Results for 'Erica Preston-Roedder'

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Erica Preston-Roedder
Occidental College
  1. Racial Cognition and the Ethics of Implicit Bias.Daniel Kelly & Erica Roedder - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (3):522–540.
    We first describe recent empirical research on racial cognition, particularly work on implicit racial biases that suggests they are widespread, that they can coexist with explicitly avowed anti-racist and tolerant attitudes, and that they influence behavior in a variety of subtle but troubling ways. We then consider a cluster of questions that the existence and character of implicit racial biases raise for moral theory. First, is it morally condemnable to harbor an implicit racial bias? Second, ought each of us to (...)
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  2. Altruism.Stephen Stich, John M. Doris & Erica Roedder - 2010 - In John M. Doris & The Moral Psychology Research Group (eds.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
    We begin, in section 2, with a brief sketch of a cluster of assumptions about human desires, beliefs, actions, and motivation that are widely shared by historical and contemporary authors on both sides in the debate. With this as background, we’ll be able to offer a more sharply focused account of the debate. In section 3, our focus will be on links between evolutionary theory and the egoism/altruism debate. There is a substantial literature employing evolutionary theory on each side of (...)
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  3. The Ordinary Concept of Valuing.Joshua Knobe & Erica Roedder - 2009 - In Ernest Sosa & Enrique Villanueva (eds.), Metaethics. Wiley Periodicals. pp. 131-147.
    The concept of valuing plays an important role in the way we think about people’s attitudes toward the things they care about most. We invoke this concept in sentences like: I value your friendship. We need to find a leader who truly values political equality. To live a good life, one must always return to the things one values most. Yet there also seem to be cases in which a person has a strong desire for a particular object but in (...)
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  4. Moral Grammar.Gilbert Harman & Erica Roedder - manuscript
    The approach to generative grammar originating with Chomsky (1957) has been enormously successful within linguistics. Seeing such success, one wonders whether a similar approach might help us understand other human domains besides language. One such domain is morality. Could there be universal generative moral grammar? More specifically, might it be useful to moral theory to develop an explicit generative account of parts of particular moralities in the way it has proved useful to linguistics to produce generative grammars for parts of (...)
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  5. 1. Philosophical Background.Stephen Stich, John M. Doris & Erica Roedder - 2010 - In John Doris (ed.), Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press. pp. 147.
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  6.  77
    Moral Theory: The Linguistic Analogy.Gilbert Harman & Erica Roedder - manuscript
    Analogies are often theoretically useful. Important principles of electricity are suggested by an analogy between water current flowing through a pipe and electrical current “flowing” through a wire. A basic theory of sound is suggested by an analogy between waves caused by a stone being dropped into a still lake and “sound waves” caused by a disturbance in air.
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  7. Linguistics and Moral Theory.Erica Roedder & Gilbert Harman - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  8.  13
    Wayne Ouderkirkand Christopher J. Preston.Christopher J. Preston - 2007 - In Christopher J. Preston and Wayne Ouderkirk (ed.), Nature, Value, Duty: Life on Earth with Holmes Rolston, Iii. Springer. pp. 8.
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  9. Grief and Recovery.Ryan Preston-Roedder & Erica Preston-Roedder - 2017 - In Anna Gotlib (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Sadness. London: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Imagine that someone recovers relatively quickly, say, within two or three months, from grief over the death of her spouse, whom she loved and who loved her; and suppose that, after some brief interval, she remarries. Does the fact that she feels better and moves on relatively quickly somehow diminish the quality of her earlier relationship? Does it constitute a failure to do well by the person who died? Our aim is to respond to two arguments that give affirmative answers (...)
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  10.  46
    The Ordinary Concept of Valuing.Joshua Knobe & Erica Preston‐Roedder - 2009 - Philosophical Issues 19 (1):131-147.
  11.  27
    A Philosophy of Material Culture: Action, Function, and Mind.Beth Preston - 2012 - Routledge.
    This book focuses on material culture as a subject of philosophical inquiry and promotes the philosophical study of material culture by articulating some of the central and difficult issues raised by this topic and providing innovative solutions to them, most notably an account of improvised action and a non-intentionalist account of function in material culture. Preston argues that material culture essentially involves activities of production and use; she therefore adopts an action-theoretic foundation for a philosophy of material culture. Part 1 (...)
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  12. Before the Fall-Out: The Human Chain Reaction From Marie Curie to Hiroshima.Diana Preston - 2005 - Doubleday.
