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Eric Watkins [107]Eric W. Watkins [1]
  1.  48
    Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality.Eric Watkins - 2004 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about Kant's views on causality as understood in their proper historical context. Specifically, Eric Watkins argues that a grasp of Leibnizian and anti-Leibnizian thought in eighteenth-century Germany helps one to see how the critical Kant argued for causal principles that have both metaphysical and epistemological elements. On this reading Kant's model of causality does not consist of events, but rather of substances endowed with causal powers that are exercised according to their natures and circumstances. This innovative (...)
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  2. Kant on cognition and knowledge.Eric Watkins & Marcus Willaschek - 2020 - Synthese 197 (8):3195-3213.
    Even though Kant’s theory of cognition (Erkenntnis) is central to his Critique of Pure Reason, it has rarely been asked what exactly Kant means by the term “cognition”. Against the widespread assumption that cognition (in the most relevant sense of that term) can be identified with knowledge or if not, that knowledge is at least a species of cognition, we argue that the concepts of cognition and knowledge in Kant are not only distinct, but even disjunct. To show this, we (...)
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  3. Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality.Eric Watkins - 2005 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (3):624-626.
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  4. Kant’s Account of Cognition.Eric Watkins & Marcus Willaschek - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (1):83-112.
    kant’s critique of pure reason undertakes a systematic investigation of the possibility of synthetic cognition a priori so as to determine whether this kind of cognition is possible in the case of traditional metaphysics.1 While much scholarly attention has been devoted to the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments as well as to that between the a priori and the a posteriori, less attention has been devoted to understanding exactly what cognition is for Kant. In particular, it is often insufficiently (...)
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  5.  31
    Kant on Laws.Eric Watkins - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on the unity, diversity, and centrality of the notion of law as it is employed in Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy. Eric Watkins argues that, by thinking through a number of issues in various historical, scientific, and philosophical contexts over several decades, Kant is able to develop a univocal concept of law that can nonetheless be applied to a wide range of particular cases, despite the diverse demands that these contexts give rise to. In addition, Watkins shows (...)
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  6. Kant.Eric Watkins - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press UK.
     
