Results for 'Eug��nie Strong'

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  1.  8
    A New Spectrum of Recursive Models.André Nies - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (3):307-314.
    We describe a strongly minimal theory S in an effective language such that, in the chain of countable models of S, only the second model has a computable presentation. Thus there is a spectrum of an -categorical theory which is neither upward nor downward closed. We also give an upper bound on the complexity of spectra.
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  2.  43
    The Vicious Circle of Patient–Physician Mistrust in China: Health Professionals’ Perspectives, Institutional Conflict of Interest, and Building Trust Through Medical Professionalism.Jing‐Bao Nie, Yu Cheng, Xiang Zou, Ni Gong, Joseph D. Tucker, Bonnie Wong & Arthur Kleinman - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (1):26-36.
    To investigate the phenomenon of patient–physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties (...)
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  3.  32
    Lowness Properties and Approximations of the Jump.Santiago Figueira, André Nies & Frank Stephan - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 152 (1):51-66.
    We study and compare two combinatorial lowness notions: strong jump-traceability and well-approximability of the jump, by strengthening the notion of jump-traceability and super-lowness for sets of natural numbers. A computable non-decreasing unbounded function h is called an order function. Informally, a set A is strongly jump-traceable if for each order function h, for each input e one may effectively enumerate a set Te of possible values for the jump JA, and the number of values enumerated is at most h. (...)
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  4.  61
    The West's Dismissal of the Khabarovsk Trial as 'Communist Propaganda': Ideology, Evidence and International Bioethics. [REVIEW]Jing-Bao Nie - 2004 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 1 (1):32-42.
    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence (...)
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  5.  32
    Benign Cost Functions and Lowness Properties.Noam Greenberg & André Nies - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (1):289 - 312.
    We show that the class of strongly jump-traceable c.e. sets can be characterised as those which have sufficiently slow enumerations so they obey a class of well-behaved cost functions, called benign. This characterisation implies the containment of the class of strongly jump-traceable c.e. Turing degrees in a number of lowness classes, in particular the classes of the degrees which lie below incomplete random degrees, indeed all LR-hard random degrees, and all ω-c.e. random degrees. The last result implies recent results of (...)
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  6.  9
    Computably Enumerable Sets Below Random Sets.André Nies - 2012 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (11):1596-1610.
    We use Demuth randomness to study strong lowness properties of computably enumerable sets, and sometimes of Δ20 sets. A set A⊆N is called a base for Demuth randomness if some set Y Turing above A is Demuth random relative to A. We show that there is an incomputable, computably enumerable base for Demuth randomness, and that each base for Demuth randomness is strongly jump-traceable. We obtain new proofs that each computably enumerable set below all superlow Martin-Löf random sets is (...)
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  7.  33
    Demuth Randomness and Computational Complexity.Antonín Kučera & André Nies - 2011 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (7):504-513.
    Demuth tests generalize Martin-Löf tests in that one can exchange the m-th component a computably bounded number of times. A set fails a Demuth test if Z is in infinitely many final versions of the Gm. If we only allow Demuth tests such that GmGm+1 for each m, we have weak Demuth randomness.We show that a weakly Demuth random set can be high and , yet not superhigh. Next, any c.e. set Turing below a Demuth random set is strongly jump-traceable.We (...)
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  8.  33
    The Social Practice of Medical Guanxi and Patient–Physician Trust in China: An Anthropological and Ethical Study.Xiang Zou, Yu Cheng & Jing‐Bao Nie - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (1):45-55.
    In China's healthcare sector, a popular and socio-culturally distinctive phenomenon known as guanxi jiuyi, whereby patients draw on their guanxi with physicians when seeking healthcare, is thriving. Integrating anthropological investigation with normative inquiry, this paper examines medical guanxi through the lens of patient–physician trust and mistrust. The first-hand empirical data acquired – on the lived experiences and perspectives of both patients and physicians – is based on six months' fieldwork carried out in a county hospital in Guangdong, southern China, which (...)
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  9.  3
    Editorial Note.Jing-Bao Nie & Ruth Fitzgerald - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (3):ix-xiii.
    Bioethics, as both an academic field and a public discourse on a global scale, has been evolving rapidly over the past several decades. The importance of cross-cultural and global bioethics as a subfield of bioethics is strongly reflected in the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Since 1991, KIEJ has published a number of articles and some thematic issues in this area. Among many others, it has facilitated a series of debates in the development of a cross-cultural and international bioethics, including (...)
