Results for 'Epigenetics'

505 found
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  1.  2
    Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension.Eva Jablonka & Marion J. Lamb - 1995 - Oxford University Press UK.
    '...a challenging and useful book, both because it provokes a careful scrutiny of one's own basic ideas regarding evolutionary theory, and because it cuts across so many biological disciplines.' -The Quarterly Review of Biology 'In my view, this work exemplifies Theoretical Biology at its best...here is rampant speculation that is consistently based on cautious reasoning from the available data. Even more refreshing is the absence of sloganeering, grandstanding, and 'isms'.' -Biology and Philosophy 'Epigenetics is fundamental to understanding both development (...)
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  2.  76
    Epigenetic Responsibility.Maria Hedlund - 2012 - Medicine Studies 3 (3):171-183.
    The purpose of this article is to argue for a position holding that epigenetic responsibility primarily should be a political and not an individual responsibility. Epigenetic is a rapidly growing research field studying regulations of gene expression that do not change the DNA sequence. Knowledge about these mechanisms is still uncertain in many respects, but main presumptions are that they are triggered by environmental factors and life style and, to a certain extent, heritable to subsequent generations, thereby reminding of aspects (...)
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  3. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. (...)
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  4.  60
    Epigenetics and the Environment in Bioethics.Charles Dupras, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (7):327-334.
    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and – where appropriate – work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to – and so hopefully more (...)
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  5.  61
    Epigenetics, Representation, and Society.Ilya Gadjev - 2017 - Zygon 52 (2):491-515.
    In recent decades, advances in the life sciences have created an unprecedentedly detailed picture of heredity and the formation of the phenotype where clusters of simplistic reductionist and deterministic views and interpretations have begun to lose ground to more complex and holistic notions. The developments in gene regulation and epigenetics have become a vivid emblem of the ongoing ‘softening’ of heredity. Despite this headway, the outlook and rhetoric widely popular in the twentieth century favoring the ‘gene’ in the ‘genegenetic (...)
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  6. The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington’s Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences.Jan Baedke - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):756-773.
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which Waddington’s images (...)
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  7. Genetic, Epigenetic and Exogenetic Information in Development and Evolution.Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2017 - Interface Focus 7 (5).
    The idea that development is the expression of information accumulated during evolution and that heredity is the transmission of this information is surprisingly hard to cash out in strict, scientific terms. This paper seeks to do so using the sense of information introduced by Francis Crick in his sequence hypothesis and central dogma of molecular biology. It focuses on Crick's idea of precise determination. This is analysed using an information-theoretic measure of causal specificity. This allows us to reconstruct some of (...)
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  8. Epigenetic Landscaping: Waddington's Use of Cell Fate Bifurcation Diagrams. [REVIEW]Scott F. Gilbert - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):135-154.
    From the 1930s through the 1970s, C. H. Waddington attempted to reunite genetics, embryology, and evolution. One of the means to effect this synthesis was his model of the epigenetic landscape. This image originally recast genetic data in terms of embryological diagrams and was used to show the identity of genes and inducers and to suggest the similarities between embryological and genetic approaches to development. Later, the image became more complex and integrated gene activity and mutations. These revised epigenetic landscapes (...)
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  9.  34
    Epigenetics and Future Generations.Lorenzo del Savio, Michele Loi & Elia Stupka - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (8):580-587.
    Recent evidence of intergenerational epigenetic programming of disease risk broadens the scope of public health preventive interventions to future generations, i.e. non existing people. Due to the transmission of epigenetic predispositions, lifestyles such as smoking or unhealthy diet might affect the health of populations across several generations. While public policy for the health of future generations can be justified through impersonal considerations, such as maximizing aggregate well-being, in this article we explore whether there are rights-based obligations supervening on intergenerational epigenetic (...)
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  10.  35
    Epigenetics in the Neoliberal “Regime of Truth”.Charles Dupras & Vardit Ravitsky - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (1):26-35.
