It is a cliché that most Greek art was religious in function. Yet our histories of Classical art, having acknowledged this truism, systematically ignore the religious nuances and associations of images while focusing on diverse arthistorical issues from style and form, or patronage and production, to mimesis and aesthetics. In general, the emphasis on naturalism in classical art and its reception has tended to present it as divorced from what is perceived as the overwhelmingly religious nature of post-Constantinian Christian art. (...) The insulation of Greek and Roman art from theological and ritual concerns has been colluded in by most historians of medieval images. Take for instance ErnstKitzinger's monographic article entitled ‘The Cult of Images in the Age before Iconoclasm’. Despite its title and despite Kitzinger's willingness to situate Christian emperor worship in an antique context, this classic paper contains nothing on the Classical ancestry of magical images, palladia and miracle-working icons in Christian art. There has been the odd valiant exception , but in general it is fair to say that the religiousness of antiquity's religious art is skirted by the art historians and left to the experts on religion. (shrink)
It is now forty years since the publication of one of the defining papers on early-medieval art, ErnstKitzinger's “The Cult of Images in the Age before Iconoclasm.” This article remains a deeply influential study on early-medieval attitudes toward visual culture, arguing, as it does, that the political crises of the later sixth century helped produce a turn toward a new function for religious imagery as belief in the political and military strength of the Byzantine Empire crumbled. The (...) implications of the subsequent rise in the cult of images have been exhaustively discussed in numerous further papers. In a footnote to his paper Kitzinger introduces the interesting question of a turn to iconoclastic activities at this period by the Jews of Palestine. He suggests that this physical action, including the deliberate destruction of some images, might be linked to a Jewish reaction against the growth in the use of images by Christianity, a reaction attested in a form of Christian-Jewish polemic that developed in the middle years of the seventh century. Kitzinger's central concern in this essay is the cult of images in the Byzantine Empire, and he does not develop this hypothesis. Taking his footnote as my starting point, I will directly address some possible causes of Jewish iconoclasm. In so doing, I will examine how attitudes toward religious imagery played a role in the construction of cultural identity at this period. Images and their cults are not simply a matter for Byzantine Christianity, for the points drawn from a discussion of Jewish iconoclasm carry wider implications for the analysis of the place of images in early-medieval society. (shrink)
Ernst Troeltsch's essay on socialism presents a summary account of his views on the prospects for a socialist economic order within the Weimar Republic. Troeltsch attempts to formulate a compromise that incorporates the proposals of both social conservatism and communism. Such a compromise, he insists, is possible on the basis of a realistic assessment of socialism supported by "an act of faith in the future" based upon explicitly religious resources. This essay is significant not only in relation to the (...) "religious socialism" then discussed in Germany, but also for the development of "political theology" today. (shrink)
The article investigates Cassirer's developing interest in the cultural sciences to display how his Philosophy of Symbolic Forms constitutes a philosophy of culture. The core concept in such a philosophy of culture is the symbolic formation that both possesses a structured-structuring dimension and appears as an historical process in which culture shows itself as a temporal creation. The philosophy of culture displays 'life in meaning', that is reality as it exhibits human reality manifested in and through the medium of linguistic, (...) artistic, religious, scientific "and so on" action and behaviour. This reality, therefore, is mediation between culture and nature through human spirit. Cassirer's philosophy of culture connects back to Kant's transcendental idealism by emphasizing that any concept of reality establishes itself through a modalization of reality, e.g. that reality constitutes itself in the mode of interpretation. This makes the basis for Cassirer's characteristic understanding of hermeneutics where cultural development is regarded as drama. (shrink)
Die mit 126 Briefen und Gegenbriefen fast luckenlos erhaltene Geschaftskorrespondenz des Philosophen Ernst Bloch (1885 -1977) mit dem Aufbau-Verlag Berlin ist ein buch- und verlagsgeschichtliches Zeitdokument erster Ordnung: Es belegt alle ...
O texto compõe-se de duas partes: 1) uma introdução sobre Ernst Tugendhat, seu percurso e seu trabalho, bem como seu envolvimento com o ensino da filosofia entre nós; e 2) um depoimento do filósofo alemão sobre o ensino de filosofia na universidade, apresentando suas opiniões e sua vasta experiência a respeito. Para ele, como para o introdutor, em vez de resumir-se essencialmente ao aprendizado da história da filosofia e à leitura dos grandes filósofos, o ensino dessa disciplina – algo (...) como uma “arte” – deveria incluir, desde o começo, o exercício da argumentação sobre temas e problemas e a redação de textos curtos nessa linha. (shrink)