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  10.  1
    Influence of Loss Aversion and Income Effect on Consumer Food Choice for Food Safety and Quality Labels.Wenjing Nie, Huimin Bo, Jing Liu & Taiping Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Food safety and food quality are two closely related aspects of the food management system. The difference between the two is that one keeps consumers safe while the other keeps consumers satisfied. This study examined the differences in how consumers value food safety and food quality with a focus on the influence of loss aversion on one’s psychological level and of income effect on one’s socio-demographic level. Our findings indicate that loss aversion and income effect significantly influence the way consumers (...)
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  11.  4
    Oil Content Prediction of Lacustrine Organic-Rich Shale From Wireline Logs: A Case Study of Intersalt Reservoirs in the Qianjiang Sag, Jianghan Basin, China.Xin Nie, Jing Lu, Roufida Rana Djaroun, Peilin Wang, Zhang Chaomo & Jun Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL79-SL88.
    Shale oil is an unconventional oil resource with great potential. Oil saturation is an essential parameter for formation evaluation. However, due to the complexity of matrix mineral components and pore structure, Archie’s law cannot be used directly to calculate [Formula: see text] in shale oil reservoirs. We have developed a new saturation model for shale oil reservoirs. This model allows us to separate the organic from the inorganic pores, eliminate the background conductivity mainly caused by the borehole fluid or conductive (...)
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  12.  10
    Borel Structures and Borel Theories.Greg Hjorth & André Nies - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (2):461 - 476.
    We show that there is a complete, consistent Borel theory which has no "Borel model" in the following strong sense: There is no structure satisfying the theory for which the elements of the structure are equivalence classes under some Borel equivalence relation and the interpretations of the relations and function symbols are uniformly Borel. We also investigate Borel isomorphisms between Borel structures.
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  13.  7
    O zmysłach i postrzeganiu–czyli czego nie wiemy o Berkeleyu, a dowiadujemy się od Smitha i vice versa.Anna Markwart & Marta Szymańska - 2012 - Filo-Sofija 12 (17):147-154.
    OF SENSES AND PERCEPTION—WHAT SMITH TELLS US ABOUT BERKELEY AND VICE VERSA Adam Smith’s epistemology, described primarily in the essay Of the External Senses, was strongly inspired by George Berkeley’s thought expressed in his New Theory of Vision (1709). Both philosophers distinguished between the Objects of Sight and the Objects of Touch and analyzed the perception of distance between objects and size of objects (Berkeley’s thorough analysis was limited to the sense of sight, whereas Smith described also the features of (...)
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  14.  24
    Degrees of Monotone Complexity.William C. Calhoun - 2006 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (4):1327 - 1341.
    Levin and Schnorr (independently) introduced the monotone complexity, Km(α), of a binary string α. We use monotone complexity to define the relative complexity (or relative randomness) of reals. We define a partial ordering ≤Km on 2ω by α ≤Km β iff there is a constant c such that Km(α ↾ n) ≤ Km(β ↾ n) + c for all n. The monotone degree of α is the set of all β such that α ≤Km β and β ≤Km α. We (...)
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  15.  49
    Describing Groups.André Nies - 2007 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (3):305-339.
    Two ways of describing a group are considered. 1. A group is finite-automaton presentable if its elements can be represented by strings over a finite alphabet, in such a way that the set of representing strings and the group operation can be recognized by finite automata. 2. An infinite f.g. group is quasi-finitely axiomatizable if there is a description consisting of a single first-order sentence, together with the information that the group is finitely generated. In the first part of the (...)
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  16.  34
    To Set a Gross Distortion Straight: A Reply to Reidar Lie's Book Review of Jing-Bao Nie's Medical Ethics in China: A Transcultural Interpretation (Routledge 2011).Jing-Bao Nie - 2012 - Asian Bioethics Review 4 (4):399-406.
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  17.  3
    Aristoteles' Metaphysik.Eug Rolfes - 1905 - Philosophical Review 14:498.
  18.  30
    Effects of Responsible Human Resource Management Practices on Female Employees’ Turnover Intentions.Dan Nie, Anna-Maija Lämsä & Raminta Pučėtaitė - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (1):29-41.
    This study focuses on the effects of socially responsible human resource management practices on female employees’ turnover intentions and the moderating effect of supervisor gender on this relationship. With a sample of 212 female employees from eight different industries in Finland, the results indicate that SR-HRM practices promoting equal career opportunities and work–family integration play a significant role in reducing women's turnover intentions. The study adds to the academic discourse of corporate social responsibility by highlighting the impact of the organizational-level (...)
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  19.  61
    Randomness, Relativization and Turing Degrees.André Nies, Frank Stephan & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn - 2005 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):515-535.