    Recent findings in epigenetics have been attracting much attention from social scientists and bioethicists because they reveal the molecular mechanisms by which exposure to socioenvironmental factors, such as pollutants and social adversity, can influence the expression of genes throughout life. Most surprisingly, some epigenetic modifications may also be heritable via germ cells across generations. Epigenetics may be the missing molecular evidence of the importance of using preventive strategies at the policy level to reduce the incidence and prevalence of (...)
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  11.  32
    Epigenetic Exceptionalism.Mark A. Rothstein - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):733-736.
    This article considers the distinctive features of epigenetics and discusses whether, as a matter of ethics and law, epigenetics should be considered separate from genetics.
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  12.  73
    Three Epigenetic Information Channels and Their Different Roles in Evolution.Nicholas Shea, Ido Pen & Tobias Uller - 2011 - Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:1178-87.
    There is increasing evidence for epigenetically mediated transgenerational inheritance across taxa. However, the evolutionary implications of such alternative mechanisms of inheritance remain unclear. Herein, we show that epigenetic mechanisms can serve two fundamentally different functions in transgenerational inheritance: (i) selection-based effects, which carry adaptive information in virtue of selection over many generations of reliable transmission; and (ii) detection-based effects, which are a transgenerational form of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. The two functions interact differently with a third form of epigenetic information transmission, (...)
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  13.  34
    Epigenetics: Ambiguities and Implications.Karola Stotz & Paul Griffiths - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (4).
    Everyone has heard of ‘epigenetics’, but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader ‘exogenetic’ systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development (...)
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  14. Genetic, Epigenetic and Exogenetic Information.Karola Stotz & Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2017 - In Richard Joyce (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy. London & New York: Routledge.
    We describe an approach to measuring biological information where ‘information’ is understood in the sense found in Francis Crick’s foundational contributions to molecular biology. Genes contain information in this sense, but so do epigenetic factors, as many biologists have recognized. The term ‘epigenetic’ is ambiguous, and we introduce a distinction between epigenetic and exogenetic inheritance to clarify one aspect of this ambiguity. These three heredity systems play complementary roles in supplying information for development. -/- We then consider the evolutionary significance (...)
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  15.  36
    Epigenetics Changes Nothing: What a New Scientific Field Does and Does Not Mean for Ethics and Social Justice.Jonathan Y. Huang & Nicholas B. King - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (1):69-81.
    Recently, ethicists have posited that consideration of epigenetic mechanisms presents novel challenges to concepts of justice and equality of opportunity, such as elevating the importance of environments in bioethics and providing a counterpoint to gross genetic determinism. We argue that new findings in epigenetic sciences, including those regarding intergenerational health effects, do not necessitate reconceptualization of theories of justice or the environment. To the contrary, such claims reflect a flawed understanding of epigenetics and its relation to genetics that may (...)
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  16.  4
    Epigenetic Responsibility.Maria Hedlund - 2012 - Medicine Studies 3 (3):171-183.
    The purpose of this article is to argue for a position holding that epigenetic responsibility primarily should be a political and not an individual responsibility. Epigenetic is a rapidly growing research field studying regulations of gene expression that do not change the DNA sequence. Knowledge about these mechanisms is still uncertain in many respects, but main presumptions are that they are triggered by environmental factors and life style and, to a certain extent, heritable to subsequent generations, thereby reminding of aspects (...)
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  17.  24
    Epigenetic and Transcriptional Variability Shape Phenotypic Plasticity.Simone Ecker, Vera Pancaldi, Alfonso Valencia, Stephan Beck & Dirk S. Paul - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2):1700148.
    Epigenetic and transcriptional variability contribute to the vast diversity of cellular and organismal phenotypes and are key in human health and disease. In this review, we describe different types, sources, and determinants of epigenetic and transcriptional variability, enabling cells and organisms to adapt and evolve to a changing environment. We highlight the latest research and hypotheses on how chromatin structure and the epigenome influence gene expression variability. Further, we provide an overview of challenges in the analysis of biological variability. An (...)
