Results for 'Epistemological Theories'

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  1.  69
    The Epistemological Theory of Argument--How and Why?Christoph Lumer - 2005 - Informal Logic 25 (3):213-243.
    The article outlines a general epistemological theory of argument: a theory that regards providingjustified belief as the principal aim of argumentation, and defends it instrumentalistically. After introducing some central terms of such a theory (2), answers to its central questions are proposed: the primary object and structure of the theory (3), the function of arguments, which is to lead to justified belief (4), the way such arguments function, which is to guide the addressee's cognizing (5), objective versus subjective aspects (...)
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  2. Social Epistemology: Theory and Applications.Alvin I. Goldman - 2009 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 64:1-18.
    Epistemology has had a strongly individualist orientation, at least since Descartes. Knowledge, for Descartes, starts with the fact of one’s own thinking and with oneself as subject of that thinking. Whatever else can be known, it must be known by inference from one’s own mental contents. Achieving such knowledge is an individual, rather than a collective, enterprise. Descartes’s successors largely followed this lead, so the history of epistemology, down to our own time, has been a predominantly individualist affair.
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  3. Social Epistemology, Theory of Evidence, and Intelligent Design: Deciding What to Teach.Alvin Goldman - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):1-22.
    Social epistemology is the normative theory of socioepistemic practices. Teaching is a socioepistemic practice, so educational practices belong on the agenda of social epistemology. A current question is whether intelligent design should be taught in biology classes. This paper focuses on the argument from “fairness” or “equal time.” The principal aim of education is knowledge transmission, but evidence renders it doubtful that giving intelligent design equal time would promote knowledge transmission. In making curricular decisions, boards of education should consult the (...)
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  4. An epistemological theory of consciousness?Pete Mandik - 2008 - In Alessio Plebe & Vivian De La Cruz (eds.), Philosophy in the Neuroscience Era. Squilibri.
    This article tackles problems concerning the reduction of phenomenal consciousness to brain processes that arise in consideration of specifically epistemological properties that have been attributed to conscious experiences. In particular, various defenders of dualism and epiphenomenalism have argued for their positions by assuming special epistemic access to phenomenal consciousness. Many physicalists have reacted to such arguments by denying the epistemological premises. My aim in this paper is to take a different approach in opposing dualism and argue that when (...)
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  5.  2
    Radical epistemology, theory choice, and the priority of the epistemic.William Conner - 2024 - Synthese 203 (2):1-21.
    Beliefs based on pernicious ideology are widespread, and they often have harmful consequences. Attempts to solve the problems these beliefs cause could benefit from epistemological work on them, so it is heartening to see more epistemologists turning to study ideological beliefs. In this paper, I discuss one recent approach, radical epistemology, which has two aims: (1) offering structural explanations of epistemic justification and (2) putting these explanations to work in opposing ideology. While I share radical epistemologists’ opposition to pernicious (...)
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  6.  65
    Justifying the Epistemological Theory of Argumentation.Christoph Lumer - 2024 - Informal Logic 43 (4):574-600.
    This article discusses Harvey Siegel’s general justification of the epistemological theory of argumentation in his seminal essay “Arguing with Arguments." On the one hand, the achievements of this essay are honoured—in particular, a thorough differentiation of the different meanings of ‘argument’ and ‘argumentation,’ the semantic justification of the fundamentality of arguments as sequences of propositions, and the detailed critiques of alternative theories of argumentation. On the other hand, suggestions for strengthening the theory are added to Siegel's expositions, which (...)
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  7.  30
    An Epistemological Theory of Argumentation for Adversarial Legal Proceedings.Danny Marrero - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (3):288-308.
    The rhetorical view suggests that the goal of factual ar- gumentation in legal proceedings is to persuade the fact-finder about the facts under litigation. However, R does not capture our social expecta- tions: we want fact-finders to know the facts justifying their decisions, and persuasion does not necessarily lead to knowledge. I want to present an epistemic theory of argumenta- tion honoring our expectations. Un- der my account, factual argumenta- tion aims to transmit knowledge to the fact-finder.
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  8. Justifying Epistemological Theory of Mullā Sadrā.Boyou Alizadeh - 2012 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 2 (1):29-50.
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  9.  26
    ``A Plethora of Epistemological Theories".John Pollock - 1979 - In George Pappas (ed.), Justification and Knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel. pp. 93-115.