    A history of the Atomic Bomb from Marie Curie to Hiroshima. “I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds” — Oppenheimer quoting the Bhagavad Gita after witnessing the successful demonstration of the atom bomb. The bomb, which killed an estimated 140,000 civilians in Hiroshima and destroyed the countryside for miles around, was one of the defining moments in world history. That mushroom cloud cast a terrifying shadow over the contemporary world and continues to do so today. But how could this (...)
     
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  13.  52
    Reading Conflicted Minds: An Empirical Follow-Up to Knobe and Roedder.Chad Gonnerman - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):193 – 205.
    Recently Joshua Knobe and Erica Roedder found that folk attributions of valuing tend to vary according to the perceived moral goodness of the object of value. This is an interesting finding, but it remains unclear what, precisely, it means. Knobe and Roedder argue that it indicates that the concept MORAL GOODNESS is a feature of the concept VALUING. In this article, I present a study of folk attributions of desires and moral beliefs that undermines this conclusion. I then propose (...)
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  14.  87
    Empathy: Its Ultimate and Proximate Bases.Stephanie D. Preston & Frans B. M. de Waal - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):1-20.
    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model, (...)
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  15. Three Varieties of Faith.Ryan Preston-Roedder - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (1):173-199.
    Secular moral philosophy has devoted little attention to the nature and significance of faith. Perhaps this is unsurprising. The significance of faith is typically thought to depend on the truth of theism, and so it may seem that a careful study of faith has little to offer non-religious philosophy. But I argue that, whether or not theism holds, certain kinds of faith are centrally important virtues, that is, character traits that are morally admirable or admirable from some broader perspective of (...)
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  16. The Many Faces of Empathy: Parsing Emathic Phenomena Through a Proximate, Dynamic-Systems View Reprsenting the Other in the Self.Stephanie Preston & Alicia J. Hofelich - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (1):24-33.
    A surfeit of research confirms that people activate personal, affective, and conceptual representations when perceiving the states of others. However, researchers continue to debate the role of self–other overlap in empathy due to a failure to dissociate neural overlap, subjective resonance, and personal distress. A perception–action view posits that neural-level overlap is necessary during early processing for all social understanding, but need not be conscious or aversive. This neural overlap can subsequently produce a variety of states depending on the context (...)
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  17.  27
    Null.Doohwan Ahn, Sanda Badescu, Giorgio Baruchello, Raj Nath Bhat, Laura Boileau, Rosalind Carey, Camelia-Mihaela Cmeciu, Alan Goldstone, James Grieve, John Grumley, Grant Havers, Stefan Höjelid, Peter Isackson, Marguerite Johnson, Adrienne Kertzer, J.-Guy Lalande, Clinton R. Long, Joseph Mali, Ben Marsden, Peter Monteath, Michael Edward Moore, Jeff Noonan, Lynda Payne, Joyce Senders Pedersen, Brayton Polka, Lily Polliack, John Preston, Anthony Pym, Marina Ritzarev, Joseph Rouse, Peter N. Saeta, Arthur B. Shostak, Stanley Shostak, Marcia Landy, Kenneth R. Stunkel, I. I. I. Wheeler & Phillip H. Wiebe - 2009 - The European Legacy 14 (6):731-771.
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  18. The Corporate Social-Financial Performance Relationship.Lee E. Preston & Douglas P. O’Bannon - 1997 - Business and Society 36 (4):419-429.
    This research note analyzes the relationship between indicators of corporate social and financial performance within a comprehensive theoretical framework. The results, based on data for 67 large U.S. corporations for 1982-1992, reveal no significant negative social-financial performance relationships and strong positive correlations in both contemporaneous and lead-lag formulations.
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  19. The Rise of Western Rationalism: Paul Feyerabend’s Story.John Preston - unknown
    I summarise certain aspects of Paul Feyerabend’s account of the development of Western rationalism, show the ways in which that account is supposed to run up against an alternative, that of Karl Popper, and then try to give a preliminary comparison of the two. My interest is primarily in whether what Feyerabend called his ‘story’ constitutes a possible history of our epistemic concepts and their trajectory. I express some grave reservations about that story, and about Feyerabend’s framework, finding Popper’s views (...)
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  20.  43
    Laws of Nature, Explanation, and Semantic Circularity.Shumener Erica - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axx020.
    Humeans and anti-Humeans agree that laws of nature should explain scientifically particular matters of fact. One objection to Humean accounts of laws contends that Humean laws cannot explain particular matters of fact because their explanations are harmfully circular. This article distinguishes between metaphysical and semantic characterizations of the circularity and argues for a new semantic version of the circularity objection. The new formulation suggests that Humean explanations are harmfully circular because the content of the sentences being explained is part of (...)