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  18.  31
    Epigenetic Exceptionalism.Mark A. Rothstein - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):733-736.
    Emerging fields of science often create new challenges for ethics and law. In assessing the broader societal implications of scientific discoveries, a reasonable analytical starting point is determining how the discoveries compare with existing science. If the new field is substantially similar to an established one, then the ethical and legal analyses are likely to be comparable. On the other hand, if the new scientific developments are extraordinary in kind or degree, then a new analytical framework and new approaches to (...)
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  19.  26
    Epigenetic Theories: Caspar Friedrich Wolff and Immanuel Kant.Ina Goy - 2014 - In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter. pp. 43-60.
    In this paper, I investigate the relation of Kant's theory of biology to epigenetic accounts of organic generation and development. In the literature, a dispute about similarities between Blumenbach's epigenetic account and Kant dominated the debate for many years (see Lenoir 1980, 1981, and 1982, 17–34, Richards 2000; 2002, 207–37; Look 2006, and van den Berg 2009). Some more recent interpreters claim that Wolff's, more than Blumenbach's account plays the pivotal role in the development of a vitalistic conception of epigenesis (...)
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  20.  1
    Epigenetics and Obesity: The Reproduction of Habitus Through Intracellular and Social Environments.Stanley Ulijaszek, Michael Davies, Vivienne Moore & Megan Warin - 2016 - Body and Society 22 (4):53-78.
    Bourdieu suggested that the habitus contains the ‘genetic information’ which both allows and disposes successive generations to reproduce the world they inherit from their parents’ generation. While his writings on habitus are concerned with embodied dispositions, biological processes are not a feature of the practical reason of habitus. Recent critiques of the separate worlds of biology and culture, and the rise in epigenetics, provide new opportunities for expanding theoretical concepts like habitus. Using obesity science as a case study we (...)
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  21.  28
    Is Epigenetic Inheritance a Counterexample to the Central Dogma?Alex Rosenberg - 2006 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (4):549 - 565.
    This paper argues that nothing that has been discovered in the increasingly complex delails of gene regulation has provided any grounds to retract or qualify Crick's version of the central dogma. In particular it defends the role of the genes as the sole bearers of information, and argues that the mechanism of epigenetic modification of the DNA is but another vindication of Crick's version of the central dogma. The paper shows that arguments of C.K. Waters for the distinctive causual role (...)
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  22.  15
    An Epigenetic Approach to Semantic Categories.Peter Gardenfors - forthcoming - IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems.
    It is argued that early language learning in children emerges from five primary knowledge structures: Space, objects, actions, number and events. These structures constitute the basis for the semantic domains that are used to form categories that represent the meanings of early words. The domains are naturally modeled in conceptual spaces that are based on geometric notions rather than on symbolic representations. It is shown how these semantics domains can be used to generate an epigenetic model of language acquisition. The (...)
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  23.  28
    Epigenetics: A Way to Bridge the Gap Between Biological Fields.Antonine Nicoglou & Francesca Merlin - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 66:73-82.
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  24.  23
    How Epigenetic Mutations Can Affect Genetic Evolution: Model and Mechanism.Filippos D. Klironomos, Johannes Berg & Sinéad Collins - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (6):571-578.
  25.  33
    Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life.Eva Jablonka, Marion J. Lamb & Anna Zeligowski - 2005 - Bradford.
    Ideas about heredity and evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. New findings in molecular biology challenge the gene-centered version of Darwinian theory according to which adaptation occurs only through natural selection of chance DNA variations. In Evolution in Four Dimensions, Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb argue that there is more to heredity than genes. They trace four "dimensions" in evolution -- four inheritance systems that play a role in evolution: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic. These systems, they argue, can all (...)
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  26.  24
    Why Epigenetics is Not a Vindication of Lamarckism – and Why That Matters.Ute Deichmann - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57:80-82.
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  27.  24
    The Epigenetic Turn: Some Notes About the Epistemological Change of Perspective in Biosciences.Guido Nicolosi & Guido Ruivenkamp - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):309-319.
