In this paper, I discuss the question whether objective criteria could be provided for judging something to be a mental illness. I consider the two most prominent objectivist or naturalistic accounts of mental illness, evolutionary and bio-statistical account, which offer such a criterion by relying on the notion of biological function. According to such suggestions, illness is a condition in which there is dysfunciton in some feature of an organism. In this context, I consider different accounts for ascribing functions in (...) biologyand their relationship with the suggested accounts of illnesses. Special focus is placed on the objections according to which the ascription of functions, as envisaged in naturalistic accounts of illness, is incompatible with actual medical and psychiatric practice. I conclude that these objections are legitimate insofar we want to an account of illness that preserves the current practice of ascribing illness. However, the question remains, could a theory that tries to capture the actual medical practice be value-neutral, since our ordinary conception of illness is permeated with value judgments that indirectly enter into medical practice. In that respect, it seems that the requirement for pure objectivity is too strong and thus, it is not reasonable to expect that naturalistic accounts can satisfy it. (shrink)
The paper deals with von Mises’ metaphysics and argues that his methodological dualism concerns only his epistemology. The framework of Mises´s ontology is materialistic monism. Although Mises strongly criticizes materialism, his critique does not concern metaphysical ontological materialism as long as it does not try to eliminate the specific method of the social sciences. In this sense Mises’ metaphysics is fully naturalistic – it does not include any “spiritual” agents and postulates a world consisting exclusively of elementary physical particles. The (...) study illustrates this point on Mises’ determinism and his rejection of the free will as well as on his Darwinian account of the evolution of human mind. The specific method of the social sciences which makes use of the category of finality serves merely as an efficient heuristics and is based on a pragmatic view of science. It allows us to describe the irreducible complexity of social phenomena that cannot (at least not yet) be grasped by the physicalist vocabulary alone. Thus the argument of complexity is seen as a cornerstone of Misesian methodological dualism. (shrink)
This is a metaphysical essay devoted to the phenomenon of parting. The author analyses two events that happened to the Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva on 31August 1941: parting with her life and parting with her son. A thorough analysis of the poet’s goodbye letter to her son, and in particular the handwritten underlining that is absent from reprints, sheds new light on why the great poet committed suicide. The main subject of discussion, however, remains the phenomenon of separation. The article (...) is dedicated to the memory of Professor Cezary Wodziński, the supervisor of my doctoral dissertation, my teacher and friend. The methodology takes a phenomenological approach and linguistic analysis. (shrink)
Prikazani su elementi koji olakšavaju orijentaciju u prostoru »kontaminiranom« znanstvenim prisvajanjem istina, vrijednosti, »krunskih« dokaza i konačnih interpretacija. Iz spektra modernih disciplina »izvučena« je molekulska biologija kao model za razumijevanje mehanizama kojim prirodne znanosti privatiziraju sadržaje i područja koja pripadaju široj zajednici, odnosno čitavome društvu. U bogatome arsenalu molekulske biologije posebno se ističe metoda rekombinantne DNK koja je omogućila razvoj GMO-a.GMO-i su »klasična« znanstvena kontroverza u kojoj jedna strana prepoznaje »mutante« kao nepotrebne i defektne izume, dok ih druga strana predstavlja (...) gotovim receptom za rješavanje problema okoliša, prehrane i zdravlja.Razmotrena su četiri prigovora kojima se pokušava demistificirati znanstveni hvalospjev o GMO-u.This manuscript presents elements which enable better orientation in the area “contaminated“ with scientific confiscation of facts, values, crucial evidences, and final interpretations. From the spectrum of modern disciplines, molecular biology is selected as a model for understanding of mechanisms underlying scientific privatization of contents and areas which belong to local community and the whole society as well. The recombinant DNA method, which enabled development of GMO-s, is specifically emphasized in the rich arsenal of molecular biology.GMO-s present “classical” scientific controversy in which one side recognizes these “mutants” as unnecessary and flawed inventions, while the other side introduces them as readymade recipe for solving environment, food and health related problems.Four objections are considered in order to demystify scientific hymn about GMO. (shrink)
