Results for 'Equal Opportunity'

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  1.  17
    Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity.Joseph Fishkin - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    Bottlenecks introduces a powerful new way of understanding equal opportunity. Rather than literal equalization, Joseph Fishkin argues that Americans ought to aim to broaden the range of opportunities open to people, at every stage in life, to pursue different paths.
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  2.  22
    The Moderating Effect of Equal Opportunity Support and Confidence in Grievance Procedures on Sexual Harassment From Different Perpetrators.M. Sandy Hershcovis, Sharon K. Parker & Tara C. Reich - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (3):415-432.
    This study drew on three theoretical perspectives – attribution theory, power, and role identity theory – to compare the job-related outcomes of sexual harassment from organizational insiders and organizational outsiders in a sample of UK police officers and police support staff. Results showed that sexual harassment from insiders was related to higher intentions to quit, over-performance demands, and lower job satisfaction, whereas sexual harassment from outsiders was not significantly related to any of the outcome variables investigated. We also examined two (...)
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  3.  26
    Capability as Opportunity: How Amartya Sen Revises Equal Opportunity.Harlan Beckley - 2002 - Journal of Religious Ethics 30 (1):107 - 135.
    Although the concept of equal opportunity has received scant attention from theological ethics, it attracts widespread approval in the U.S. popular culture and has been examined extensively by contemporary moral philosophy. Amartya Sen's conception of capabilities as "freedom" or "real opportunity" corrects deficiencies in both popular and philosophical conceptions of equal opportunity that ignore interpersonal variations in mental, physical, and psychological abilities beyond agents' control. Recent theologically informed conceptions of love and common grace affirm and (...)
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  4.  21
    Against Competitive Equal Opportunity.Paul Gomberg - 1995 - Journal of Social Philosophy 26 (3):59-73.
    Competitive opportunity assumes limited positions of advantage. Making competitive opportunity equal without expanding opportunity would delay socialization for diminished expectations but have no advantages, thus possibly making a bad situation worse. Equal opportunity worth fighting for would be opportunity available to all non-competitively.
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  5.  14
    Rights of Inequality: Rawlsian Justice, Equal Opportunity, and the Status of the Family.Justin Schwartz - 2001 - Legal Theory 7 (1):83-117.
    Is the family subject to principles of justice? In "A Theory of Justice", John Rawls includes the (monogamous) family along with the market and the government as among the, "basic institutions of society", to which principles of justice apply. Justice, he famously insists, is primary in politics as truth is in science: the only excuse for tolerating injustice is that no lesser injustice is possible. The point of the present paper is that Rawls doesn't actually mean this. When it comes (...)
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  6.  42
    Each Outcome is Another Opportunity: Problems with the Moment of Equal Opportunity.Clare Chambers - 2009 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (4):374-400.
    This article introduces the concept of a Moment of Equal Opportunity (MEO): a point in an individual’s life at which equal opportunity must be applied and after which it need not. The concept of equal opportunity takes many forms, and not all employ an MEO. However, the more egalitarian a theory of equal opportunity is, the more likely it is to use an MEO. The article discusses various theories of equal (...) and argues that those that employ an MEO are problematic. Unjust inequalities, those that motivate the use of equal opportunity, occur throughout people’s lives and thus go unrectified after an MEO. However, it is not possible to abandon the MEO approach and apply more egalitarian versions of equal opportunity throughout a person’s life, since doing so entails problems of epistemology, efficiency, incentives, and counter-intuitive results. The article thus argues that liberal egalitarian theories of equality of opportunity are inconsistent if they support an MEO and unrealizable if they do not. (shrink)
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  7.  30
    Equal Opportunity and Genetic Intervention.Allen E. Buchanan - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):105 - 35.
    What does the prospect of being able to alter a human being's “natural assets” by genetic engineering imply for our understanding of the requirements of justice, and of equal opportunity in particular? Although their proponents are reluctant to admit it, some of the most prominent contemporary theories of justice yield a quite radical conclusion: If safe and effective intervention in the genetic “natural lottery” becomes feasible, there will be at least a strong prima facie case for doing so (...)
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  8.  20
    Genomics and Equal Opportunity Ethics.A. W. Cappelen, O. F. Norheim & B. Tungodden - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):361-364.
    Genomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal (...) in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed. (shrink)
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  9.  25
    The Justification of Equal Opportunity.Alan H. Goldman - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):88.
    As a preliminary to the justification of equal opportunity, we require a few words on the concept. An opportunity is a chance to attain some goal or obtain some benefit. More precisely, it is the lack of some obstacle or obstacles to the attainment of some goal or benefit. Opportunities are equal in some specified or understood sense when persons face roughly the same obstacles or obstacles of roughly the same difficulty of some specified or understood (...)
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  10.  40
    Liberty Versus Equal Opportunity.James S. Fishkin - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):32.
    Liberalism has often been viewed as a continuing dialogue about the relative priorities between liberty and equality. When the version of equality under discussion requires equalization of outcomes, it is easy to see how the two ideals might conflict. But when the version of equality requires only equalization of opportunities, the conflict has been treated as greatly muted since the principle of equality seems so meager in its implications. However, when one looks carefully at various versions of equal (...) and various versions of liberty, the conflict between them is, in fact, both dramatic and inescapable. Each version of the conflict poses hard choices which defy any systematic pattern granting priority to one of these basic values over the other. In this essay, I will flesh out and argue for this picture of fundamental conflict, and then turn to some more general issues about the kinds of answers we should expect to the basic questions of liberal theory. (shrink)
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  11.  23
    Equal Opportunity, Freedom and Sex-Stereotyping.Susan Leigh Anderson - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:1-10.
    Michael Levin, in Feminism and Freedom, argues that sex-stereotyping is inevitable and legitimate since there are innate non-anatomical differences between the sexes. He, further, believes that sex-stereotyping is compatible with members of both sexes acting freely and having equal opportunity in the job market and other areas of life. I will attack both claims, but I will particularly concentrate on the second one. I believe that Levin is only able to make his view sound plausible because of his (...)
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  12.  1
    Equal Opportunity, Freedom and Sex-Stereotyping.Susan Leigh Anderson - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:1-10.
    Michael Levin, in Feminism and Freedom, argues that sex-stereotyping is inevitable and legitimate since there are innate non-anatomical differences between the sexes. He, further, believes that sex-stereotyping is compatible with members of both sexes acting freely and having equal opportunity in the job market and other areas of life. I will attack both claims, but I will particularly concentrate on the second one. I believe that Levin is only able to make his view sound plausible because of his (...)
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  13.  23
    No Basis for Justice: Equal Opportunity, Normal Functioning, and the Distribution of Healthcare.Anita Silvers - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):35 – 36.
    (2001). No Basis for Justice: Equal Opportunity, Normal Functioning, and the Distribution of Healthcare. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 35-36.
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  14.  21
    Just Price and Equal Opportunity.Claes Hägg - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):269-272.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if just price could be given a precise and relevant definition. First, the historical background is sketched. Then a definition is formulated which is based on a gradual interpretation of possibility. The meaning of the definition is, that the buyer and the seller are given equal opportunity of reaching a justified standard of living.
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  15.  5
    Equal Opportunity in a Pluralistic Society.James W. Nickel - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):104.
    The United States has never been culturally or religiously homogeneous, but its diversity has greatly increased over the last century. Although the U.S. was first a multicultural nation through conquest and enslavement, its present diversity is due equally to immigration. In this paper I try to explain the difference it makes for one area of thought and policy – equal opportunity – if we incorporate cultural and religious pluralism into our national self-image. Formulating and implementing a policy of (...)
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  16. Liberty Versus Equal Opportunity*: James S. Fishkin.James S. Fishkin - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):32-48.
    Liberalism has often been viewed as a continuing dialogue about the relative priorities between liberty and equality. When the version of equality under discussion requires equalization of outcomes, it is easy to see how the two ideals might conflict. But when the version of equality requires only equalization of opportunities, the conflict has been treated as greatly muted since the principle of equality seems so meager in its implications. However, when one looks carefully at various versions of equal (...) and various versions of liberty, the conflict between them is, in fact, both dramatic and inescapable. Each version of the conflict poses hard choices which defy any systematic pattern granting priority to one of these basic values over the other. In this essay, I will flesh out and argue for this picture of fundamental conflict, and then turn to some more general issues about the kinds of answers we should expect to the basic questions of liberal theory. (shrink)
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  17. The Justification of Equal Opportunity: ALAN H. GOLDMAN.Alan H. Goldman - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):88-103.
