Results for 'Esther König'

645 found
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  1.  17
    Facilitation and Analogical Transfer in the THOG Task.Cynthia Koenig & Richard Griggs - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (4):355 – 370.
    This study was concerned with Wason's THOG task, a hypothetico-deductive reasoning problem for which performance is typically very poor ( < 20% correct). Recently, however, Needham and Amado (1995) and Koenig and Griggs (2004) have observed both facilitation and spontaneous analogical transfer effects for the Pythagoras version of this task. Based on their findings, Koenig and Griggs concluded that in addition to the separation of the data (the properties of the designated THOG) from the hypotheses that need to be generated (...)
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  2. Natural Law, Science, and the Social Construction of Reality.Bernie Koenig - 2004 - Upa.
    Natural Law, Science, and the Social Construction of Reality looks at changes in knowledge and the relationship to values from the modern era to today. Author Bernie Koenig examines Newton's influence on Locke and Kant, how Kant influenced Darwin and Freud, and the implications of their work for both anthropology and moral theory.
     
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  3.  9
    Managing Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: Analysis and Recommendations.Susan M. Wolf, Frances P. Lawrenz, Charles A. Nelson, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Mildred K. Cho, Ellen Wright Clayton, Joel G. Fletcher, Michael K. Georgieff, Dale Hammerschmidt, Kathy Hudson, Judy Illes, Vivek Kapur, Moira A. Keane, Barbara A. Koenig, Bonnie S. LeRoy, Elizabeth G. McFarland, Jordan Paradise, Lisa S. Parker, Sharon F. Terry, Brian van Ness & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (2):219-248.
    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental fnd-ings in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are fndings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers (...)
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  4.  7
    Infants' Understanding of False Labeling Events: The Referential Roles of Words and the Speakers Who Use Them.Melissa A. Koenig & Catharine H. Echols - 2003 - Cognition 87 (3):179-208.
  5.  74
    The Ontogenesis of Trust.Fabrice Clement, Melissa Koenig & Paul Harris - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (4):360-379.
    Psychologists have emphasized children's acquisition of information through firsthand observation. However, many beliefs are acquired from others' testimony. In two experiments, most 4yearolds displayed sceptical trust in testimony. Having heard informants' accurate or inaccurate testimony, they anticipated that informants would continue to display such differential accuracy and they trusted the hitherto reliable informant. Yet they ignored the testimony of the reliable informant if it conflicted with what they themselves had seen. By contrast, threeyearolds were less selective in trusting a reliable (...)
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  6.  2
    Managing Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: Analysis and Recommendations.Susan M. Wolf, Frances P. Lawrenz, Charles A. Nelson, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Mildred K. Cho, Ellen Wright Clayton, Joel G. Fletcher, Michael K. Georgieff, Dale Hammerschmidt, Kathy Hudson, Judy Illes, Vivek Kapur, Moira A. Keane, Barbara A. Koenig, Bonnie S. LeRoy, Elizabeth G. McFarland, Jordan Paradise, Lisa S. Parker, Sharon F. Terry, Brian Van Ness & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):219-248.
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  7.  85
    The Basis of Epistemic Trust: Reliable Testimony or Reliable Sources?Paul L. Harris & Melissa A. Koenig - 2007 - Episteme 4 (3):264-284.
    What is the nature of children's trust in testimony? Is it based primarily on evidential correlations between statements and facts, as stated by Hume, or does it derive from an interest in the trustworthiness of particular speakers? In this essay, we explore these questions in an effort to understand the developmental course and cognitive bases of children's extensive reliance on testimony. Recent work shows that, from an early age, children monitor the reliability of particular informants, differentiate between those who make (...)
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  8. From Episodic to Habitual Prospective Memory: ERP-Evidence for a Linear Transition.Beat Meier, Sibylle Matter, Brigitta Baumann, Stefan Walter & Thomas Koenig - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  9.  20
    The Difference That Culture Can Make in End-of-Life Decisionmaking.H. Eugene Hern, Barbara A. Koenig, Lisa Jean Moore & Patricia A. Marshall - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (1):27-40.
    Cultural difference has been largely ignored within bioethics, particularly within the end-of-life discourses and practices that have developed over the past two decades in the U.S. healthcare system. Yet how should culturebe taken into account?
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  10.  16
    Accounting for Culture in Globalized Bioethics.Patricia Marshall & Barbara Koenig - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 32 (2):252-266.
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  11.  10
    Arguments for Adjuncts.Jean-Pierre Koenig, Gail Mauner & Breton Bienvenue - 2003 - Cognition 89 (2):67-103.