Przeł. i oprac. MAŁGORZATA GLINICKA This is a translation of Theodore Metochites’s essay concerning philosophical irony from the Hypomnematismoi kai semeioseis gnomikai (Annotations and gnomic notes), an excellent collection of 120 texts on history, literature and thinking, containing the most extensive commentary on Aristotelian philosophy of the late Byzantine period. The essay on philosophical irony – never translated in Poland – is a commentary on the Dialogues of Plato, which had an important influence on the Platonic renaissance of the 15th (...) century. Metochites, growing up in the cultural center of Constantinople, was a prolific writer, leaving behind works of rhetoric, poems, a literary testament, a collection of philosophical texts and two works on astronomy. (shrink)
U radu ću pokušati ukazati na moguće doprinose razmatranja metafora kao načela spoznaje raspravi o konceptualnim temeljima krize u medicini. Stoga ću u prvom dijelu rada dati sažeti prikaz temeljnih postavki kognitivne teorije metafore u djelu Georgea Lakoffa i Marka Johnsona koje će poslužiti kao smjernice u propitivanju metafora zdravlja i bolesti. U drugom dijelu u razmatranje ću uzeti primjere metafora vezanih uz pojmove zdravlja i bolesti uvriježenih kako u svakodnevnom govoru tako i u znanstvenim i stručnim medicinskim (...) diskursima. Pokušat ću ukazati na koji način one utječu na poimanje zdravlja i bolesti te usmjeruju djelovanje unutar medicinske prakse, u kojoj se kriza medicine najjasnije očituje u vidu dehumaniziranog karaktera odnosa između aktera te prakse. Također će biti riječi i o nekonvencionalnim, alternativnim metaforama i njihovim potencijalima za uspostavu drukčijih, humanijih pojmova i principa prema kojima bi se medicinska praksa mogla ravnati. U konačnici ću ponuditi jedan takav prijedlog koji proizlazi iz temeljnih postavki kognitivne teorije metafora.In this paper I will attempt to point out possible contributions of considering metaphors as principles of cognition to the discussion on conceptual grounds of crisis in medicine. Hence the first part will be a brief review of the basic features of cognitive theory of metaphor in the works of Georg Lakoff and Mark Johnson, which will serve as guidelines in examining metaphors of health and illness. The second part will deal with conventional metaphors associated with the notions of illness and health in everyday speech as well as in scientific and professional medical discourses. I will try to indicate the ways in which these metaphors influence notions of health and illness, thus directing actions in medical practice, which is the place where the crisis of medicine is most clearly manifested in the form of dehumanised character of relationship between medical practice participants. Unconventional, alternative metaphors and their potential for establishing different, more humane notions and principles which could guide medical practice will also be discussed. Finally, I will offer one such proposal which follows the basic ideas of cognitive theory of metaphor. (shrink)
Cet article, s’inscrit dans le cadre minimaliste de la syntaxe générative et étudie oui / non et wh-questions dans la langue Ǹjò̩-kóo, parlée dans l’état de Ondo au Nigeria. On observe que la particule interrogative pour des questions de type oui / non qui suit systématiquement le sujet DP se trouve également dans des clauses avec wh-questions. Cet article soutient que oui / non et wh-questions sont projetées par la même tête fonctionnelle Inter˚, et que wh-words ne participent pas à (...) la saisie de wh-propositions comme interrogative. L’article conclut que le mouvement de Wh-éléments vers la position initiale de la clause dans les langues à WH-mouvement n’a pas pour but l’interrogation mais plutôt pour la focalisation. (shrink)
In the first part of this essay, the author discusses certain aspects of the Hindu and Buddhist philosophical and religious conceptions that could have made some impact on the European ethics before Schopenhauer. In the second part, he deals with various channels of possible Buddhist influence on Schopenhauer's ethical thought. Finally, in discussing Buddhist-Wittgenstein relationship, one is confronted with convergent, yet independent, responses to similar sets of problems. Independently, and less systematically than Buddhist philosophical schools, Wittgenstein indicates the way of (...) liberation that cures from the "metaphysical pain " emerging from inappropriate use of language. His own project, however, was not metaphysical, but meta-linguistic in a very specific sense. The philosophical "cure" from the language disease leads ultimately to the "purification " and "decontamination " of thought: in turn, the mind rests in peace and silence before the senseless, paradoxical questions of the moral, esthetical religious or metaphysical character. Ovaj esej se sastoji iz tri dela. U prvom delu autor razmatra izvesne aspekte hinduistickih i budistickih filozofskih i religijskih doktrina koje su mogle imati uticaja na evropsku etiku do Sopenhauera. Na