application of Ward's Psychology to the Legal Problem of Corporate Entity.H. C. Dowdall - 1926 - The Monist 36 (1):111-135.
    The unity of the group mind is a psychoplastic unity. In the group mind subjects are integrated through an object and not objects through a subject. It follows, among many much more important consequences, that a scientific analysis and arrangement of the law relating to corporations should proceed in the manner practically indicated in the Law of Limited Companies, Corporations Sole, Trusts, Bankruptcy, Local Government, and so forth, that is to say, by the estatificatian of interests and not by the (...)
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  44. The Electron: A Biographical Sketch of a Theoretical Entity.Theodore Arabatzis - 1995 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    This dissertation reconstructs some aspects of the historical development of the concept of the electron from 1891, when the term "electron" was introduced, to 1925, when the notion of spin was put forward, in the light of the relevant historiographical and philosophical problems. The central historiographical tool employed is Karl Popper's notion of a problem situation. Furthermore, some of the historical episodes are reconstructed in terms of a "biographical" approach to theoretical entities that portrays them as active agents that participate (...)
     
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  45.  31
    The Entity and Modern Physics.Diederik Aerts - 1998 - In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies. Princeton University Press. pp. 223--257.
  46.  22
    The Human Self: An Actual Entity or a Society?Rem B. Edwards - 1975 - Process Studies 5 (3):195-203.
    This is a serious critique of Whitehead's epochal theory of time. It argues that human selves and perhaps all actual entities are in continuous concrescence, like Whitehead's God.
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  47. Cain on Linnaeus: The Scientist-Historian as Unanalysed Entity.Mary P. Winsor - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 32 (2):239-254.
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  48. Abstract Entity.Dale Jacquette - 1995 - In Audi Robert (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  49.  19
    Appearance or Existence of the Entity Realism 'Sense'or Mind.A. Yazdani - 2012 - In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special Sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer. pp. 269--276.
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  50.  5
    The Entity Fallacy in Epistemology.Edmond Wright - 1992 - Philosophy 67 (259):33 - 50.
    In order to entertain the argument to be presented here, you have to begin by casting away a presupposition. The ultimate aim will be to restore it again as a presupposition, but the immediate aim will be to test for and make clear its undoubted worth and usefulness by imagining what happens to our knowledge-system when we remove it.
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