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  10.  9
    Political and Epistemological Theories in Pre-modern and Modern Shīʿī Thought.Giovanni Carrera - 2019 - Journal of World Philosophies 4 (2):154-157.
    Over the last few decades the study of Shīʿī Islam has witnessed a growing interest in specific aspects and perspectives of Shīʿī philosophers and theologians. The monograph authored by Sayeh Meisami focuses on the views of two of the most influential thinkers in Shīʿī, namely the eleventh century Ismāʿīlī thinker Ḥāmid al-Kirmānī and the Twelver mystic and thinker Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī, better known as Mullā Ṣadrā. Throughout the five chapters, the textual comparative analysis of their thought shows how multifaceted (...) and cosmological keys are transmitted from al-Kirmānī to Mullā Ṣadra, and ultimately become interwoven with their respective theories about the legitimacy of the Imām. Epistemology, cosmology, and political theory thus become, in the author’s analysis, the fil rouge that characterize the development of Shīʿī mystical and political philosophies up to the advent of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Republic of Iran. (shrink)
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  11.  9
    Philosophy and the Art of Writing.has Published Papers on Imagination Epistemology, Self-Knowledge Desire, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly Aesthetic Appreciation in Journals Like Australasian Journal of Philosophy, European Journal of Philosophy Synthese & etc Journal of Aesthetic Education - 2023 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 10 (1):89-93.
    As the editors of the series, New Literary Theory, proclaim in the preface of the book, the purpose of the series is to make more room in literary theory for playful and accessible approaches to li...
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  12.  7
    A unified epistemological theory of information processing.Áron Tóbiás - 2020 - Theory and Decision 90 (1):63-83.
    What does it mean for an agent faced with choice under uncertainty to “know” something? While a variety of mathematical methods are available to construct formal models to answer this question, the combination of different approaches may lead to unsettling paradoxes. I propose a unified theory that eliminates such inconsistencies by relying on a sharp conceptual distinction between information the decision-maker observes and how much of that information she can cognitively process. The resulting model allows for natural decision-theoretic characterizations of (...)
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  13. David Hume: Metaphysical and epistemological theories.James Fieser - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14.  49
    History vs. (epistemological) theory.Richard Eldridge - 2006 - History and Theory 45 (3):448–454.
    Interpretive Reasoning. By Laurent Stern.
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  15.  4
    The Commensurability of Indian Epistemological Theories.Karl H. Potter - 1991 - In Eliot Deutsch (ed.), Culture and Modernity: East-West Philosophic Perspectives. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 123-138.
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  16.  25
    Images, diagrams, and narratives: Charles S. Peirce's epistemological theory of mental diagrams.Markus Arnold - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (186):5-20.
    Charles S. Peirce's epistemological theory of mental diagrams forms the theoretical basis of his attempt to analyze diagrammatic reasoning. Two examples, one from science and another from art, are examined to test the scope of this theory. While the first example shows how scientific diagrams form part of translation processes, similar processes are demonstrated in how paintings are received. The article attempts to connect Peirce and A. J. Greimas's theory of narrative. Relating the two proves useful in allowing Peirce's (...)
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  17.  42
    Phya-pa chos-kyi seng-ge's impact on tibetan epistemological theory.L. W. J. van der Kuijp - 1977 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 5 (4):355-369.
  18.  20
    Intelligence and Social Epistemology - Toward a Social Epistemological Theory of Intelligence.Giangiuseppe Pili - 2019 - Social Epistemology 33 (6):574-592.
    ABSTRACTEvidence, beliefs, and knowledge are words that are currently used in the intelligence community. The primary goal of intelligence is to provide knowledge and foreknowledge of an enemy’s in...
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  19. Thai Higher Education and an Epistemological Theory of Attasammāpaṇidhi.Theptawee Chokvasin - 2019 - Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects 49:63-72.
    This essay is a philosophical construction of an epistemological theory of self-knowledge when one is an autonomous moral agent with right self-guidance. It is called, in Buddhist thought, Attasammāpaṇidhi, which means the characteristics of right self-conduct or right self-guidance. An exploration of the concept is important in Thai higher education because of the related Buddhist precept of Yonisomanasikāra, which are methods of thinking with critical reflections. This chapter considers some explanations of what knowledge might be when one knows that (...)
     
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  20. Feminists' knowledge and the knowledge of feminisms: Epistemology, theory, methodology and method.Mary Maynard - 1998 - In Tim May & Malcolm Williams (eds.), Knowing the Social World. Open University Press. pp. 120--137.