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  21. Scrutinizing Science: Empirical Studies of Scientific Change.Arthur Donovan, Larry Laudan, Rachel Laudan & John Preston - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (4):1063-1065.
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    Foraging for Integration.Edmund Fantino & Ray Preston - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):683.
  23. Faith in Humanity.Ryan Preston-Roedder - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (3):664-687.
    History and literature provide striking examples of people who are morally admirable, in part, because of their profound faith in people’s decency. But moral philosophers have largely ignored this trait, and I suspect that many philosophers would view such faith with suspicion, dismissing it as a form of naïvete or as some other objectionable form of irrationality. I argue that such suspicion is misplaced, and that having a certain kind of faith in people’s decency, which I call faith in humanity, (...)
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  24. Why Is a Wing Like a Spoon? A Pluralist Theory of Function.Beth Preston - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (5):215-254.
    Function theorists routinely speculate that a viable function theory will be equally applicable to biological traits and artifacts. However, artifact function has received only the most cursory scrutiny in its own right. Closer scrutiny reveals that only a pluralist theory comprising two distinct notions of function--proper function and system function--will serve as an adequate general theory. The first section describes these two notions of function. The second section shows why both notions are necessary, by showing that attempts to do away (...)
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  25.  17
    Re-Thinking the Unthinkable: Environmental Ethics and the Presumptive Argument Against Geoengineering.Christopher J. Preston - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (4):457 - 479.
    The rapid rise in interest in geoengineering the climate as a response to global warming presents a clear and significant challenge to environmental ethics. The paper articulates what I call the 'presumptive argument' against geoengineering from environmental ethics, a presumption strong enough to make geoengineering almost 'unthinkable' from within that tradition. Two rationales for suspending that presumption are next considered. One of them is a 'lesser evil' argument, the other makes connections between the presumptive argument, ecofacism, and the anthropocentrism/non-anthropocentrism debate. (...)
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  26. Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence.John M. Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    The most famous challenge to computational cognitive science and artificial intelligence is the philosopher John Searle's "Chinese Room" argument.
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  27.  8
    Analytic Philosophy: The History of an Illusion.Aaron Preston - 2010 - Continuum.
  28.  10
    Synthetic Biology: Drawing a Line in Darwin's Sand.Christopher J. Preston - 2008 - Environmental Values 17 (1):23 - 39.
    Maintaining the coherence of the distinction between nature and artefact has long been central to environmental thinking. By building genomes from scratch out of 'bio-bricks', synthetic biology promises to create biotic artefacts markedly different from anything created thus far in biotechnology. These new biotic artefacts depart from a core principle of Darwinian natural selection – descent through modification – leaving them with no causal connection to historical evolutionary processes. This departure from the core principle of Darwinism presents a challenge to (...)
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  29.  4
    Why is a Wing Like a Spoon? A Pluralist Theory of Function.Beth Preston - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (5):215.
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  30. Grounding Knowledge Environmental Philosophy, Epistemology, and Place.Christopher J. Preston - 2003
     
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  31. Feyerabend: Philosophy, Science, and Society.John Preston - 1997 - Polity Press.
  32. Veritatis Splendor: A Comment.R. Preston - 1994 - Studies in Christian Ethics 7 (2):38-42.
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  33.  17
    Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience.Jesse Lee Preston, Ryan S. Ritter & Justin Hepler - 2013 - Cognition 127 (1):31-37.
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  34. Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management.Christopher J. Preston (ed.) - 2012 - Lexington Books.
    Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management is a wide-ranging and expert analysis of the ethics of the intentional management of solar radiation. This book will be a useful tool for policy-makers, a provocation for ethicists, and an eye-opening analysis for both the scientist and the general reader with interest in climate change.
     
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  35.  8
    Cheryl Misak, Cambridge Pragmatism: From Peirce and James to Ramsey and Wittgenstein . Xviii + 321, Price £30.00 Hb. [REVIEW]John Preston - 2017 - Philosophical Investigations 40 (4):443-448.
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  36. The Origins and Development of Association Football in Th eLiverpool District, C.1879 Until C.1915.Thomas J. Preston - unknown
    This thesis examines how association football evolved in Liverpool in the period before the Great War, and how the sport impacted on the lives of Liverpudlians during this period. Specific consideration is given in the first two chapters to the introduction of football to Liverpool and its progressive commercialisation. The third chapter examines the backgrounds of the city's professional footballers and their relationship with supporters and clubs. The role in Liverpool of amateur, semi-professional, and schoolboy football is considered in the (...)