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  12.  3
    Semantic Similarity, Predictability, and Models of Sentence Processing.Douglas Roland, Hongoak Yun, Jean-Pierre Koenig & Gail Mauner - 2012 - Cognition 122 (3):267-279.
  13.  21
    The Role of Social Cognition in Early Trust.Melissa A. Koenig & Paul L. Harris - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):457-459.
  14.  14
    Living a Fast Life.Peter K. Jonason, Bryan L. Koenig & Jeremy Tost - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (4):428-442.
    The current research applied a mid-level evolutionary theory that has been successfully employed across numerous animal species—life history theory—in an attempt to understand the Dark Triad personality trait cluster (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1 (N = 246), a measure of life history strategy was correlated with psychopathy, but unexpectedly with neither Machiavellianism nor narcissism. Study 2 (N = 321) replicated this overall pattern of results using longer, traditional measures of the Dark Triad traits and alternative, future-discounting indicators of (...)
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  15. Have We Asked Too Much of Consent?Barbara A. Koenig - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (4):33-34.
  16. The Relevance Bias: Valence-Specific, Relevance-Modulated Performance in a Two-Choice Detection Task.Audric Mazzietti & Olivier Koenig - 2014 - Cognition and Emotion 28 (1):143-152.
  17.  10
    Understanding the Practice of Ethics Consultation: Results of an Ethnographic Multi-Site Study.Susan E. Kelly, Patricia A. Marshall, Lee M. Sanders, Thomas A. Raffin & Barbara A. Koenig - 1997 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (2):136-149.
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  18. Selective Trust in Testimony: Children's Evaluation of the Message, the Speaker, and the Speech Act.Melissa A. Koenig - 2010 - In T. Szabo Gendler & J. Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 3--253.
     
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  19.  23
    Credulity and the Development of Selective Trust in Early Childhood.Paul L. Harris, Kathleen H. Corriveau, Elisabeth S. Pasquini, Melissa Koenig, Maria Fusaro & Fabrice Clément - 2012 - In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 193.
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  20.  27
    Mental Rotation in Schizophrenia.F. Devignemont, T. Zalla, A. PosAda, A. Louvegnez, O. KOenig, N. Georgieff & N. FraNck - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):295-309.
    Motor imagery provides a direct insight into action representations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of impairment of action monitoring in schizophrenia by evaluating the performance of schizophrenic patients on mental rotation tasks. We raised the following questions: Are schizophrenic patients impaired in motor imagery both at the explicit and at the implicit level? Are body parts more difficult for them to mentally rotate than objects? Is there any link between the performance and the hallucinating (...)
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  21.  21
    Collective Fear, Individualized Risk: The Social and Cultural Context of Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer.N. Press, J. R. Fishman & B. A. Koenig - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (3):237-249.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical examination of two aspects of culture and biomedicine that have helped to shape the meaning and practice of genetic testing for breast cancer. These are: (1) the cultural construction of fear of breast cancer, which has been fuelled in part by (2) the predominance of a ‘risk’ paradigm in contemporary biomedicine. The increasing elaboration and delineation of risk factors and risk numbers are in part intended to help women to contend (...)
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  22.  5
    What With? The Anatomy of a (Proto)-Role.J. -P. Koenig, G. Mauner, B. Bienvenue & K. Conklin - 2007 - Journal of Semantics 25 (2):175-220.
    This paper describes a comprehensive survey of English verbs that semantically allow or require an Instrument role. It sheds light on the nature of Instrument roles and instrumentality by examining the distribution in semantic space of those verbs. We show first that verbs that semantically require instruments are typically semantically more complex than predicted by current theories of the structural complexity of verb meanings. We also show that verbs that require or allow instruments constrain the end states of situations they (...)
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  23. Anthropology and Bioethics.Barbara A. Koenig - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7:68-76.
     
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  24.  35
    Sublexical Modality and the Structure of Lexical Semantic Representations.Jean-Pierre Koenig & Anthony R. Davis - 2001 - Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (1):71-124.
    This paper argues for a largely unnoted distinction between relational and modal components in the lexical semantics of verbs. Wehypothesize that many verbs encode two kinds of semantic information:a relationship among participants in a situation and a subset ofcircumstances or time indices at which this relationship isevaluated. The latter we term sublexical modality.We show that linking regularities between semantic arguments andsyntactic functions provide corroborating evidence in favor of thissemantic distinction, noting cases in which the semantic groundingof linking through participant-role properties (...)
