First published in 1968. Aesthetics is a living debate of issues concerning the concepts involved in speaking about the arts and the appreciation and creation of art works. But contemporary aesthetics is seriously impoverished if it forgets to take issue or come to terms with its own past. Discovering how problems first arose, and tracing their subsequent careers, can suggest perspectives for contemporary analysis in aesthetics. This book by Eva Schaper examines the views of Plato and Aristotle at the very (...) beginning of philosophical reflection on the nature and purpose of art. Both thinkers, in raising questions and offering solutions, contributed formative ideas which are still an essential part of our common stock of aesthetic notions. This title will be of interest to students of philosophy. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to describe the link between financial performance and the level of sustainability. In a novel approach, the paper classifies firms based on past financial success to address a potentially reciprocal relationship. For the groups of better and worse performing firms and for the entire sample, the above link is then tested, also accounting for non-linearity in the relationship. We show that environmental management system (EMS) implementation as a proxy for a firm's sustainability level is (...) only positively associated with the financial performance of financially well-performing firms. Conversely, it has a negative association with the performance of less good firms. We show that this implies that firms cannot change from good to bad performance, and vice versa, solely through the implementation of an EMS, and also that the result remains when introducing non-linearity in the link. Based on this result, we discuss implications for the direction of causality. (shrink)
The focus of this article is the analysis of generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the metatheoretical perspective of critical realism. It is emphasized that research questions and methods, as well as the knowledge it is possible to attain, depend on the basic view – ontologically and epistemologically – regarding the phenomenon under scrutiny. A generative mechanism is described as a trans empirical but real existing entity, explaining why observable events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only (...) indirectly by analytical work, based however on empirical observations. In order to achieve such an explanatory analysis, five methodological steps are suggested and discussed, among them abduction and retroduction. These steps are illustrated throughout by examples drawn from empirical research regarding social work practice. The article is concluded with a discussion of the need for knowledge of generative mechanisms. (shrink)
Dans le présent article, il s’agit de reconsidérer le rapport entre pyrrhonisme et scepticisme académicien dans Les Essais de Montaigne, en posant l’hypothèse que le philosophe aurait, dès le début de sa réflexion, perçu ces deux tendances sceptiques comme des philosophies très proches, voire compatibles, malgré leurs divergences importantes. Son intérêt croissant pour les Academica de Cicéron, dans les versions postérieures des Essais, le conduirait donc non seulement à transformer son propre scepticisme (qu’il découvre de plus en plus proche de (...) celui de Cicéron), mais aussi à affiner son jugement sur les rapports entre les deux philosophies. En conclusion, l’article évoque brièvement ce qu’apportent ces éléments dans la perspective d’une nouvelle vision des relations entre Montaigne et Cicéron. (shrink)
In this introduction, the meaning and relevance of the study of De iure praedae, as one of the juvenilia of Grotius, is discussed and the contending approaches are described. A survey of the volume is provided.
The idea of narrative has been widely discussed in the recent health care literature, including nursing, and has been portrayed as a resource for both clinical work and research studies. However, the use of the term 'narrative' is inconsistent, and various assumptions are made about the nature (and functions) of narrative: narrative as a naive account of events; narrative as the source of 'subjective truth'; narrative as intrinsically fictional; and narrative as a mode of explanation. All these assumptions have left (...) their mark on the nursing literature, and all of them (in our view) are misconceived. Here, we argue that a failure to distinguish between 'narrative' and 'story' is partly responsible for these misconceptions, and we offer an analysis that shows why the distinction between them is essential. In doing so, we borrow the concept of 'narrativity' from literary criticism. Narrativity is something that a text has degrees of, and our proposal is that the elements of narrativity can be 'sorted' roughly into a continuum, at the 'high narrativity' end of which we find 'story'. On our account, 'story' is an interweaving of plot and character, whose organization is designed to elicit a certain emotional response from the reader, while 'narrative' refers to the sequence of events and the (claimed) causal connections between them. We suggest that it is important not to confuse the emotional persuasiveness of the 'story' with the objective accuracy of the 'narrative', and to this end we recommend what might be called 'narrative vigilance'. There is nothing intrinsically authentic, or sacrosanct, or emancipatory, or paradigmatic about narrative itself, even though the recent health care literature has had a marked tendency to romanticize it. (shrink)
We present an extension of the lambda calculus with the letrec construct. In contrast to current theories, which impose restrictions on where the rewriting can take place, our theory is very liberal, e.g., it allows rewriting under lambda abstractions and on cycles. As shown previously, the reduction theory is non-confluent. Thus, we searched for and found a new property that resembles confluence and that is equivalent to uniqueness of infinite normal forms: skew confluence. This notion is based on the intuition (...) that some terms are better than others and that terms reduce to better terms. It states that if a term reduces to two other terms, the second of those terms can always be reduced to a term that is better than the first. Using skew confluence we define the infinite normal form of a term and show that the infinite normal form defines a congruence on the set of terms. We relate the lambda calculus plus letrec to the plain lambda calculus and to one of the infinitary lambda calculi. We also present a variant of our calculus, which follows the tradition of the explicit substitution calculi. (shrink)
Bioethics has made remarkable progress as a scholarly and applied field. A mere fledgling in the 1960s, it is now firmly established in hospitals, medical schools, and government agencies and boasts a number of professional associations and a handsome collection of journals.