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  37. Misuse Made Plain: Evaluating Concerns About Neuroscience in National Security.Kelly Lowenberg, Brenda M. Simon, Amy Burns, Libby Greismann, Jennifer M. Halbleib, Govind Persad, David L. M. Preston, Harker Rhodes & Emily R. Murphy - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (2):15-17.
    In this open peer commentary, we categorize the possible “neuroscience in national security” definitions of misuse of science and identify which, if any, are uniquely presented by advances in neuroscience. To define misuse, we first define what we would consider appropriate use: the application of reasonably safe and effective technology, based on valid and reliable scientific research, to serve a legitimate end. This definition presents distinct opportunities for assessing misuse: misuse is the application of invalid or unreliable science, or is (...)
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  38.  62
    Science as Supermarket: `Post-Modern' Themes in Paul Feyerabend's Later Philosophy of Science.John Preston - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (3):425-447.
  39.  5
    New Reflections on Agency and Body Ownership: The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion in the Mirror.Paul M. Jenkinson & Catherine Preston - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:432-442.
  40.  71
    Mach and Hertz’s Mechanics.John Preston - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):91-101.
    The place of Heinrich Hertz’s The principles of mechanics in the history of the philosophy of science is disputed. Here I critically assess positivist interpretations, concluding that they are inadequate.There is a group of commentators who seek to align Hertz with positivism, or with specific positivists such as Ernst Mach, who were enormously influential at the time. Max Jammer is prominent among this group, the most recent member of which is Joseph Kockelmans. I begin by discussing what Hertz and Mach (...)
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  41.  23
    Elbow Grease: The Experience of Effort in Action.J. Preston, D. M. Wegner, E. Morsella, J. A. Bargh & P. M. Gollwitzer - 2009 - In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
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  42.  36
    Can Ethical Behaviour Really Exist in Business.Andrew Bartlett & David Preston - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 23 (2):199 - 209.
    Our soft survey reveals that the assumption underlying much of the business ethics literature -- that the conduct of business can and ought to support the social good -- is not accepted within the workplace. This paper considers an apparent dichotomy, with companies investing in ethical programs whose worth their employees and managers question. We examine the relationship between work, bureaucracy and "the market" and conclude that employees often question the existence of business ethics because there is no good and (...)
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  43. Self-Deception and Kant's Moral Philosophy.Ryan Preston-Roedder - manuscript
  44.  30
    Of Marigold Beer: A Reply to Vermaas and Houkes.Beth Preston - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):601-612.
    Vermaas and Houkes advance four desiderata for theories of artifact function, and classify such theories into non-intentionalist reproduction theories on the one hand and intentionalist non-reproduction theories on the other. They argue that non-intentionalist reproduction theories fail to satisfy their fourth desideratum. They maintain that only an intentionalist non-reproduction theory can satisfy all the desiderata, and they offer a version that they believe does satisfy all of them. I reply that intentionalist non-reproduction theories, including their version, fail to satisfy their (...)
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  45.  79
    Quality Instances and the Structure of the Concrete Particular.Aaron Preston - 2005 - Axiomathes 15 (2):267-292.
    In this paper, I examine a puzzle that emerges from what J. P. Moreland has called the traditional realist view of quality instances. Briefly put, the puzzle is to figure out how quality instances fit into the overall structure of a concrete particular, given that the traditional realist view of quality instances prima facie seems incompatible with what might be called the traditional realist view of concrete particulars. After having discussed the traditional realist views involved and the puzzle that emerges (...)
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  46. Feyerabend's Polanyian turns.J. Preston - 1997 - Appraisal 1:30-36.
  47. A Response To Ulrich Duchrow.R. Preston - 1990 - Studies in Christian Ethics 3 (1):93-99.
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  48.  20
    Beyond the End of Nature: SRM and Two Tales of Artificity for the Anthropocene.Christopher J. Preston - 2012 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):188 - 201.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 15, Issue 2, Page 188-201, June 2012.
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  49.  12
    The Meaning in Empathy: Distinguishing Conceptual Encoding From Facial Mimicry, Trait Empathy, and Attention to Emotion.Alicia J. Hofelich & Stephanie D. Preston - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (1):119-128.
  50.  47
    Cognition and Tool Use.Beth Preston - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (4):513–547.
    Tool use rivals language as an important domain of cognitive phenomena, and so as a source of insight into the nature of cognition in general. But the favoured current definition of tool use is inadequate because it does not carve the phenomena of interest at the joints. Heidegger's notion of equipment provides a more adequate theoretical framework. But Heidegger's account leads directly to a non-individualist view of the nature of cognition. Thus non-individualism is supported by concrete considerations about the nature (...)
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