    This article compares two different bodies of theories concerning the role of the genome in life processes. The first group of theories can be indicated as referring to the gene-centric paradigm. Dominated by an informational myth and a mechanistic Cartesian body/mind and form/substance dualism, this considers the genome as an ensemble of discrete units of information governing human body and behavior, and remains hegemonic in life sciences and in the public imagination. The second body of theories employs the principle of (...)
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  28. Weismann Rules! OK? Epigenetics and the Lamarckian Temptation.David Haig - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):415-428.
    August Weismann rejected the inheritance of acquired characters on the grounds that changes to the soma cannot produce the kind of changes to the germ-plasm that would result in the altered character being transmitted to subsequent generations. His intended distinction, between germ-plasm and soma, was closer to the modern distinction between genotype and phenotype than to the modern distinction between germ cells and somatic cells. Recently, systems of epigenetic inheritance have been claimed to make possible the inheritance of acquired characters. (...)
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  29.  82
    Epigenetics, Evolution, and Us.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2003 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3):489-500.
    This essay moves along broad lines from molecular biology to evolutionary biology and ecology to theology. Its objectives are to: 1) present some recent scientific findings in the emerging field of epigenetics that indicate that it is “the genome in context,” not genes per se, that are important in biological development and evolution; 2) show that this weakens the gene-centric neo-Darwinist explanation of evolution which, in fact, shares a certain preformationist orientation with intelligent design theory; 3) argue that the (...)
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  30.  17
    Epigenetics and the Brain: Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals New Depths to Genomic Imprinting.Gavin Kelsey - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (5):362-367.
  31.  9
    The Epigenetic Character of Development.Gilbert Gottlieb - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):446-447.
  32.  77
    Lamarckism and Epigenetic Inheritance: A Clarification.Laurent Loison - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):29.
    Since the 1990s, the terms “Lamarckism” and “Lamarckian” have seen a significant resurgence in biological publications. The discovery of new molecular mechanisms have been interpreted as evidence supporting the reality and efficiency of the inheritance of acquired characters, and thus the revival of Lamarckism. The present paper aims at giving a critical evaluation of such interpretations. I argue that two types of arguments allow to draw a clear distinction between the genuine Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters and transgenerational (...)
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  33.  9
    Epigenetic-Induced Alterations in Sex-Ratios in Response to Climate Change: An Epigenetic Trap?Sofia Consuegra & Carlos M. Rodríguez López - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (10):950-958.
  34.  9
    Epigenetic Cancer Therapy: Proof of Concept and Remaining Challenges.Cora Mund & Frank Lyko - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (11):949-957.
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  35.  14
    Epigenetics and Metaphor: Language of Limits.Sofia Falomir - 2018 - Technoetic Arts 16 (3):295-302.
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  36.  7
    The Epigenetic Imperative: Responsibility for Early Intervention at the Time of Biological Plasticity.Michelle Pentecost & Maurizio Meloni - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):60-62.
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  37.  35
    Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.M. Loi, L. D. Savio & E. Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (3):305-305.
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  38.  16
    Epigenetics and Parental Effects.Laurent Kappeler & Michael J. Meaney - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (9):818-827.
  39. Impressionable Biologies: From the Archaeology of Plasticity to the Sociology of Epigenetics.Maurizio Meloni - 2019 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    Chapter 1st of the book. This chapter explores the fundamental ambiguity of the concept of plasticity – between openness and determination, change and stabilization of forms. This pluralism of meanings is used to unpack different instantiations of corporeal plasticity across various epochs, starting from ancient and early modern medicine, particularly humouralism. A genealogical approach displaces the notion that plasticity is a unitary phenomenon, coming in the abstract, and illuminates the unequal distribution of different forms of plasticities across social, gender, and (...)
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  40.  13
    Waddington’s Epigenetics or the Pictorial Meetings of Development and Genetics.Antonine Nicoglou - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (4):61.
