We introduce a predicative version of topos based on the notion of small maps in algebraic set theory, developed by Joyal and one of the authors. Examples of stratified pseudotoposes can be constructed in Martin-Löf type theory, which is a predicative theory. A stratified pseudotopos admits construction of the internal category of sheaves, which is again a stratified pseudotopos. We also show how to build models of Aczel-Myhill constructive set theory using this categorical structure.
In this paper we present and study a categorical formulation of the W-types of Martin-Löf. These are essentially free term algebras where the operations may have finite or infinite arity. It is shown that W-types are preserved under the construction of sheaves and Artin gluing. In the proofs we avoid using impredicative or nonconstructive principles.
Working in the weakening of constructive Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory in which the subset collection scheme is omitted, we show that the binary refinement principle implies all the instances of the exponentiation axiom in which the basis is a discrete set. In particular binary refinement implies that the class of detachable subsets of a set form a set. Binary refinement was originally extracted from the fullness axiom, an equivalent of subset collection, as a principle that was sufficient to prove that the (...) Dedekind reals form a set. Here we show that the Cauchy reals also form a set. More generally, binary refinement ensures that one remains in the realm of sets when one starts from discrete sets and one applies the operations of exponentiation and binary product a finite number of times. (shrink)
We develop a constructive version of nonstandard analysis, extending Bishop's constructive analysis with infinitesimal methods. A full transfer principle and a strong idealisation principle are obtained by using a sheaf-theoretic construction due to I. Moerdijk. The construction is, in a precise sense, a reduced power with variable filter structure. We avoid the nonconstructive standard part map by the use of nonstandard hulls. This leads to an infinitesimal analysis which includes nonconstructive theorems such as the Heine-Borel theorem, the Cauchy-Peano existence theorem (...) for ordinary differential equations and the exact intermediate-value theorem, while it at the same time provides constructive results for concrete statements. A nonstandard measure theory which is considerably simpler than that of Bishop and Cheng is developed within this context. (shrink)
This paper is the first in a series whose objective is to study notions of large sets in the context of formal theories of constructivity. The two theories considered are Aczel's constructive set theory and Martin-Löf's intuitionistic theory of types. This paper treats Mahlo's π-numbers which give rise classically to the enumerations of inaccessibles of all transfinite orders. We extend the axioms of CZF and show that the resulting theory, when augmented by the tertium non-datur, is equivalent to ZF plus (...) the assertion that there are inaccessibles of all transfinite orders. Finally, the theorems of that extension of CZF are interpreted in an extension of Martin-Löf's intuitionistic theory of types by a universe. (shrink)
The class of points in a set-presented formal topology is a set, if all points are maximal. To prove this constructively a strengthening of the dependent choice principle to infinite well-founded trees is used.
. The effort in providing constructive and predicative meaning to non-constructive modes of reasoning has almost without exception been applied to theories with full classical logic . In this paper we show how to combine unrestricted countable choice, induction on infinite well-founded trees and restricted classical logic in constructively given models. These models are sheaf models over a $\sigma$ -complete Boolean algebra, whose topologies are generated by finite or countable covering relations. By a judicious choice of the Boolean algebra we (...) can directly extract effective content from $\Pi_2^0$ -statements true in the model. All the arguments of the present paper can be formalised in Martin-Löf's constructive type theory with generalised inductive definitions. (shrink)
We interpret intuitionistic theories of (iterated) strictly positive inductive definitions (s.p.-ID i′ s) into Martin-Löf's type theory. The main purpose being to obtain lower bounds of the proof-theoretic strength of type theories furnished with means for transfinite induction (W-type, Aczel's set of iterative sets or recursion on (type) universes). Thes.p.-ID i′ s are essentially the wellknownID i -theories, studied in ordinal analysis of fragments of second order arithmetic, but the set variable in the operator form is restricted to occur only (...) strictly positively. The modelling is done by constructivizing continuity notions for set operators at higher number classes and proving that strictly positive set operators are continuous in this sense. The existence of least fixed points, or more accurately, least sets closed under the operator, then easily follows. (shrink)
We present an alternative solution to the problem of inductive generation of covers in formal topology by using a restricted form of type universes. These universes are at the same time constructive analogues of regular cardinals and sets of infinitary formulae. The technique of regular universes is also used to construct canonical positivity predicates for inductively generated covers.
The standard construction of quotient spaces in topology uses full separation and power sets. We show how to make this construction using only the predicative methods available in constructive type theory and constructive set theory.
Sheaf semantics is developed within a constructive and predicative framework, Martin-Löf's type theory. We prove strong completeness of many sorted, first order intuitionistic logic with respect to this semantics, by using sites of provably functional relations.
In the present paper we introduce a constructive theory of nonstandard arithmetic in higher types. The theory is intended as a framework for developing elementary nonstandard analysis constructively. More specifically, the theory introduced is a conservative extension of HAω + AC. A predicate for distinguishing standard objects is added as in Nelson's internal set theory. Weak transfer and idealisation principles are proved from the axioms. Finally, the use of the theory is illustrated by extending Bishop's constructive analysis with infinitesimals.
We give an intuitionistic axiomatisation of real closed fields which has the constructive reals as a model. The main result is that this axiomatisation together with just the decidability of the order relation gives the classical theory of real closed fields. To establish this we rely on the quantifier elimination theorem for real closed fields due to Tarski, and a conservation theorem of classical logic over intuitionistic logic for geometric theories.