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  7.  66
    Kant's Theory of Biology.Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.) - 2014 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    During the last twenty years, Kant's theory of biology has increasingly attracted the attention of scholars and developed into a field which is growing rapidly in importance within Kant studies. The volume presents fifteen interpretative essays written by experts working in the field, covering topics from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century biological theories, the development of the philosophy of biology in Kant's writings, the theory of organisms in Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment, and current perspectives on the teleology of nature.
  8.  82
    Kant and the Sciences.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2001 - New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    Kant and the Sciences aims to reveal the deep unity of Kant's conception of science as it bears on the particular sciences of his day and on his conception of ...
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  9.  72
    Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2009 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides English translations of texts that form the essential background to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Presenting the projects of Kant's predecessors and contemporaries in eighteenth-century Germany, it enables readers to understand the positions that Kant might have identified with 'pure reason', the criticisms of pure reason that had developed prior to Kant's, and alternative attempts at synthesizing empiricist elements within a rationalist framework. The volume contains chapters on Christian Wolff, Martin Knutzen, Alexander Baumgarten, Christian Crusius, Leonhard Euler, (...)
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  10.  86
    Kant's Philosophy of Science.Eric Watkins & Marius Stan - 2023 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  11. What is, for Kant, a Law of Nature?Eric Watkins - 2014 - Kant Studien 105 (4):471-490.
  12. Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism.Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkins - 2012 - Kant Studien 103 (2):163-187.
    : In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to the first version is that God cannot (...)
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  13. What real progress has metaphysics made since the time of Kant? Kant and the metaphysics of grounding.Eric Watkins - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 13):3213-3229.
    This paper argues that, despite appearances to the contrary, Kant and contemporary analytic metaphysicians are interested in the same kind of metaphysical dependence relation that finds application in a range of contexts and that is today commonly referred to as grounding. It also argues that comparing and contrasting Kant’s and contemporary metaphysicians’ accounts of this relation proves useful for both Kant scholarship and for contemporary metaphysics. The analyses provided by contemporary metaphysicians can be used to shed light on Kant’s understanding (...)
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  14. Kant and the myth of the given.Eric Watkins - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (5):512 – 531.
    Sellars and McDowell, among others, attribute a prominent role to the Myth of the Given. In this paper, I suggest that they have in mind two different versions of the Myth of the Given and I argue that Kant is not the target of one version and, though explicitly under attack from the other, has resources sufficient to mount a satisfactory response. What is essential to this response is a proper understanding of (empirical) concepts as involving unifying functions that can (...)
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  15.  79
    The Argumentative Structure of Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Eric Watkins - 1998 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 36 (4):567-593.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:The Argumentative Structure of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations Of Natural ScienceEric Watkinsone of kant’s most fundamental aims is to justify Newtonian science. However, providing a detailed explanation of even the main structure of his argument (not to mention the specific arguments that fill out this structure) is not a trivial enterprise. While it is clear that Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781), his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), and (...)
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  16. Kant, Sellars, and the myth of the given.Eric Watkins - 2012 - Philosophical Forum 43 (3):311-326.
  17. The Antinomy of Teleological Judgment.Eric Watkins - 2009 - Kant Yearbook 1 (1):197-222.
  18.  51
    The Divine Order, the Human Order, and the Order of Nature: Historical Perspectives.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2013 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    This volume contains ten new essays focused on the exploration and articulation of a narrative that considers the notion of order within medieval and modern philosophy--its various kinds (natural, moral, divine, and human), the different ways in which each is conceived, and the diverse dependency relations that are thought to obtain among them.
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  19.  31
    Kant on Real Conditions.Eric Watkins - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit. Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1133-1140.
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  20. The antinomy of practical reason: reason, the unconditioned and the highest good.Eric Watkins - 2010 - In Andrews Reath & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant's 'Critique of Practical Reason': A Critical Guide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  21. The Laws of Motion from Newton to Kant.Eric Watkins - 1997 - Perspectives on Science 5 (3):311-348.
    It is often claimed (most recently by Michael Friedman) that Kant intended to justify Newton’s most fundamental claims expressed in the Principia, such as his laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. In this article, I argue that the differences between Newton’s laws of motion and Kant’s laws of mechanics are not superficial or merely apparent. Rather, they reflect fundamental differences in their respective projects. This point can be seen especially clearly by considering the nature of the various (...)
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  22. Kant on the Material Ground of Possibility: From "The Only Possible Argument" to the "Critique of Pure Reason".Mark Fisher & Eric Watkins - 1998 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):369 - 395.
  23. Kant's model of causality: Causal powers, laws, and Kant's reply to Hume.Eric Watkins - 2004 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (4):449-488.
    : This paper argues that Kant's model of causality cannot consist in one temporally determinate event causing another, as Hume had thought, since such a model is inconsistent with mutual interaction, to which Kant is committed in the Third Analogy. Rather causality occurs when one substance actively exercises its causal powers according to the unchanging grounds that constitute its nature so as to determine a change of state of another substance. Because this model invokes unchanging grounds, one can understand how (...)
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  24.  58
    Kant on materialism.Eric Watkins - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (5):1035-1052.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper I argue that Kant’s complex argument against materialism involves not only his generic commitment to the existence of non-spatio-temporal and thus non-material things in themselves, but also considerations pertaining to reason and the subject of our thoughts. Specifically, I argue that because Kant conceives of reason in such a way that it demands a commitment to the existence of the unconditioned so that we can account for whatever conditioned objects we encounter in experience, our thoughts, which are (...)
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  25.  71
    O'Neill and Korsgaard on the Construction of Normativity.Eric Watkins & William Fitzpatrick - 2002 - Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (2-3):349-367.
  26. From Pre-established Harmony to Physical Influx: Leibniz’s Reception in Eighteenth Century Germany.Eric Watkins - 1998 - Perspectives on Science 6 (1):136-203.
  27.  87
    The early Kant’s Newtonianism.Eric Watkins - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):429-437.
  28.  41
    Kant's justification of the laws of mechanics.Eric Watkins - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):539-560.
  29.  74
    The Development of Physical Influx In Early Eighteenth-Century Germany.Eric Watkins - 1995 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):295-339.
    Before the story can be told, however, some stage-setting is necessary. First, it is important to be clear about the most basic doctrines of Pre-established Harmony, Occasionalism, and Physical Influx. Physical Influx asserts intersubstantial causation amongst finite substances. For instance, when I appear to kick a ball, I really am the cause of the ball's motion. Pre-established Harmony denies intersubstantial causation, but affirms intrasubstantial causation. According to Pre-established Harmony, then, I am not the cause of the ball's motion, but rather (...)
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  30.  45
    Mini-symposium on Kant and cognition.Eric Watkins, Marcus Willaschek & Clinton Tolley - 2020 - Synthese 197 (8):3193-3194.
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  31.  54
    Nature in General as a System of Ends.Eric Watkins - 2014 - In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 117-130.
  32.  94
    Kant's Transcendental Idealism and the Categories.Eric Watkins - 2002 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 19 (2):191 - 215.
  33. On the Necessity and Nature of Simples: Leibniz, Wolff, Baumgarten, and the Pre-Critical Kant.Eric Watkins - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 3:261-367.
     