    We compare various notions of algorithmic randomness. First we consider relativized randomness. A set is n-random if it is Martin-Löf random relative to ∅. We show that a set is 2-random if and only if there is a constant c such that infinitely many initial segments x of the set are c-incompressible: C ≥ |x|-c. The ‘only if' direction was obtained independently by Joseph Miller. This characterization can be extended to the case of time-bounded C-complexity. Next we prove some results (...)
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  20. Must Strong Emergence Collapse?Umut Baysan & Jessica Wilson - 2017 - Philosophica 91:49--104.
    Some claim that the notion of strong emergence as involving ontological or causal novelty makes no sense, on grounds that any purportedly strongly emergent features or associated powers 'collapse', one way or another, into the lower-level base features upon which they depend. Here we argue that there are several independently motivated and defensible means of preventing the collapse of strongly emergent features or powers into their lower-level bases, as directed against a conception of strongly emergent features as having fundamentally (...)
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  21.  27
    Healing Without Waging War: Beyond Military Metaphors in Medicine and HIV Cure Research.Jing-Bao Nie, Adam Gilbertson, Malcolm de Roubaix, Ciara Staunton, Anton van Niekerk, Joseph D. Tucker & Stuart Rennie - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):3-11.
    Military metaphors are pervasive in biomedicine, including HIV research. Rooted in the mind set that regards pathogens as enemies to be defeated, terms such as “shock and kill” have become widely accepted idioms within HIV cure research. Such language and symbolism must be critically examined as they may be especially problematic when used to express scientific ideas within emerging health-related fields. In this article, philosophical analysis and an interdisciplinary literature review utilizing key texts from sociology, anthropology, history, and Chinese and (...)
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  22. Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms.Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gächter - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (1):1-25.
    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity “strong reciprocity” and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish (...)
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  23. Strong and Weak Emergence.David J. Chalmers - 2006 - In P. Davies & P. Clayton (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis From Science to Religion. Oxford University Press.
    The term ‘emergence’ often causes confusion in science and philosophy, as it is used to express at least two quite different concepts. We can label these concepts _strong_ _emergence_ and _weak emergence_. Both of these concepts are important, but it is vital to keep them separate.
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  24.  74
    The Strong Emergence of Molecular Structure.Vanessa A. Seifert - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (3):1-25.
    One of the most plausible and widely discussed examples of strong emergence is molecular structure. The only detailed account of it, which has been very influential, is due to Robin Hendry and is formulated in terms of downward causation. This paper explains Hendry’s account of the strong emergence of molecular structure and argues that it is coherent only if one assumes a diachronic reflexive notion of downward causation. However, in the context of this notion of downward causation, the (...)
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  25.  28
    Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction.M. F. Fultot, L. Nie & C. Carello - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):298-307.
    Context: The dominant approach to the study of perception is representational/computational, with an emphasis on the achievements of the brain and the nervous system, which are taken to construct internal models of the world. Alternatives include ecological, embedded, embodied, and enactivist approaches, all of which emphasize the centrality of action in understanding perception. Problem: Despite sharing many theoretical commitments that lead to a rejection of the classical approach, the alternatives are characterized by important contrasts and points of divergence. Here we (...)
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  26.  5
    “Om nie te dink bó wat in die Skrif geskrywe staan nie” – konsistensie en ontwikkeling in die teologie van Piet Geyser.Andries G. Van Aarde & Piet A. Geyser - 2004 - Hts Theological Studies 60 (1/2).
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  27. Strong Representationalism and Bodily Sensations: Reliable Causal Covariance and Biological Function.Coninx Sabrina - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):210-232.
    Bodily sensations, such as pain, hunger, itches, or sexual feelings, are commonly characterized in terms of their phenomenal character. In order to account for this phenomenal character, many philosophers adopt strong representationalism. According to this view, bodily sensations are essentially and entirely determined by an intentional content related to particular conditions of the body. For example, pain would be nothing more than the representation of actual or potential tissue damage. In order to motivate and justify their view, strong (...)
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  28.  31
    The Crisis of Patient‐Physician Trust and Bioethics: Lessons and Inspirations From China.Jing‐Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D. Tucker & Arthur Kleinman - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (1):56-64.
    Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient–physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust – a crucial matter (...)
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  29. Strong Representationalism and Centered Content.Berit Brogaard - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (3):373 - 392.
    I argue that strong representationalism, the view that for a perceptual experience to have a certain phenomenal character just is for it to have a certain representational content (perhaps represented in the right sort of way), encounters two problems: the dual looks problem and the duplication problem. The dual looks problem is this: strong representationalism predicts that how things phenomenally look to the subject reflects the content of the experience. But some objects phenomenally look to both have and (...)