This work concerns constructive aspects of measure theory. By considering metric completions of Boolean algebras – an approach first suggested by Kolmogorov – one can give a very simple construction of e.g. the Lebesgue measure on the unit interval. The integration spaces of Bishop and Cheng turn out to give examples of such Boolean algebras. We analyse next the notion of Borel subsets. We show that the algebra of such subsets can be characterised in a pointfree and constructive way by (...) an initiality condition. We then use our work to define in a purely inductive way the measure of Borel subsets. (shrink)
In a previous paper we constructed a full and faithful functor ℳ from the category of locally compact metric spaces to the category of formal topologies . Here we show that for a real-valued continuous function f, ℳ factors through the localic positive reals if, and only if, f has a uniform positive lower bound on each ball in the locally compact space. We work within the framework of Bishop constructive mathematics, where the latter notion is strictly stronger than point-wise (...) positivity. (shrink)
In constructive mathematics it is of interest to consider a more general, but classically equivalent, notion of linear order, a so-called pseudo-order. The prime example is the order of the constructive real numbers. We examine two kinds of constructive completions of pseudo-orders: order completions of pseudo-orders and Cauchy completions of ordered groups and fields. It is shown how these can be predicatively defined in type theory, also when the underlying set is non-discrete. Provable choice principles, in particular a generalisation of (...) dependent choice, are used for showing set-representability of cuts. (shrink)
We prove that a nonstandard extension of arithmetic is effectively conservative over Peano arithmetic by using an internal version of a definable ultrapower. By the same method we show that a certain extension of the nonstandard theory with a saturation principle has the same proof-theoretic strength as second order arithmetic, where comprehension is restricted to arithmetical formulas.
A new foundation for constructive nonstandard analysis is presented. It is based on an extension of a sheaf-theoretic model of nonstandard arithmetic due to I. Moerdijk. The model consists of representable sheaves over a site of filter bases. Nonstandard characterisations of various notions from analysis are obtained: modes of convergence, uniform continuity and differentiability, and some topological notions. We also obtain some additional results about the model. As in the classical case, the order type of the nonstandard natural numbers is (...) a dense set of copies of the integers. Every standard set has a hyperfinite enumeration of its standard elements in the model. All arguments are carried out within a constructive and predicative metatheory: Martin-Löf's type theory. (shrink)
Families of types are fundamental objects in Martin-Löf type theory. When extending the notion of setoid (type with an equivalence relation) to families of setoids, a choice between proof-relevant or proof-irrelevant indexing appears. It is shown that a family of types may be canonically extended to a proof-relevant family of setoids via the identity types, but that such a family is in general proof-irrelevant if, and only if, the proof-objects of identity types are unique. A similar result is shown for (...) fibre representations of families. The ubiquitous role of proof-irrelevant families is discussed. (shrink)
In this note we show that Friedman's syntactic translation for intuitionistic logical systems can be carried over to Martin-Löf's type theory, inlcuding universes provided some restrictions are made. Using this translation we show that the theory is closed under a higher type version of Markov's rule.
It is shown that, relative to Bishop-style constructive mathematics, the boundedness principle BD-N is equivalent both to a general result about the convergence of double sequences and to a particular one about Cauchyness in a semi-metric space.
In the present note, we study a generalization of Dedekind cuts in the context of constructive Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory CZF. For this purpose, we single out an equivalent of CZF's axiom of fullness and show that it is sufficient to derive that the Dedekind cuts in this generalized sense form a set. We also discuss the instance of this equivalent of fullness that is tantamount to the assertion that the class of Dedekind cuts in the rational numbers, in the customary (...) constructive sense including locatedness, is a set. This is to be compared with the situation for the partial reals, a generalization in a different direction: if one drops locatedness from the notion of a Dedekind real, then it becomes inherently impredicative. We make this precise, and further present the curiosity that the irrational Dedekind reals form a set already with exponentiation. (shrink)
This book brings together philosophers, mathematicians and logicians to penetrate important problems in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. In philosophy, one has been concerned with the opposition between constructivism and classical mathematics and the different ontological and epistemological views that are reflected in this opposition. The dominant foundational framework for current mathematics is classical logic and set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC). This framework is, however, laden with philosophical difficulties. One important alternative foundational programme that is actively (...) pursued today is predicativistic constructivism based on Martin-Löf type theory. Associated philosophical foundations are meaning theories in the tradition of Wittgenstein, Dummett, Prawitz and Martin-Löf. What is the relation between proof-theoretical semantics in the tradition of Gentzen, Prawitz, and Martin-Löf and Wittgensteinian or other accounts of meaning-as-use? What can proof-theoretical analyses tell us about the scope and limits of constructive and predicative mathematics? (shrink)
The period in the foundations of mathematics that started in 1879 with the publication of Frege's Begriffsschrift and ended in 1931 with Gödel's Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme I can reasonably be called the classical period. It saw the development of three major foundational programmes: the logicism of Frege, Russell and Whitehead, the intuitionism of Brouwer, and Hilbert's formalist and proof-theoretic programme. In this period, there were also lively exchanges between the various schools culminating in (...) the famous Hilbert-Brouwer controversy in the 1920s. -/- The purpose of this anthology is to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. What can we say, in retrospect, about the various foundational programmes of the classical period and the disputes that took place between them? To what extent do the classical programmes of logicism, intuitionism and formalism represent options that are still alive today? These questions are addressed in this volume by leading mathematical logicians and philosophers of mathematics. (shrink)