primer, Pironov metod uzdrzavanja od suda ispoljava zapanjujucu slicnost s izvornim budistickim metodom meditacije. U evropskoj filozofiji slican metod je razvijen u Huserlovoj fenomenologiji, iako na jedan puno slozeniji teorijski nacin. Razmatranje postklasicnih, helenistickih moralnih doktrina vodi od problema izvora do nekih specificnih pitanja komparativne ili hermeneuticke prirode. Pa ipak, u povesti zapadne filozofije nije se jasno ukazalo na dug budistickoj etici sve dok Sopenhauer nije napisao Svet kao volja i predstava. U drugom delu rada autor se stoga bavi razlicitim tokovima moguceg budistickog uticaja na Sopenhauerovu eticku misao. Vrlo cesto Sopenhauerovi kljucni argumenti su pozajmljeni iz indijskih soterioloskih ucenja. S druge strane, on je u stanju da prilagodi ta orijentalna ucenja svojim vlastitim pojmovima i idejama. Izmedju njegove filozofije i indijskih filozofija moguce je uspostaviti odnos konvergentnosti. Iz toga je proizislo jedinstveno stapanje dveju perspektiva koje se ponekad oznacava i kao "evropski budizam". Za razliku od Sopenhauera Vitgenstajn ne upucuje ni na kakvo delo, ili odlomak iz hinduisticke ili budisticke literature. Stavise, tesko je braniti stav da je Sopenhauer imao ikakvu znacajniju posrednicku ulogu u budjenju Vitgenstajnovog interesovanja za budizam. Mnogo je, u stvari, lakse ukazati na vaznost Sopenhauerovog uticaja na "etickog" Vitgenstajna iz Tractatusa, nego utvrditi ikakvu slicnost izmedju sopenhauerovsko-budisticke i Vitgenstajnove eticke koncepcije. Raspravljajuci o odnosu izmedju Vitgenstajna i budizma, susrecemo se s konvergentnim, ali nezavisnim odgovorima na slicne vrste problema. Nezavisno, i manje sistematicno od budistickih filozofskih skola, Vitgenstajn ukazuje na put oslobodjenja sto leci od "metafizicke boli" zasnovane na nepravilnoj upotrebi jezika. Medjutim, njegov vlastiti projekat nije bio metafizicki, vec metalingvisticki u jednom vrlo specificnom smislu. Filozofsko "izlecenje" od bolesti jezika vodi, u krajnjoj liniji, do "ociscenja" i "dekontaminacije" misli. Kao rezultat toga, um nalazi spokoj i mir pred besmislenim, paradoksalnim pitanjima moralnog, estetickog religijskog ili metafizickog karaktera. (shrink)
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (...) and a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R. The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM. Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
Krize spojená s příchodem pandemie koronaviru ukázala, že užitečné expertní vědění sice podle všeho existuje, ale ne každému, kdo se představí jako expert, bychom měli věřit. Slovy doktora House: „Všichni lžou.“ Lžou i odborníci. Kapitola se zaměřuje na situace, kdy odborník lže takříkajíc „s dobrým úmyslem,“ neboť se domnívá, že pravda by veřejnost vedla k chování, které není společensky žádoucí. V takovém případě se jedná o lhaní paternalistické, protože má ochránit veřejnost před ní samotnou. Ukážeme příklady, kdy k němu dochází, (...) a pokusíme se i odhadnout, jak dobře takový pokus o manipulaci veřejnosti funguje krátkodobě i dlouhodobě. Protože výsledky našeho rozboru nenaznačují, že by dobročinné lhaní odborníků bylo skutečně společensky prospěšné, pobavíme se také o tom, proč by se mu člověk v roli experta měl raději vyhnout. (shrink)
Change-blindness occurs when large changes are missed under natural viewing conditions because they occur simultaneously with a brief visual disruption, perhaps caused by an eye movement, a flicker, a blink, or a camera cut in a film sequence. We have found that this can occur even when the disruption does not cover or obscure the changes. When a few small, high-contrast shapes are briefly spattered over a picture, like mudsplashes on a car windscreen, large changes can be made simultaneously in (...) the scene without being noticed. (shrink)
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others.We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and (...) a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R.The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM.Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
When looking at a scene, observers feel that they see its entire structure in great detail and can immediately notice any changes in it. However, when brief blank fields are placed between alternating displays of an original and a modified scene, a striking failure of perception is induced: identification of changes becomes extremely difficult, even when changes are large and made repeatedly. Identification is much faster when a verbal cue is provided, showing that poor visibility is not the cause of (...) this difficulty. Identification is also faster for objects mentioned in brief verbal descriptions of the scene. These results support the idea that observers never form a complete, detailed representation of their surroundings. In addition, results also indicate that attention is required to perceive change, and that in the absence of localized motion signals it is guided on the basis of high-level interest. (shrink)