    In 1956, in his Principles of Embryology, Conrad Hal Waddington explained that the word “epigenetics” should be used to translate and update Wilhelm Roux’ German notion of “Entwicklungsmechanik” to qualify the studies focusing on the mechanisms of development. When Waddington mentioned it in 1956, the notion of epigenetics was not yet popular, as it would become from the 1980s. However, Waddington referred first to the notion in the late 1930s. While his late allusion clearly reveals that Waddington readily (...)
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  41.  7
    Epigenetic Regulation of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Genes in Fungi.Robert Cichewicz - 2012 - In Witzany (ed.), Biocommunication of Fungi. Springer. pp. 57--69.
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  42.  39
    Histone Acetylation and an Epigenetic Code.Bryan M. Turner - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (9):836-845.
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  43.  43
    The Social Brain Meets the Reactive Genome: Neuroscience, Epigenetics and the New Social Biology.Maurizio Meloni - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    The rise of molecular epigenetics over the last few years promises to bring the discourse about the sociality and susceptibility to environmental influences of the brain to an entirely new level. Epigenetics deals with molecular mechanisms such as gene expression, which may embed in the organism “memories” of social experiences and environmental exposures. These changes in gene expression may be transmitted across generations without changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetics is the most advanced example of the new (...)
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  44.  36
    Epigenetics, Semiotics, and the Mysteries of the Organism.Chris Sinha - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (2):112-115.
  45.  14
    On the Genetic and Epigenetic Bases of Primate Signal Processing.Louis J. Goldberg & Leonard A. Rosenblum - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (2):161-176.
    Four sequential, sub-processes are identified as the fundamental steps in the processing of signals by big-brained animals. These are, Detection of the signal, its Representation in correlated sensory brain structure, the Interpretation of the signal in another part of the brain and the Expression of the receiver’s response. We label this four-step spatiotemporal process DRIE. We support the view that when the context within which such signals are produced and received is relatively constant, the DRIE process can be ultimately assimilated (...)
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  46.  48
    Tastes of the Parents: Epigenetics and its Role in Evolutionary Aesthetics.Mariagrazia Portera & Mauro Mandrioli - 2015 - Evental Aesthetics 4 (2):46-76.
    Evolutionary Aesthetics is a bourgeoning and thriving sub-field of Aesthetics, the main aim of which is “the importation of aesthetics into natural sciences, and especially its integration into the heuristic of Darwin’s evolutionary theory.” Scholars working in the field attempt to determine through the adoption of an interdisciplinary research methodology whether and to what extent Darwinian evolution can shed light on our capacity to have aesthetic experiences, make aesthetic judgments, and produce literary, visual, musical artworks. Notwithstanding Evolutionary Aesthetics’ growing popularity (...)
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  47.  3
    Imprinting: An Epigenetic Approach.Howard Moltz - 1963 - Psychological Review 70 (2):123-138.
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  48.  8
    An Epigenetic Machine: Review of The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology by Marcello Barbieri. [REVIEW]Fatima Cvrčková, Eduard Gajdoš, László Hajnal & Anton Markoš - 2003 - Sign Systems Studies 2 (2):605-616.
  49.  11
    Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance: Should Obesity-Prevention Policies Be Reconsidered?Mihai Niculescu - 2011 - Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy 2 (1):G18 - G26.
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  50.  52
    RNA Regulation of Epigenetic Processes.John S. Mattick, Paulo P. Amaral, Marcel E. Dinger, Tim R. Mercer & Mark F. Mehler - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (1):51-59.
    There is increasing evidence that dynamic changes to chromatin, chromosomes and nuclear architecture are regulated by RNA signalling. Although the precise molecular mechanisms are not well understood, they appear to involve the differential recruitment of a hierarchy of generic chromatin modifying complexes and DNA methyltransferases to specific loci by RNAs during differentiation and development. A significant fraction of the genome-wide transcription of non-protein coding RNAs may be involved in this process, comprising a previously hidden layer of intermediary genetic information that (...)
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