Dutch decline is usually studied as a topic in economic history: when did it really start, what shape did it take? In this article an attempt is made to show the actual awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of the Dutch economy, in the terms used by participants in three public debates. The classical Dutch discourse of decay and decline evolved in response to national and international political reality. The Bickerse Beroerten debate of 1650 shows the conflict between neo-Roman and (...) neo-Athenian tendencies. Subsequently, the explanation of Dutch decline by the Anglo-Dutch pamphleteer Bernard Mandeville is shown to be markedly different from his advice to the English . Finally, the 1630s Dutch debate between Lieven de Beaufort and his critics represents the maturing of the Dutch vocabulary of decline, including its failure to take into account the organisational preconditions of modern society. (shrink)
The aim of the present study was to describe variations in patient participation in decisions about care planning during the final phase of life for a group of gravely ill patients, and how the different actors’ manner of acting promotes or impedes patient participation. Thirty-seven qualitative research interviews were conducted with relatives of the patients. The patients’ participation in the decisions could be categorized into four variations: self-determination, co-determination, delegation and nonparticipation. The manner in which patients, relatives and caregivers acted (...) differed in the respective variations; this seemed either to promote or to impede the patients’ opportunities of participating in the decision making. The possibility for participation seems to be context dependent and affected by many factors such as the dying patient’s personality, the social network, the availability of different forms of care, cultural values, and the extent to which nurses and other caregivers of the different forms of care can and want to support the wishes of the patients and relatives in the decision-making process. (shrink)
A decomposition model of Net Final Values (NFV), named Systemic Value Added (SVA), is proposed for decision-making purposes, based on a systemic approach introduced in Magni [Magni, C. A. (2003), Bulletin of Economic Research 55(2), 149–176; Magni, C. A. (2004) Economic Modelling 21, 595–617]. The model translates the notion of excess profit giving formal expression to a counterfactual alternative available to the decision maker. Relations with other decomposition models are studied, among which Stewart’s [Stewart, G.B. (1991), The Quest for Value: (...) The EVA™ Management Guide, Harper Collins, Publishers Inc]. The index here introduced differs from Stewart’s Economic Value Added (EVA) in that it rests on a different interpretation of the notion of excess profit and is formally connected with the EVA model by means of a shadow project. The SVA is formally and conceptually threefold, in that it is economic, financial, accounting-flavoured. Some results are offered, providing sufficient and necessary conditions for decomposing NFV. Relations between a project’s SVA and its shadow project’s EVA are shown, all results of Pressacco and Stucchi [Pressacco, F. and Stucchi, P. (1997), Rivista di Matematica per le Scienze Economiche e Sociali 20, 165–185] are proved by making use of the systemic approach and the shadow counterparts of those results are also shown. (shrink)
This article questions the continued use and application of EVA® (economic value added) because it is epistemologically a non-sequitur, fails to satisfy the requirements of sound research methodology in terms of being a reliable and valid metric, and is unlikely to satisfy the requirements of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the light of these insufficiencies, the continued use of EVA® is ethically questionable, and moreover in time is likely to result in class actions.