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  30.  30
    Modernity and Self-Identity Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.Tracy B. Strong - 1991
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  31.  26
    Strong Noncontingency: On the Modal Logics of an Operator Expressively Weaker Than Necessity.Jie Fan - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (3):407-435.
    Operators can be compared in at least two respects: expressive strength and deductive strength. Inspired by Hintikka’s treatment of question embedding verbs, the variations of noncontingency operator, and also the various combinations of modal operators and Boolean connectives, we propose a logic with strong noncontingency operator as the only primitive modality. The novel operator is deductively but not expressively stronger than both noncontingency operator and essence operator, and expressively but not deductively weaker than the necessity operator. The frame-definability power (...)
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  32.  10
    Hierarchical Organization in Visual Working Memory: From Global Ensemble to Individual Object Structure.Qi-Yang Nie, Hermann J. Müller & Markus Conci - 2017 - Cognition 159:85-96.
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  33.  41
    The United States Cover-Up of Japanese Wartime Medical Atrocities: Complicity Committed in the National Interest and Two Proposals for Contemporary Action.Jing-Bao Nie - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):W21-W33.
    To monopolize the scientific data gained by Japanese physicians and researchers from vivisections and other barbarous experiments performed on living humans in biological warfare programs such as Unit 731, immediately after the war the United States government secretly granted those involved immunity from war crimes prosecution, withdrew vital information from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and publicly denounced otherwise irrefutable evidence from other sources such as the Russian Khabarovsk trial. Acting in “the national interest” and for the (...)
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  34. 'Strong' and 'Global' Supervenience Revisited.Jaegwon Kim - 1987 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (December):315-26.
    THIS PAPER CORRECTS AN ERROR IN MY EARLIER PAPER, "CONCEPTS OF SUPERVENIENCE" ("PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH", VOLUME 45, 1984), AND PRESENTS FURTHER MATERIAL ON SUPERVENIENCE. THE ERROR IS THE CLAIM THAT "GLOBAL" SUPERVENIENCE ENTAILS "STRONG" SUPERVENIENCE. HOWEVER, IT IS ARGUED THAT THIS FAILURE OF ENTAILMENT ONLY GOES TO SHOW THE INADEQUACY OF GLOBAL SUPERVENIENCE AS AN EXPLICATION OF "DEPENDENCY" OR "DETERMINATION" RELATION, AND, IN PARTICULAR, THAT MATERIALISM FORMULATED IN TERMS OF GLOBAL SUPERVENIENCE APPEARS TOO WEAK. (IT IS POINTED OUT, (...)
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  35. La Politique d'Aristote.Eug Rolfes - 1913 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 76:99-100.
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  36.  2
    Już nie Diels-Kranz , lecz Laks-Most.Livio Rosetti - 2016 - Peitho 7 (1):287-292.
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  37.  37
    The Leader–Member Exchange Theory in the Chinese Context and the Ethical Challenge of Guanxi.Dan Nie & Anna-Maija Lämsä - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4):851-861.
    The leader–member relationship has been identified as a key determinant of successful working relationships and business outcomes in China. A high-quality leader–member relationship helps managers and employees to meet the demands they face and gives them the opportunity to develop socially, emotionally and morally. Such relationships form the basis of the overall well-being and success of the organisation. This article contributes to relationally oriented leadership theories and more specifically to the leader–member exchange theory by examining the theory in the context (...)
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  38.  28
    No More Militaristic and Violent Language in Medicine: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Healing Without Waging War: Beyond Military Metaphors in Medicine and HIV Cure Research”.Jing-Bao Nie, Stuart Rennie, Adam Gilbertson & Joseph D. Tucker - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):9-11.
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  39. A Demonstration of the Transition From Ready-to-Hand to Unready-to-Hand.Anthony Chemero & Lin Nie - unknown
    The ideas of continental philosopher Martin Heidegger have been influential in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, despite the fact that there has been no effort to analyze these ideas empirically. The experiments reported here are designed to lend empirical support to Heidegger’s phenomenology and more specifically his description of the transition between ready-to-hand and unready-to-hand modes in interactions with tools. In experiment 1, we found that a smoothly coping cognitive system exhibits 1/fβ type positively correlated noise and that its correlated (...)
     
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  40. Strong Internalism, Doxastic Involuntarism, and the Costs of Compatibilism.Timothy Perrine - 2020 - Synthese 197 (7):3171-3191.