  21.  10
    Phya-pa Chos-kyi seng-ge's impact on Tibetan epistemological theory.L. W. J. Kuijp - 1978 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 5 (4):355-369.
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  22.  5
    Classics in Logic: Readings in Epistemology, Theory of Knowledge and Dialectics.Dagobert David Runes (ed.) - 2011 - New York,: Philosophical Library.
  23. Classics in Logic. Readings in Epistemology, Theory of Knowledge and Dialectics.Dagobert D. Runes - 1966 - Studia Logica 19:149-150.
     
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  24. A Theory-based Epistemology of Modality.Bob Fischer - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):228-247.
    We have some justified beliefs about modal matters. A modal epistemology should explain what’s involved in our having that justification. Given that we’re realists about modality, how should we expect that explanation to go? In the first part of this essay, I suggest an answer to this question based on an analogy with games. Then, I outline a modal epistemology that fits with that answer. According to a theory-based epistemology of modality, you justifiably believe that p if you justifiably believe (...)
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  25.  38
    The Epistemological Significance of the Theory of Social Representations.Ivana Marková - 2008 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (4):461-487.
    The theory of social representations must be understood in terms of its proper epistemology so that it can accomplish its full potential in social sciences. This is often difficult to achieve because researchers comprehend it in terms of concepts that are part of static and individualistic Newtonian epistemology rather than in terms of dynamic and relational Einsteinian epistemology. This article considers three signposts that Moscovici identifies and analyses in the theory of relativity, namely the relation between epistemology and science, theory (...)
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  26. Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge.Robert Audi - 1997 - New York: Routledge.
    First Published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  27.  18
    The Epistemology of Meta-theoretic Properties of Mathematical Theories: Consistency, Soundness, Categoricity.Matteo Zicchetti - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Bristol
  28.  7
    The epistemological crisis of Marxian economic theory.Matias Petersen - 2020 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 20 (18-33).
    In Ethics in the Conflicts of Modernity, MacIntyre argues that neo-Aristotelians have much to learn from Marx’s economic theory, not only for understanding the nature of capitalism, but also for thinking about alternative social and political institutions. This article outlines the arguments given by MacIntyre for embracing Marxian economic theory and argues that if Marxian economics is a tradition of enquiry, in the MacIntyrean sense of the term, we should take seriously the debates within this tradition in order to conclude (...)
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  29.  48
    Virtue Epistemology and Argumentation Theory.Daniel H. Cohen - 2007 - In David Hitchcock (ed.), Dissensus and the search for common ground. OSSA.
    Virtue epistemology was modeled on virtue ethics theories to transfer their ethical insights to epistemology. VE has had great success: broadening our perspective, providing new answers to traditional questions, and raising exciting new questions. I offer a new argument for VE based on the concept of cognitive achievements, a broader notion than purely epistemic achievements. The argument is then extended to cognitive transformations, especially the cognitive transformations brought about by argumentation.
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  30. Theory Selection in Modal Epistemology.Robert William Fischer - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):381-395.
    Accounts of modal knowledge are many and varied. How should we choose between them? I propose that we employ inference to the best explanation, and I suggest that there are three desiderata that we should use to rank hypotheses: conservatism, simplicity, and the ability to handle disagreement. After examining these desiderata, I contend that they can’t be used to justify belief in the modal epistemology that fares best, but that they can justify our accepting it in an epistemically significant sense. (...)
     
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  31. Evolutionary Theory and the Epistemology of Science.Kevin McCain & Brad Weslake - 2013 - In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer. pp. 101-119.
    Evolutionary theory is a paradigmatic example of a well-supported scientific theory. In this chapter we consider a number of objections to evolutionary theory, and show how responding to these objections reveals aspects of the way in which scientific theories are supported by evidence. Teaching these objections can therefore serve two pedagogical aims: students can learn the right way to respond to some popular arguments against evolutionary theory, and they can learn some basic features of the structure of scientific (...) and evidence. (shrink)
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  32. Coherentist Epistemology and Moral Theory.Geoffrey Sayre-McCord - 1996 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Mark Timmons (eds.), Moral Knowledge? New Readings in Moral Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    matter of knowing that -- that injustice is wrong, courage is valuable, and care is As a result, what I'll be doing is primarily defending in general -- and due. Such knowledge is embodied in a range of capacities, abilities, and skills..