Resumo A proposta deste artigo é apresentar parte do processo de formação do MOBON (Movimento da Boa Nova) e as idéias que o nortearam na década de 1980, bem como a influência do trabalho de mediação realizado por ele na Zona da Mata mineira. Este movimento se mostrou importante para a expressiva votação de candidatos do Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) naquela região. Tal fato chamou a atenção da imprensa nacional em função do trabalho de mediação religiosa na conformação da posição (...) política daqueles grupos. A candidatura de Lula não obteve apoio da população em muitos espaços onde os bispos o apoiavam abertamente. Nosso argumento centra-se na idéia de que as características locais e o cotidiano são mais fundamentais na formação das idéias e concepções de mundo dos atores sociais que o apoio de lideranças da alta cúpula eclesiástica, que pode ser vista como distante da população, ao contrário da organização popular que é feita no cotidiano político. Assim, vamos apresentar reflexões a respeito do trabalho missionário e a forma como este acabou se constituindo e obtendo repercussão política. Palavras-chave: Religião; Imprensa; Política .The proposal of this paper is to present part of the MOBON (“Boa Nova” Movement) formation process, its ideas in the 1980s, as well as the influence of its mediation work in the Forest Zone of Minas Gerais state. This movement showed to be important due to the expressive number of votes in the Worker’s Party (PT) in that region. This fact caught the attention of the national media regarding the religious mediation work in the conformation of these groups’ political positions. The Lula candidacy did not have the population support in many spaces where the bishops supported him openly. Our thesis focus the idea that the local characteristics and the everyday life are more fundamental in the social actors formation of ideas and world standpoints than the support of a bishop that can be seen as distant by the population, what does not happen in the popular organization which is performed in the everyday politics. Therefore, we will present comments on the missionary work and the way it is building and obtaining political repercussion. Key-words: Religion; Press; Politics. (shrink)
There is certainly a strong feeling against the use of drugs in sport, even though many sportsmen and women use them and many more undoubtedly would if they thought they could get away with it. In face of what actually goes on in far too many locker rooms, the efforts of sports authorities to stem the use of drugs can seem futile as well as all too often petty and misguided in practice.
Lifestyle diseases constitute an increasing proportion of health problems and this trend is likely to continue. A better understanding of the responsibility argument is important for the assessment of policies aimed at meeting this challenge. Holding individuals accountable for their choices in the context of health care is, however, controversial. There are powerful arguments both for and against such policies. In this article the main arguments for and the traditional arguments against the use of individual responsibility as a criterion for (...) the distribution of scarce health resources will be briefly outlined. It is argued that one of the most prominent contemporary normative traditions, liberal egalitarianism, presents a way of holding individuals accountable for their choices that avoids most of the problems pointed out by the critics. The aim of the article is to propose a plausible interpretation of liberal egalitarianism with respect to responsibility and health care and assess it against reasonable counter-arguments. (shrink)
Revisitando as obras seminais de John Rawls, propõe-se analisar em que medida os termos equitativos de cooperação nas sociedades democráticas marcadas pelo pluralismo de valores, aliada à ideia de razão pública, permite estabelecer uma concepção pública e compartilhada de justiça.: By revising the seminal John Rawls’s works, we claim to analyze how the equitative terms of cooperation in Democratic societies, which are characterized by values pluralism, allied to the idea of public reason, may provide us a public and shared conception (...) of justice. Keywords: cooperation, public reason, contract, justice. (shrink)