This paper offers a comparative study of the decisive moment in the biblical and quranic story of Eve, generally perceived as having been the violation of the covenant made with the Creator. According to it, Adam and Eve were forbidden to approach the tree or to eat from its fruit, a fact that is generally perceived as having been meant to establish common and different structural elements. The violation of the divine order did not come out of nowhere; it had (...) its causes and consequences. The triple T divides the violation into three stages. In the first one, which is the temptation, we encounter the incitement and the initiation to the transgressor incident. Then, in the transgression, we find out, how the disobedience happened. Finally, comes the tragedy, which includes the results and the consequences. (shrink)
Eva Feder Kittay combines a philosopher’s appeal to logic and an advocate’s call for action. Over the years she has written cogently about theories of caregiving and dependence, shared her experiences as a parent of a disabled child, and now adds what she has learned about caring for elderly relatives. In this commentary I want to clarify a few points in her far-ranging essay. I also want to suggest broadening her focus on paying for long-term care to include reforming the (...) long-term care system. Finally, I have reservations about the high standards she sets for reciprocity between caregivers and care recipients. While Kittay sees similarities (as well as differences) in the needs of children and young adults .. (shrink)
How do we theorize the experiences of caregivers abused by their children with autism without intensifying stigma toward disability? Eva Kittay emphasizes examples of extreme vulnerability to overturn myths of independence, but she ignores the possibility that dependents with disabilities may be vulnerable and aggressive. Instead, her work over-emphasizes caregivers' capabilities and the constancy of disabled dependents' vulnerability. I turn to Judith Butler's ethics and her conception of the self as opaque to rethink care amid conflict. Person-centered planning approaches, pioneered (...) by disability rights activists, merge Butler's analysis of opacity with Kittay's work on embodied care, while also inviting a broader network of people to both interpret needs and change communities. By expanding our conceptions of dependency, feminist disability studies can continue the aim of both Kittay and Butler: to humanize unintelligible lives. (shrink)
According to a testimony of Sextus Empiricus's Against the Physicists, Epicurus began to study philosophy because his grammar teacher, dealing with the birth of Chaos in Hesiod's Theogony, was not able to explain what the cause and origin of Chaos were. If this evidence is reliable, the question of disorder was extremely significant for Epicurean philosophy. Usually, ancient pagan and Christian critics of materialistic philosophies accused Democritus and Epicurus of denying the power of providence. To Dante, Democritus is the philosopher (...) who 'l mondo a caso pone in the sense that, according to the Atomist, the world derives from chance.Eva Marie Noller's book—specifically devoted... (shrink)
The body of Eva in Thomas Aquinas The constitution of the first female body or the body of Eva presents several physical and metaphysical problems, problems that have gone through the centuries and reach the present, generating social and cultural consequences for women. The non-existence of parents demands from Aquino answers that go beyond the anthropological and biological and lead to the search of philosophical answers intertwined with the theological ones. Thomas Aquinas provides rational answers although the background is of (...) faith, and even, with literal interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures now abandoned. The Aquinate makes an intellectual effort to find answers in a rational field because the matter of the body of the first woman brings difficulties for its elucidation and understanding. As in other parts of his extensive work, Thomas Aquinas, follows the biological and physical works of Aristotle. Although the Aristotelian background is in line with Christian thought, Aquinas shows his extraordinary capacity for synthesis between the faith received and reason argued, between revelation and the principles of reason. (shrink)
We address problems (that have since been addressed) in a proofs-version of a paper by Eva, Hartmann and Rad, who where attempting to justify the Kullback-Leibler divergence minimization solution to van Fraassen’s Judy Benjamin problem.
The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the different ways in which the young Max Horkheimer received Schopenhauer’s philosophy in his early writings Aus der Pubertät. The text analysis reveals that the young Horkheimer adopted during the 1914-1916 period a romantic perspective and a more illuministic one in the 1917-1918 period. This paper specifically focuses on a novel from the first period, Eva, from which it appears that Horkheimer subscribed to Schopenhauer’s doctrine of the aesthetical genius in an (...) original way. (shrink)