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  33. Epistemological foundations for a materialist theory of mind.David M. Armstrong - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (June):178-93.
    A philosophy might take its general inspiration from (1) commonsense; (2) careful observation; (3) philosophical argumentation; (4) the sciences; (5) "higher" sources of illumination. It is argued in this paper that it is bedrock commonsense, and the sciences, which are the most reliable foundations for a philosophy. This result is applied to the discussion and defense of a materialist theory of the mind.
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  34.  95
    Hinge epistemology and the prospects for a unified theory of knowledge.John Greco - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 15):3593-3607.
    I defend two theses here. First, I argue that at least many of the commitments that Wittgenstein identifies as “hinge commitments” are plausibly what cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence call “procedural knowledge.” Procedural knowledge can be implemented in cognitive systems in a variety of ways, and these modes of implementation, I argue, predict several properties of Wittgensteinian hinge commitments, including their functional profile, as well as other of their characteristic features. Second, I argue that thinking of hinge commitments as a (...)
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  35. Epistemology in a Nutshell: Theory, Model, Simulation and Experiment.Anne-Françoise Schmid, Denis Phan & Franck Varenne - 2007 - In Denis Phan & Frédéric Amblard (eds.), Agent-based Modelling and Simulation in the Social and Human Sciences. Oxford: The Bardwell Press. pp. 357-391.
    In the Western tradition, at least since the 14th century, the philosophy of knowledge has been built around the idea of knowledge as a representation [BOU 99]. The question of the evaluation of knowledge refers at the same time (1) to the object represented (which one does one represent?), (2) to the process of knowledge formation, in particular with the role of the knowing subject (which one does one represent and how does one represent it?), and finally (3) to the (...)
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  36.  11
    Classics in Logic, Readings in Epistemology, Theory of Knowledge and Dialectics, edited by DAGOBERT D. RUNES. Philosophical Library, New York 1962, 818 p. [REVIEW]J. Klapwijk - 1965 - Philosophia Reformata 30 (1):58-59.
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  37.  43
    Evolutionary epistemology as an overlapping, interlevel theory.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):173-192.
    I examine the branch of evolutionary epistemology which tries to account for the character of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans by extending the biological theory of evolution to the neurophysiological substrates of cognition. Like Plotkin, I construe this branch as a struggling science, and attempt to characterize the sort of theory one might expect to find this truly interdisciplinary endeavor, an endeavor which encompasses not only evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and developmental neuroscience, but also and especially, the computational modeling (...)
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  38.  26
    George Boole. Of syllogisms. Reprinted from 191. Classics in logic, Readings in epistemology, theory of knowledge and dialectics, edited by Dagobert D. Runes, Philosophical Library, New York1962, pp. 177–191. - Rudolf Carnap. Elementary and abstract terms. Reprinted from IV 117. Classics in logic, Readings in epistemology, theory of knowledge and dialectics, edited by Dagobert D. Runes, Philosophical Library, New York1962, pp. 221–229. - Lewis Carroll . The bilateral diagram. Reprinted from 674. Classics in logic, Readings in epistemology, theory of knowledge and dialectics, edited by Dagobert D. Runes, Philosophical Library, New York1962, pp. 230–233. - Gottlob Frege. Definitions. Reprinted from XVIII 92. Classics in logic, Readings in epistemology, theory of knowledge and dialectics, edited by Dagobert D. Runes, Philosophical Library, New York1962, pp. 329–342. - John Neville Keynes. Propositions. Reprinted from 631. Classics in logic, Readings in epistemology, theory of knowledge an. [REVIEW]Alonzo Church - 1964 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 29 (3):135-135.
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  39.  8
    Epistemology: An Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge.Nicholas Rescher - 2003 - State University of New York Press.
    A comprehensive introduction to the theory of knowledge.
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  40.  12
    The epistemological status of recent developments in psychoanalytic theory.Morris N. Eagle - 1983 - In R. Cohen & L. Laudan (eds.), Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis. D. Reidel. pp. 31--55.
  41.  30
    A Theory of Textuality: The Logic and Epistemology.Jorge J. E. Gracia - 1995 - State University of New York Press.
    This book is just what it says it is: A theory of textuality divided into two parts, logical and epistemological.