Ethics position theory (EPT) maintains that individuals’ personal moral philosophies influence their judgments, actions, and emotions in ethically intense situations. The theory, when describing these moral viewpoints, stresses two dimensions: idealism (concern for benign outcomes) and relativism (skepticism with regards to inviolate moral principles). Variations in idealism and relativism across countries were examined via a meta-analysis of studies that assessed these two aspects of moral thought using the ethics position questionnaire (EPQ; Forsyth, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, 175–184, (...) 1980). This review identified 139 samples drawn from 29 different countries, for a total sample of 30,230 respondents, and concluded that (a) levels of idealism and relativism vary across regions of the world in predictable ways; (b) an exceptionist ethic is more common in Western countries, subjectivism and situationism in Eastern countries, and absolutism and situationism in Middle Eastern countries; and (c) a nation’s ethics position predicted that country’s location on previously documented cultural dimensions, such as individualism and avoidance of uncertainty (Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, 1980). Limitations in these methods and concerns about the validity of these cross-cultural conclusions are noted, as are suggestions for further research using the EPQ. (shrink)
In this paper, I use Gloria Anzaldúa’s narrative method of “autohistoría” in concert with theoretical analysis to reflect on my experiences as a queer teacher in the heteronormative United States schooling system. These reflections are aimed at unpacking the ways in which racialization, sexual orientation and coloniality are inseparably tied to living out one’s gender. It is this phenomenon of “Gender-as-Lived” that I urge become a focus of identity development research in education studies and is my central concern in this (...) post-intentional phenomenological study. Furthermore, Anzaldúa’s conceptualization of the liminal zone of “nepantla” as an embodied and in-between space of resistance offers to transform the practice of teaching into a vocation of healing. (shrink)
When brief blank fields are placed between alternating displays of an original and a modified scene, a striking failure of perception is induced: the changes become extremely difficult to notice, even when they are large, presented repeatedly, and the observer expects them to occur (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997). To determine the mechanisms behind this induced "change blindness", four experiments examine its dependence on initial preview and on the nature of the interruptions used. Results support the proposal that representations at (...) the early stages of visual processing are highly volatile, and that focused attention is needed to stabilize them sufficiently to support the perception of change. (shrink)
As sociologists learn more about how scientific knowledge is created, they give historians the opportunity to rework their accounts from a more contextual perspective. It is relatively easy to do so in areas with large theoretical, cosmological or overtly ideological components. It is more difficult, but equally necessary, to open up very empirical accomplishments, and recent sociological analysis of the process of science gives us some interesting insights. This paper employs some of these on the apparently unpromising subject of the (...) ‘discovery of secular magnetic variation’ in 1634 by the Gresham professor Henry Gellibrand. (shrink)
Originally published in 1954, this volume describes and analyses the course of short-period fluctuations in the British economy between 1833 and 1842. Through concentrating on a relatively short space of time, the text is able to provide a rigorous examination of the evidence and also avoids the over-simplification inherent in comparing the history of fluctuations in different periods. A variety of sources are put under scrutiny, both 'literary' and statistical, reflecting a relative lack of surviving economic material from the period. (...) This, in turn, reflects a generally broad approach which is described by the author as 'quantitative-historical'. Concise and highly informative, this book will remain of value to anyone with an interest in nineteenth century and economic history. (shrink)
Emergence and reduction in context: Philosophy of science and/or analytic metaphysics Content Type Journal Article Category Survey Review Pages 1-16 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9671-4 Authors Michael Silberstein, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA 17022, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
New trends in the economic systems management in the context of modern global challenges: collective monograph / scientific edited by M. Bezpartochnyi, in 2 Vol. // VUZF University of Finance, Business and Entrepreneurship. – Sofia: VUZF Publishing House “St. Grigorii Bogoslov”, 2020. – Vol. 1. – 309 p.
This is the first book to address philosophically the moral and political underpinnings of terrorism and anti-terrorism. It brings together authors with different attitudes and original perspectives on attitudes and ethical and practical justifications for terrorism.
Oliver Sacks MD, Clinical Professor of Neurology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, talked with Anthony Freeman during his visit to London in January 1995 to publicize his recently published book An Anthropologist on Mars. The interview is preceded by an overview of the book.