    As a preliminary to the justification of equal opportunity, we require a few words on the concept. An opportunity is a chance to attain some goal or obtain some benefit. More precisely, it is the lack of some obstacle or obstacles to the attainment of some goal or benefit. Opportunities are equal in some specified or understood sense when persons face roughly the same obstacles or obstacles of roughly the same difficulty of some specified or understood (...)
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  18. Equal Opportunity in a Pluralistic Society: JAMES W. NICKEL.James W. Nickel - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):104-119.
    The United States has never been culturally or religiously homogeneous, but its diversity has greatly increased over the last century. Although the U.S. was first a multicultural nation through conquest and enslavement, its present diversity is due equally to immigration. In this paper I try to explain the difference it makes for one area of thought and policy – equal opportunity – if we incorporate cultural and religious pluralism into our national self-image. Formulating and implementing a policy of (...)
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  19. Equal Opportunity, Equality, and Responsibility.Alex Voorhoeve - 2005 - Dissertation, University of London
    This thesis argues that a particular version of equal opportunity for welfare is the best way of meeting the joint demands of three liberal egalitarian ideals: distributional equality, responsibility, and respect for individuals’ differing reasonable judgements of their own good. It also examines which social choice rules best represent these demands. Finally, it defends the view that achieving equal opportunity for welfare should not only be a goal of formal public institutions, but that just citizens should (...)
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  20. Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare.Richard J. Arneson - 1989 - Philosophical Studies 56 (1):77 - 93.
  21.  39
    Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought.Andrew Mason - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    "Equality of opportunity for all" is a fine piece of political rhetoric but the ideal that lies behind it is slippery to say the least. This book defends a particular account of the ideal and its place in a more radical version of what it is to level the playing field.
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  22.  54
    The Value in Equal Opportunity: Reply to Kershnar.John O'Dea - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):177–187.
    Stephen Kershnar (2004) recently argues that under its most plausible interpretation, equality of opportunity is simply not something worth pursuing; at least, not for itself. In this paper I try to show that even if we accept Kershnar's characterisation of equality of opportunity in terms of weighted aggregate chances, none of his objections succeed. Opportunities, not outcomes, are the appropriate focus of EO advocates; hedonic treadmills are irrelevant to the issue; we do not need to assume general equality (...)
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  23.  22
    Equal Opportunity, Reward and Respect for Preferences: Reply to Roemer.Marc Fleurbaey - 2012 - Economics and Philosophy 28 (2):201-216.
    This rejoinder to Roemer examines Roemer's amendment to his EOp criterion, explains the similarities and differences between Roemer's approach to equality of opportunity and the economic literature inspired by the fair allocation theory, and proposes some clarifications on the compensation principle and the role of the reward principle in the definition of a responsibility-sensitive social criterion. It highlights the power of the ideal of respect for individual preferences with respect to the reward issue and the concern for potential harshness (...)
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  24. Equal Opportunity or Equal Social Outcome?Marc Fleurbaey - 1995 - Economics and Philosophy 11 (1):25.
    John Rawls's work has greatly contributed to rehabilitating equality as a basic social value, after decades of utilitarian hegemony,particularly in normative economics, but Rawls also emphasized that full equality of welfare is not an adequate goal either. This thesis was echoed in Dworkin's famous twin papers on equality, and it is now widely accepted that egalitarianism must be selective. The bulk of the debate on ‘Equality of What?’ thus deals with what variables ought to be submitted for selection and how (...)
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  25. Liberalism, Distributive Subjectivism, and Equal Opportunity for Welfare.Richard J. Arneson - 1990 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (2):158-194.
  26.  3
    Fishkin, Joseph.Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Pp. 288. $35.00. [REVIEW]Serena Olsaretti - 2016 - Ethics 126 (3):821-825.
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  27.  67
    Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought.Serena Olsaretti - 2009 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (1):133-136.
  28.  30
    Why Equal Opportunity is Not a Valuable Goal.Stephen Kershnar - 2004 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (2):159–172.
  29.  3
    Justice, Equal Opportunity, and the Family.James S. Fishkin - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (4):618-620.