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  25. Accounting for Culture in Globalized Bioethics.Patricia Marshall & Barbara Koenig - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (2):252-266.
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  26.  40
    Catholic Library Practice.Harry C. Koenig - 1948 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):327-328.
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  27.  3
    Incidental Findings in CT Colonography: Literature Review and Survey of Current Research Practice.Hassan Siddiki, J. G. Fletcher, Beth McFarland, Nora Dajani, Nicholas Orme, Barbara Koenig, Marguerite Strobel & Susan M. Wolf - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (2):320-331.
    Incidental fndings of potential medical signifcance are seen in approximately 5-8 percent of asymptomatic subjects and 16 percent of symptomatic subjects participating in large computed tomography colonography studies, with the incidence varying further by CT acquisition technique. While most CTC research programs have a well-defned plan to detect and disclose IFs, such plans are largely communicated only verbally. Written consent documents should also inform subjects of how IFs of potential medical signifcance will be detected and reported in CTC research studies.
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  28.  21
    Non-Conscious Word Processing in a Mirror-Masking Paradigm Causing Attentional Distraction: An ERP-Study.Marco Hollenstein, Thomas Koenig, Matthias Kubat, Daniela Blaser & Walter J. Perrig - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):353-365.
    In this event-related potential study a masking technique that prevents conscious perception of words and non-words through attentional distraction was used to reveal the temporal dynamics of word processing under non-conscious and conscious conditions. In the non-conscious condition, ERP responses differed between masked words and non-words from 112 to 160 ms after stimulus-onset over posterior brain areas. The early onset of the word–non-word differences was compatible with previous studies that reported non-conscious access to orthographic information within this time period. Moreover, (...)
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  29.  6
    Racial Profiling of DNA Samples: Will It Affect Scientific Knowledge About Human Genetic Variation.S. Lee & B. Koenig - 2003 - In Bartha Maria Knoppers (ed.), Populations and Genetics: Legal and Socio-Ethical Perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 231--244.
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  30. Cédric Lemogne, Pascale Piolino, Stéphanie Friszer, Astrid Claret, Nathalie Girault, Roland Jouvent, Jean-François.Philippe Fossati Allilaire, Frédérique de Vignemont, Tiziana Zalla, Andrés Posada, Anne Louvegnez, Olivier Koenig, Nicolas Georgieff, Nicolas Franck, Arnaud DÕArgembeau & Martial Van der Linden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15:232-233.
     
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  31.  7
    A-Definites and the Discourse Status of Implicit Arguments.Jean-Pierre Koenig & Gail Mauner - 1999 - Journal of Semantics 16 (3):207-236.
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  32.  12
    Catholic Library Practice.Harry C. Koenig - 1952 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 27 (2):320-320.
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  33.  6
    How to End Without Ever Finishing: Thai Semi-Perfectivity.J. -P. Koenig & N. Muansuwan - 2000 - Journal of Semantics 17 (2):147-182.
    Perfectivity is often assumed to entail the completion of the event described by event-denoting stems and their arguments. Although some scholars have noted that perfective markers do not always entail completion, their formal definitions contradict their informal descriptions. We show that these traditional models of perfective aspect cannot account for the aspectual system of Thai. In Thai, perfective markers do not entail that the event was completed: the resulting state of sentences that are in appareance telic in their ‘inner aspect’ (...)
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  34.  20
    Cultural Aspects of Nondisclosure.Celia J. Orona, Barbara A. Koenig & Anne J. Davis - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (3):338.
    A basic assumption in current western medicine is that good healthcare involves informed choices. Indeed, making informed choices is not only viewed as “good practice” but a right to which each individual is entitled, a perspective only recently developed in the medical field.Moreover, in the case of ethical decisions, much of the discussion on the role of the family is cast within the autonomy paradigm of contemporary bioethics; that is, family members provide emotional support but do not make decisions for (...)
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  35.  14
    AJOB Empirical Bioethics: A Home for Empirical Bioethics Scholarship.Chris Feudtner, Jeremy Sugarman, Barbara A. Koenig, Peter A. Ubel, Richard F. Ittenbach, Laura Weiss Roberts & Laurence B. McCullough - 2014 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 5 (1):1-2.
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  36.  2
    Collective Fear, Individualized Risk: The Social and Cultural Context of Genetic Testing Forbreast Cancer.N. Press, J. R. Fishman & B. A. Koenig - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (3):237-249.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical examination of two aspects of culture and biomedicine that have helped to shape the meaning and practice of genetic testing for breast cancer. These are: the cultural construction of fear of breast cancer, which has been fuelled in part by the predominance of a ‘risk’ paradigm in contemporary biomedicine. The increasing elaboration and delineation of risk factors and risk numbers are in part intended to help women to contend with their (...)