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  42.  50
    Epistemological Pitfalls in the Proxy Theory of Race: The Case of Genomics-Based Medicine.Joanna Karolina Malinowska & Davide Serpico - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this article, we discuss epistemological limitations relating to the use of ethnoracial categories in biomedical research as devised by the Office of Management and Budget’s institutional guidelines. We argue that the obligation to use ethnoracial categories in genomics research should be abandoned. First, we outline how conceptual imprecision in the definition of ethnoracial categories can generate epistemic uncertainty in medical research and practice. Second, we focus on the use of ethnoracial categories in medical genetics, particularly genomics-based precision medicine, (...)
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  43.  74
    Epistemology of transformative material activity: John Dewey's pragmatism and cultural-historical activity theory.Reijo Miettinen - 2006 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36 (4):389–408.
    The paper compares John Dewey's pragmatism and cultural-historical activity theory as epistemologies and theories of transformative material activity. For both of the theories, the concept of activity, the prototype of which is work, constitutes a basis for understanding the nature of knowledge and reality. This concept also implies for both theories a methodological approach of studying human behavior in which social experimentation and intervention play a central role. They also suggest that reflection and thought, mediated by language (...)
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  44.  14
    Epistemological Framework for Computer Simulations in Building Science Research: Insights from Theory and Practice.Amos Kalua & James Jones - 2020 - Philosophies 5 (4):30.
    Computer simulations are widely used within the area of building science research. Building science research deals with the physical phenomena that affect buildings, including heat and mass transfer, lighting and acoustic transmission. This wide usage of computer simulations, however, is characterized by a divergence in thought on the composition of an epistemological framework that may provide guidance for their deployment in research. This paper undertakes a fundamental review of the epistemology of computer simulations within the context of the philosophy (...)
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  45.  40
    Argumentation Theory as Applied Epistemology.Cristián Santibáñez - 2012 - Cinta de Moebio 43:24-39.
    In this paper the conception of argumentation theory as applied epistemology is discussed. The point of departure is the description of four perspectives that are considered as founders of the modern theory of argumentation, in order to observe whether there was a similar concept in those theories or if they provided the patterns to go into that direction. Further on the reasons why contemporary scholars have given this emphasis to the notion of argumentation theory is discussed. En este artículo (...)
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  46. Cartesian Epistemology: Is the theory of the self-transparent mind innate?Peter Carruthers - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (4):28-53.
    This paper argues that a Cartesian belief in the self-transparency of minds might actually be an innate aspect of our mind-reading faculty. But it acknowledges that some crucial evidence needed to establish this claim hasn’t been looked for or collected. What we require is evidence that a belief in the self-transparency of mind is universal to the human species. The paper closes with a call to anthropologists (and perhaps also developmental psychologists), who are in a position to collect such evidence, (...)
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  47. In Defence of the Epistemological Objection to Divine Command Theory.John Danaher - 2019 - Sophia 58 (3):381-400.
    Divine command theories come in several different forms but at their core all of these theories claim that certain moral statuses exist in virtue of the fact that God has commanded them to exist. Several authors argue that this core version of the DCT is vulnerable to an epistemological objection. According to this objection, DCT is deficient because certain groups of moral agents lack epistemic access to God’s commands. But there is confusion as to the precise nature (...)
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  48. The epistemological status of scientific theories: An investigation of the structural realist account.Ioannis Votsis - 2004 - Dissertation, London School of Economics
    In this dissertation, I examine a view called ‘Epistemic Structural Realism’, which holds that we can, at best, have knowledge of the structure of the physical world. Put crudely, we can know physical objects only to the extent that they are nodes in a structure. In the spirit of Occam’s razor, I argue that, given certain minimal assumptions, epistemic structural realism provides a viable and reasonable scientific realist position that is less vulnerable to anti-realist arguments than any of its rivals.
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  49. Saving epistemology from the epistemologists: recent work in the theory of knowledge.Adam Morton - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):685-704.
    This is a very selective survey of developments in epistemology, concentrating on work from the past twenty years that is of interest to philosophers of science. The selection is organized around interesting connections between distinct themes. I first connect issues about skepticism to issues about the reliability of belief-acquiring processes. Next I connect discussions of the defeasibility of reasons for belief to accounts of the theory-independence of evidence. Then I connect doubts about Bayesian epistemology to issues about the content of (...)
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  50. The applied epistemology of conspiracy theories: An overview.M. R. X. Dentith & Brian L. Keeley - 2018 - In David Coady & James Chase (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Applied Epistemology. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 284-294.
    An overview of the current epistemic literature concerning conspiracy theories, as well as indications for future research avenues on the topic.
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