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  34.  62
    Givenness and Cognition: Reply to Grüne and Chignell.Eric Watkins & Marcus Willaschek - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (1):143-152.
    stefanie grüne takes issue with our claim that for an object to be given, this object must exist. On her view, givenness, according to Kant, does not require the existence of the object, but only its real possibility. She develops her critique in three steps. First, she argues that the reason why Kant requires objects to be given in intuition is that otherwise our concepts would not have ‘objective reality’ and would thus not constitute cognitions. But since the objective reality (...)
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  35. On the Necessity and Nature of Simples: Leibniz, Wolff, Baumgarten, and the Pre-Critical Kant.Eric Watkins - 2006 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 3. Clarendon Press.
  36.  94
    Kant’s Theory of Physical Influx.Eric Watkins - 1995 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 77 (3):285-324.
  37. Autonomy and the Legislation of Laws in the Prolegomena (1783).Eric Watkins - 2018 - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant’s Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 122-140.
    This paper attempts to shed light on Kant’s notion of autonomy in his moral philosophy by considering the extent to which he presents a similar doctrine in his theoretical philosophy, where he strikingly claims (e.g., in the Prolegomena) that the understanding prescribes laws to nature. It argues that even though there are important points of difference between the cases of theoretical legislation of the laws of nature and autonomy in moral philosophy, their extensive parallels make a strong, even if not (...)
     
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  38.  42
    Forces and causes in Kant’s early pre-Critical writings.Eric Watkins - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):5-27.
    This paper considers Kant’s conception of force and causality in his early pre-Critical writings, arguing that this conception is best understood by way of contrast with his immediate predecessors, such as Christian Wolff, Alexander Baumgarten, Georg Friedrich Meier, Martin Knutzen, and Christian August Crusius, and in terms of the scientific context of natural philosophy at the time. Accordingly, in the True estimation Kant conceives of force in terms of activity rather than in terms of specific effects, such as motion. Kant’s (...)
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  39. Kant and the Hiddenness of God.Eric Watkins - 2010 - In Krueger James & Lipscomb Benjamin (eds.), Kant's Moral Metaphysics. DeGruyter. pp. 255-290.
  40.  61
    Kant on Infima Species.Eric Watkins - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Boston: de Gruyter. pp. 283-294.
  41.  97
    Kant on the Hiddenness of God.Eric Watkins - 2009 - Kantian Review 14 (1):81-122.
    Kant's sustained reflections on God have received considerable scholarly attention over the years and rightly so. His provocative criticisms of the three traditional theoretical proofs of the existence of God, and his own positive proof for belief in God's existence on moral grounds, have fully deserved the clarification and analysis that has occurred in these discussions. What I want to focus on, however, is the extent to which Kant's position contains resources sufficient to answer a line of questioning about the (...)
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  42. Kant’s Third Analogy of Experience.Eric Watkins - 1997 - Kant Studien 88 (4):406-441.
    The main topic of the following dissertation is Kant's Third Analogy of Experience, which asserts that one must posit a bond of mutual interaction in order to judge that two substances exist simultaneously. Part One considers the Third Analogy proper and reconstructs two plausible arguments for its main claim. Contrary to the view of most commentators , Kant is entitled to a strong causal notion of mutual interaction. Part Two considers the historical debate between proponents of Pre-established Harmony, Occasionalism, and (...)
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  43. The system of principles.Eric Watkins - 2010 - In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  44.  17
    2 Making Sense of Mutual Interaction: Simultaneity and the Equality of Action and Reaction.Eric Watkins - 2011 - In Charlton Payne & Lucas Thorpe (eds.), Kant and the concept of community. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. pp. 41-62.
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  45.  1
    Kant's Justification of the Laws of Mechanics.Eric Watkins - 2001 - In Kant and the Sciences. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    This paper notes a number of differences between Newton’s formulations of the laws of motion and Kant’s formulations of the laws of mechanics, and then argues that these differences are not superficial. Their significance can be seen by taking Kant’s rationalist background into account. The essay also contains discussions of Kant’s claims concerning the infinite divisibility of matter, the equality of action and reaction, and action at a distance.
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  46. Kant on Rational Cosmology.Eric Watkins - 2001 - In Kant and the Sciences. New York, US: Oxford University Press. pp. 70--89.
     
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  47. Kant: Natural Science.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Though Kant is best known for his strictly philosophical works in the 1780s, many of his early publications in particular were devoted to what we would call 'natural science'. Kant's Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens made a significant advance in cosmology, and he was also instrumental in establishing the newly emerging discipline of physical geography, lecturing on it for almost his entire career. In this volume Eric Watkins brings together new English translations of Kant's first publication, Thoughts (...)
     
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  48.  10
    18 The Antinomy of Pure Reason, Sections 3–8.Eric Watkins - 2024 - In Georg Mohr & Marcus Willaschek (eds.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der reinen Vernunft. De Gruyter. pp. 355-370.
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  49. Kant on Persons and Agency.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2017 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Today we consider ourselves to be free and equal persons, capable of acting rationally and autonomously in both practical and theoretical contexts. The essays in this volume show how this conception was first articulated in a fully systematic fashion by Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century. Twelve leading scholars shed new light on Kant's philosophy, with each devoting particular attention to at least one of three aspects of this conception: autonomy, freedom, and personhood. Some focus on clarifying the philosophical content (...)
     
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  50. Modern Philosophy: An Anthology of Primary Sources.Roger Ariew & Eric Watkins (eds.) - 2009 - Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co..
    The leading anthology of its kind, this volume provides the key works of seven major philosophers, along with a rich selection of associated texts by other ...
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