18 found
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  1.  8
    “Paid to Endure”: Paid Research Participation, Passivity, and the Goods of Work.Erik Malmqvist - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):11-20.
    A growing literature documents the existence of individuals who make a living by participating in phase I clinical trials for money. Several scholars have noted that the concerns about risks, consent, and exploitation raised by this phenomenon apply to many jobs, too, and therefore proposed improving subject protections by regulating phase I trial participation as work. This article contributes to the debate over this proposal by exploring a largely neglected worry. Unlike most workers, subjects are not paid to produce or (...)
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  2.  80
    Are Bans on Kidney Sales Unjustifiably Paternalistic?Erik Malmqvist - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (3):110-118.
    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan (...)
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  3.  46
    Kidney Sales and the Analogy with Dangerous Employment.Erik Malmqvist - 2015 - Health Care Analysis 23 (2):107-121.
    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear (...)
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  4.  28
    Better to Exploit Than to Neglect? International Clinical Research and the Non‐Worseness Claim.Erik Malmqvist - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):474-488.
    Clinical research is increasingly ‘offshored’ to developing countries, a practice that has generated considerable controversy. It has recently been argued that the prevailing ethical norms governing such research are deeply puzzling. On the one hand, sponsors are not required to offshore trials, even when participants in developing countries would benefit considerably from these trials. On the other hand, if sponsors do offshore, they are required not to exploit participants, even when the latter would benefit from and consent to exploitation. How, (...)
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  5.  47
    Taking Advantage of Injustice.Erik Malmqvist - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (4):557-580.
    What, if anything, is wrong with taking advantage of people’s unjust circumstances when they both benefit from and consent to the exchange? The answer, some believe, is that such exchanges are wrongfully exploitative. I argue that this answer is incomplete at best, and I elaborate a different one: to take advantage of injustice is to become complicit in its reproduction. I also argue that the case for third-party interference with mutually beneficial and consensual exchanges, while normally considered weak, is strengthened (...)
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  6. Early Stopping of Clinical Trials: Charting the Ethical Terrain.Malmqvist Erik, Juth Niklas, Lynöe Niels & Helgesson Gert - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):51-78.
    Randomized and double-blind clinical trials are widely regarded as the most reliable way of studying the effects of medical interventions. According to received wisdom, if a new drug or treatment is to be accepted in clinical practice, its safety and efficacy must first be demonstrated in such trials. For ethical and scientific reasons, it is generally considered necessary to monitor a trial in various ways as it proceeds and to analyze data as they accumulate. Monitoring and interim analyses are often (...)
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  7.  7
    Exploitation and Remedial Duties.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The concept of exploitation and potentially exploitative real-world practices are the subject of increasing philosophical attention. However, while philosophers have extensively debated what exploitation is and what makes it wrong, they have said surprisingly little about what might be required to remediate it. By asking how the consequences of exploitation should be addressed, this article seeks to contribute to filling this gap. We raise two questions. First, what are the victims of exploitation owed by way of remediation? Second, who ought (...)
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  8.  21
    The Ethics of Implementing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Developed Countries.Erik Malmqvist, Gert Helgesson, Johannes Lehtinen, Kari Natunen & Matti Lehtinen - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):19-27.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It devotes particular (...)
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  9.  17
    REPROGENETICS and the “Parents Have Always Done It” Argument.Erik Malmqvist - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (1):43-49.
  10.  16
    Exploitation and Joint Action.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (3):280-300.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  11.  21
    Good Parents, Better Babies : An Argument About Reproductive Technologies, Enhancement and Ethics.Erik Malmqvist - unknown
    This study is a contribution to the bioethical debate about new and possibly emerging reproductive technologies. Its point of departure is the intuition, which many people seem to share, that using such technologies to select non-disease traits – like sex and emotional stability - in yet unborn children is morally problematic, at least more so than using the technologies to avoid giving birth to children with severe genetic diseases, or attempting to shape the non-disease traits of already existing children by (...)
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  12.  14
    A Further Lesson From Existing Kidney Markets.Erik Malmqvist - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):27-29.
    The target article challenges the increasingly popular portrayal of living kidney sale as potentially a mutually beneficial arrangement, capable not only of saving or improving the lives of patients in need of transplants but also of significantly benefiting poor vendors. Carefully reviewing the literature on harms to vendors in illegal kidney markets and in Iran’s legal market, Koplin argues that many of these harms would persist in the sort of legal regulated system that kidney sale advocates envision. This is an (...)
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  13.  14
    Analysing Our Qualms About “Designing” Future Persons: Autonomy, Freedom of Choice, and Interfering with Nature. [REVIEW]Erik Malmqvist - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (4):407-416.
    Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that (...)
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  14. A Letter To The Editor From Erik Malmqvist In Response To The Recent Letter From Howard Brody, David Buchanan, And Franklin G. Miller Concerning His Article Understanding Exploitation,” Mar-Apr 2011).Erik Malmqvist - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (2):19.
     
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  15. Understanding Exploitation.Erik Malmqvist - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (2):1-5.
    The term “exploitation” is notoriously hard to define. Yet it is frequently invoked to frame moral concerns about clinical research. Recently, a group of influential authors have proposed a so-called nonexploitation framework for the ethics of randomized controlled trials that appears to address these concerns. This article challenges one basic assumption of that framework: the idea that nonexploitation in research requires participants to be protected from excessive risks, which are understood to be risks that are not outweighed by the benefits (...)
     
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  16.  18
    Back to the Future: Habermas's" The Future of Human Nature".Bernard G. Prusak & Erik Malmqvist - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  17.  17
    The Notion of Health and the Morality of Genetic Intervention.Erik Malmqvist - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):181-192.
    In the present paper it is argued that genetic interventions on human embryos are in principle permissible if they promote the health of the persons that these embryos will one day become and impermissible if they compromise their health. This so called health-intervention principle is reached by, inter alia, rejecting alternative approaches to the problem of the permissibility of genetic intervention. The health-intervention principle can be interpreted in different ways depending on how the notion of health is understood. The central (...)
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  18.  6
    Does the Ethical Appropriateness of Paying Donors Depend on What Body Parts They Donate?Erik Malmqvist - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (3):463-473.
    The idea of paying donors in order to make more human bodily material available for therapy, assisted reproduction, and biomedical research is notoriously controversial. However, while national and international donation policies largely oppose financial incentives they do not treat all parts of the body equally: incentives are allowed in connection to the provision of some parts but not others. Taking off from this observation, I discuss whether body parts differ as regards the ethical legitimacy of incentives and, if so, why. (...)
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