'These new Oxford University Press editions have been meticulously collated from various exatant versions. Each text has an excellent introduction including an overview of Hume's thought and an account of his life and times. Even the difficult, and rarely commented-on, chapters on space and time are elucidated. There are also useful notes on the text and glossary. These scholarly new editions are ideally adapted for a whole range of readers, from beginners to experts.' -Jane O'Grady, Catholic Herald, 4/8/00. One of (...) the greatest of all philosophical works, covering knowledge, imaginatio, emotion, morality and justice. Hume is down-to-earth, capable of putting other, pretentious philosophers down, but deeply sceptical even about his own reasoning. Baroness Warnock, The List, The Week 18/11/2000A Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume's comprehensive attempt to base philosophy on a new, observationally grounded study of human nature, is one of the most important texts in Western philosophy. It is also the focal point of current attempts to understand 18th-century western philosophy. The Treatise addresses many of the most fundamental philosophical issues: causation, existence, freedom and necessity, and morality. The volume also includes Humes own abstract of the Treatise, a substantial introduction, extensive annotations, a glossary, a comprehensive index, and suggestions for further reading. (shrink)
This book is a balanced and up-to-date introduction to the philosophy of science. It covers all the main topics in the area, as well as introducing the student to the moral and social reality of science. The author's style is free from jargon, and although he makes use of scientific examples, these should be intelligible to those without much scientific background. At the same time the questions he raises are not merely abstract, so the book will be of interest and (...) concern to scientists as well as philosophers.The author discusses the growth of knowledge of science, the status of scientific theories and their relationship to observational data, the extent to which scientific theories rest on unprovable paradigms, and the nature of scientific explanations. In later chapters he considers probability, scientific reductionism, the relationship between science and technology, and the relationship between scientific and other values. (shrink)
Introduction: Philosophy in a Feminist Voice? / Janet A. Kourany History of Philosophy: Disappearing Ink: Early Modern Women Philosophers and Their Fate in History / Eileen O’Neill Philosophy of Persons: "Human Nature" and Its Role in Feminist Theory / Louise M. Antony Ethics: Feminist Reconceptualizations in Ethics / Virginia Held Political Philosophy: Feminism and Political Theory / Susan Moller Okin Aesthetics: Perceptions, Pleasures, Arts: Considering Aesthetics / Carolyn Korsmeyer Philosophy of Religion: Philosophy of Religion in Different Voices / Nancy Frankenberry (...) Epistemology: Voice and Voicelessness: A Modest Proposal? / Lorraine Code Philosophy of Science: A New Program for Philosophy of Science, in Many Voices / Janet A. Kourany Philosophy of Language: Semantics in a New Key / Andrea Nye Afterword: The Feminist as Other / Susan Bordo. (shrink)
Observers inspected normal, high quality color displays of everyday visual scenes while their eye movements were recorded. A large display change occurred each time an eye blink occurred. Display changes could either involve "Central Interest" or "Marginal Interest" locations, as determined from descriptions obtained from independent judges in a prior pilot experiment. Visual salience, as determined by luminance, color, and position of the Central and Marginal interest changes were equalized. -/- The results obtained were very similar to those obtained in (...) prior experiments showing failure to detect changes occurring simultaneously with saccades, flicker, or “mudsplashes” in the visual scene: Many changes were very hard to detect, and Marginal Interest changes were harder to detect than Central Interest changes. -/- Analysis of eye movements showed, as expected, that the probability of detecting a change depended on the eye’s distance from the change location. However a surprising finding was that both for Central and Marginal Interest changes, evenwhen observers were directly fixating the change locations (within 1 degree),more than 40% of the time they still failed to see the changes. It seems that looking at something does not guarantee you “ see” it. (shrink)
Qualitative research is a key form of research in education; the findings of such projects frequently play a central role in shaping policy and practice. First time qualitative researchers require clear and practical guidance from the outset. However, given the diversity of both subject matter and methodological approaches encompassed by qualitative research, such guidance is not always easily come by. _Qualitative Educational Research in Action: Doing and Reflecting_ is a collection of ten first-hand accounts by educational researchers of qualitative inquiries (...) they carried out. The subjects are diverse, taking in school restructuring, policy analysis, critical literacy, phenomenology and the student teacher relationship. Each chapter outlines the research question investigated and provides an overview of the project's findings, before going on to describe how each researcher approached the challenges of their particular inquiry. The researchers reflect upon the unexpected turns qualitative research can take and the way such projects can move through different theoretical and methodological positions, often ending up significantly removed from the original premise, but all the more valuable for that. Anyone conducting qualitative research in education will be heartened and inspired by this collection, and will also find in it invaluable guidance on dealing effectively with the idiosyncrasies and pitfalls of qualitative research - guidance that is all the more valuable for coming from those who have themselves navigated similar difficulties. (shrink)