  30.  35
    The Concept of Equal Opportunity.Peter Westen - 1985 - Ethics 95 (4):837-850.
  31.  57
    Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought – Andrew Mason.Yonathan Reshef Avner de-Shalit - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):756-760.
  32. Four Approaches to Equal Opportunity.Marc Fleurbaey - 2011 - In Carl Knight & Zofia Stemplowska (eds.), Responsibility and Distributive Justice. Oxford University Press.
     
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  33.  20
    Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought - Andrew Mason.Avner de-Shalit & Yonathan Reshef - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):756-760.
  34.  25
    Equal Opportunity or Equal Education?Nicholas C. Burbules - 1990 - Educational Theory 40 (2):221-226.
  35.  3
    The Hooper Equal Opportunity Measure: An Operational Definition of Ecological Dissonance Theory.Duane I. Miller, Mike Majors, Marty Giesen & Jeff S. Topping - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (2):164-166.
  36.  17
    Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity.Hugh Lazenby - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (264):649-652.
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  37.  59
    A Defense of Equal Opportunity for Welfare.Richard J. Arneson - 1991 - Philosophical Studies 62 (2):187 - 195.
  38.  3
    Equal Opportunity and Its Discontents.Jeffrey Gauthier - 2016 - Social Philosophy Today 32:169-174.
  39.  25
    Equal Opportunity Is Equal Education (Within Limits).Kenneth R. Howe - 1990 - Educational Theory 40 (2):227-230.
  40.  2
    The Principle of Equal Opportunity.H. Goldman Alan - 1977 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 15 (4):473-485.
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  41.  29
    Difficulties with the Principle of Equal Opportunity for Welfare.Thomas Christiano - 1991 - Philosophical Studies 62 (2):179 - 185.
  42. A Liberal Defense of Equal Opportunity.William Galston - 1997 - In Louis P. Pojman & Robert Westmoreland (eds.), Equality: Selected Readings. Oup Usa.
  43.  17
    Themes in the Reverse-Discrimination Debate:The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. Joel Dreyfuss, Charles Lawrence III; Justice and Reverse Discrimination. Alan H. Goldman; Discrimination in Reverse: Is Turnabout Fair Play? Barry R. Gross; Fair Game? Inequality and Affirmative Action. John C. Livingston; Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions: The Quest for Equal Opportunity. Allan P. Sindler. [REVIEW]Irving Thalberg - 1980 - Ethics 91 (1):138-.
  44.  10
    Conflicting Accounts of Equal Opportunity.Andrew Askland - 1996 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 10 (2):35-44.
  45. Andrew Mason, Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and Its Place in Egalitarian Thought Reviewed By.Abigail Levin - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 28 (1):52-54.
     
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  46.  1
    The Natural Right of Equal Opportunity in Kant’s Civil Union.O. Dahlstrom Daniel - 1985 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):295-303.
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  47.  2
    How Collusion Perpetuates Racial Discrimination in Societies That Ostensibly Promote Equal Opportunity.Helen Lauer - 2016 - Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):75-101.
    It is shown here that injustices due to racial discrimination are best identified in light of the deleterious effects they have upon their victims, rather than the beliefs and attitudes of their perpetrators. For among participants who cooperate clandestinely to bring about racial injustice there may be broad disagreement about what it is they are doing collectively, and why; or they may disagree in principle about whether what they are doing is morally right. I employ the notion of ‘nomotropic’ behaviour (...)
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  48. Norman E. Bowie, Ed., Equal Opportunity Reviewed By.Jack Iwanicki - 1990 - Philosophy in Review 10 (5):175-177.
     
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  49.  5
    Joseph Fishkin, Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity.John Baker - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (1):170-178.
  50.  21
    Equal Opportunity to Meaningful Competitions: Disability Rights and Justice in Sports.Mika LaVaque-Manty - unknown
    This paper explores the questions of equality and social justice for people with disabilities in sports and, by extension, other civil societal practices that involve the pursuit of excellence. I argue that such practices come within the purview of justice depending on the interplay between political activism, institutionalized anti-discrimination statutes such as the ADA, and the internal norms of a practice. There are many ways to interpret the ADA, and a successful argument for a right to a pursuit of excellence (...)
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