    Epistemic deontology maintains that our beliefs and degrees of belief are open to deontic evaluations—evaluations of what we ought to believe or may not believe. Some philosophers endorse strong internalist versions of epistemic deontology on which agents can always access what determines the deontic status of their beliefs and degrees of belief. This paper articulates a new challenge for strong internalist versions of epistemic deontology. Any version of epistemic deontology must face William Alston’s argument. Alston combined a broadly (...)
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  41.  97
    The Problem of Coerced Abortion in China and Related Ethical Issues.Jing-bao Nie - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):463-475.
    Since the early 1970s, despite popular opposition, to control the rapid growth of population the Chinese government has been carrying out the strictest and most comprehensive family planning policy in the world. In addition to contraceptive methods and sterilization, artificial abortionhas been used as an important measure of birth control under the policy. Many women have been required, persuaded, and even forced by the authorities to abort fetuses no matter how much they want to give birth.
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  42. Strong and Weak Justification.Alvin I. Goldman - 1988 - Philosophical Perspectives 2:51-69.
  43.  26
    Computable Models of Theories with Few Models.Bakhadyr Khoussainov, Andre Nies & Richard A. Shore - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (2):165-178.
    In this paper we investigate computable models of -categorical theories and Ehrenfeucht theories. For instance, we give an example of an -categorical but not -categorical theory such that all the countable models of except its prime model have computable presentations. We also show that there exists an -categorical but not -categorical theory such that all the countable models of except the saturated model, have computable presentations.
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  44.  56
    Indestructible Strong Unfoldability.Joel David Hamkins & Thomas A. Johnstone - 2010 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (3):291-321.
    Using the lottery preparation, we prove that any strongly unfoldable cardinal $\kappa$ can be made indestructible by all.
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  45.  14
    Inhibition Drives Configural Superiority of Illusory Gestalt: Combined Behavioral and Drift–Diffusion Model Evidence.Qi-Yang Nie, Mara Maurer, Hermann J. Müller & Markus Conci - 2016 - Cognition 150:150-162.
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  46. Strong Objectivity‘: A Response to the New Objectivity Question.Sandra Harding - 1995 - Synthese 104 (3):331 - 349.
    Where the old objectivity question asked, Objectivity or relativism: which side are you on?, the new one refuses this choice, seeking instead to bypass widely recognized problems with the conceptual framework that restricts the choices to these two. It asks, How can the notion of objectivity be updated and made useful for contemporary knowledge-seeking projects? One response to this question is the strong objectivity program that draws on feminist standpoint epistemology to provide a kind of logic of discovery for (...)
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  47.  11
    Conflict of Interest in Scientific Research in China: A Socio-Ethical Analysis of He Jiankui’s Human Genome-Editing Experiment.Jing-Bao Nie, Guangkuan Xie, Hua Chen & Yali Cong - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):191-201.
    Extensive conflicts of interest at both individual and institutional levels are identifiable in scientific research and healthcare in China, as in many other parts of the world. A prominent new case from China is He Jiankui’s experiment that produced the world’s first gene-edited babies and that raises numerous ethical, political, socio-cultural, and transnational questions. Serious financial and other COI were involved in He’s genetic adventure. Using He’s infamous experiment as a case study, this paper explores the wider issue of financial (...)
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  48.  46
    Randomness and Computability: Open Questions.Joseph S. Miller & André Nies - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):390-410.
  49.  88
    The Strong and Weak Senses of Theory-Ladenness of Experimentation: Theory-Driven Versus Exploratory Experiments in the History of High-Energy Particle Physics.Koray Karaca - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (1):93-136.
    ArgumentIn the theory-dominated view of scientific experimentation, all relations of theory and experiment are taken on a par; namely, that experiments are performed solely to ascertain the conclusions of scientific theories. As a result, different aspects of experimentation and of the relations of theory to experiment remain undifferentiated. This in turn fosters a notion of theory-ladenness of experimentation that is toocoarse-grainedto accurately describe the relations of theory and experiment in scientific practice. By contrast, in this article, I suggest that TLE (...)
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    In the Shadow of Biological Warfare: Conspiracy Theories on the Origins of COVID-19 and Enhancing Global Governance of Biosafety as a Matter of Urgency.Jing-Bao Nie - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):567-574.
    Two theories on the origins of COVID-19 have been widely circulating in China and the West respectively, one blaming the United States and the other a highest-level biocontainment laboratory in Wuhan, the initial epicentre of the pandemic. Both theories make claims of biological warfare attempts. According to the available scientific evidence, these claims are groundless. However, like the episodes of biological warfare during the mid-twentieth century, the spread of these present-day conspiracy theories reflects a series of longstanding and damaging trends (...)
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