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  37.  2
    Why Not Grant Primacy to the Family?Barbara A. Koenig - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):33-34.
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  38. Altruistic Love and Physical Health.H. Koenig - 2007 - In Stephen G. Post (ed.), Altruism and Health: Perspectives From Empirical Research. Oup Usa. pp. 422--441.
     
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  39.  2
    A-Definites and the Discourse Status of Implicit Arguments.J.-P. Koenig - 1999 - Journal of Semantics 16 (3):207-236.
    This paper focuses on the semantics of implicit arguments and compares it with that of explicit indefinites with which they can be truth-conditionally paraphrased. It is shown that once the discourse-potential of expressions is taken into account, the semantics of implicit arguments differs from their indefinite explicit counterparts. They are shown to be semantically identical to a particular kind of non-quantificational NP (a-definites) which are characterized by their inability to serve as antecedents for future reference. A model of this behavior (...)
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  40.  10
    What Can Anthropology Contribute to the Terri Schiavo Debate?Barbara Koenig - 2006 - Bioethics Examiner 9.
  41.  24
    St. Augustine.Thomas Koenig - 1961 - Augustinianum 1 (1):201-202.
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  42.  22
    Reclams Kunstführer Österreich, Baudenkmäler.D. Koenig - 1963 - Augustinianum 3 (1):243-244.
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  43.  3
    A Comparison of Processing Load During Non-Verbal Decision-Making in Two Individuals with Aphasia.Suleman Salima, Kim Esther & Hopper Tammy - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  44.  27
    Reducing Cognitive Complexity in a Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning Task.Pam Marek, Richard A. Griggs & Cynthia S. Koenig - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (3):253 – 265.
    The confusion/non-consequential thinking explanation proposed by Newstead, Girotto, and Legrenzi (1995) for poor performance on Wason's THOG problem (a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task) was examined in three experiments with 300 participants. In general, as the cognitive complexity of the problem and the possibility of non-consequential thinking were reduced, correct performance increased. Significant but weak facilitation (33-40% correct) was found in Experiment 1 for THOG classification instructions that did not include the indeterminate response option. Substantial facilitation (up to 75% correct) was obtained (...)
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  45.  5
    Informed Consent in a Multicultural Cancer Patient Population: Implications for Nursing Practice.D. M. Barnes, A. J. Davis, T. Moran, C. J. Portillo & B. A. Koenig - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (5):412-423.
    Obtaining informed consent, an ethical obligation of nurses and other health care providers, occurs routinely when patients make health care decisions. The values underlying informed consent (promotion of patients’ well-being and respect for their self-determination) are embedded in the dominant American culture. Nurses who apply the USA’s cultural values of informed consent when caring for patients who come from other cultures encounter some ethical dilemmas. This descriptive study, conducted with Latino, Chinese and Anglo-American cancer patients in a large, public, west-coast (...)
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  46.  4
    Paired-Associate Learning and the Timing of Arousal.D. E. Berlyne, Donna M. Borsa, Jane H. Hamacher & Isolde D. Koenig - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):1.
  47.  6
    Book Review: Mad Tuscans and Their Families: A History of Mental Disorder in Early Modern Italy, Written by Elizabeth W. Mellyn. [REVIEW]Anne M. Koenig - 2015 - Early Science and Medicine 20 (1):86-88.
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  48.  18
    Dead Donors and the "Shortage" of Human Organs: Are We Missing the Point?Barbara A. Koenig - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1):26 – 27.
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  49.  15
    Conceptualizing "Religion": How Language Shapes and Constrains Knowledge in the Study of Religion and Health.Daniel E. Hall, Harold George Koenig & Keith G. Meador - 2004 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (3):386-401.
  50.  3
    Entitled to Trust? Philosophical Frameworks and Evidence From Children.Caitlin A. Cole, Paul L. Harris & Melissa A. Koenig - 2012 - Analyse & Kritik 34 (2):195-216.
    How do children acquire beliefs from testimony? In this chapter, we discuss children’s trust in testimony, their sensitivity to and use of defeaters, and their appeals to positive reasons for trusting what other people tell them. Empirical evidence shows that, from an early age, children have a tendency to trust testimony. However, this tendency to trust is accompanied by sensitivity to cues that suggest unreliability, including inaccuracy of the message and characteristics of the speaker. Not only are children sensitive to (...)
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