As crenças fazem parte de um sistema conceitual que se forma na infância e é refinado e estabelecido ao longo da vida. O presente estudo investiga associações entre crenças básicas e bem-estar pessoal em 1.588 adolescentes brasileiros, meninos e meninas com idade entre 12-16 anos (M= 14,13; DP=1,26)..
Aulis Aarnio addresses the question of how legal interpretations should be justified. Aarnio considers a justification to be rational only if the justification process has been conducted in a rational way, and if the final result of this process is acceptable to the legal community. According to Aarnio, a theory concerning the justification of legal interpretations should contain a procedural component specifying the conditions of rationality for legal discussions, and a substantial component specifying the material conditions of acceptability for the (...) final result. The procedural component of Aarnio’s theory formulates rules for the rationality of legal discussions. The substantial component specifies when the result of a legal interpretation can be called acceptable. Aarnio considers such a result acceptable if it is acceptable to a particular legal community in which there is consensus with respect to certain norms and values. (shrink)
In this contribution the prototypical argumentative patterns are discussed in which pragmatic argumentation is used in the context of legal justification in hard cases. First, the function and implementation of pragmatic argumentation in prototypical argumentative patterns in legal justification are addressed. The dialectical function of the different parts of the complex argumentation are explained by characterizing them as argumentative moves that are put forward in reaction to certain forms of critique. Then, on the basis of an exemplary case, the famous (...) Holy Trinity case, the way in which the U.S. Supreme Court uses pragmatic argumentation in this case is discussed by showing how the court instantiates general prototypical argumentative patterns in light of the institutional preconditions of the justification in the context of the specific case. (shrink)
This paper answers the question how pragmatic argumentation which occurs in a legal context, can be analyzed and evaluated adequately. First, the author surveys various ideas taken from argumentation theory and legal theory on the analysis and evaluation of pragmatic argumentation. Then, on the basis of these ideas, she develops a pragma-dialectical instrument for analyzing and evaluating pragmatic argumentation in a legal context. Finally she demonstrates how this instrument can be used by giving an exemplary analysis and evaluation of pragmatic (...) argumentation in a decision of the Dutch Supreme Court. (shrink)
In this paper, the author develops an instrument for the rational reconstruction of argumentation in which a judicial decision is justified by referring to the consequences in relation to the purpose of the rule. The instrument is developed by integrating insights from legal theory and legal philosophy about the function and use of arguments from consequences in relation to the purpose of a rule into a pragma-dialectical framework. Then, by applying the instrument to the analysis of examples from legal practice, (...) it is demonstrated that the instrument can offer a heuristic and critical tool for the analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation that can ‘bridge’ the gap between more abstract discussions of forms of legal argumentation on the one hand, and legal arguments as they occur in actual legal practice on the other hand. (shrink)
Evolutionary psychology is among the various evolutionary and cognitive perspectives that have been used to account for the origins of art. It sets out to explain modern human psychology by means of the evolutionary history of the species, and by determining why and how our extant cognitive machinery evolved as adaptations to past environmental surroundings or by-products of such adaptations. In the case of art, evolutionary psychologists seek to track down its cognitive foundations and establish its evolutionary rationale, for instance (...) by determining which function artistic behaviour as a whole might have performed. However, several methodological issues and gaps currently impede evolutionary psychological research on art: empirical support is often lacking, adaptationist claims are not adequately substantiated, and the definition and scope of basic aspects of evolutionary psychology often remain underspecified. This paper reviews the central themes that evolutionary psychology currently advances to account for the emergence of visual arts, music and fiction, addresses the most relevant methodological issues, and provides some suggestions that might help to develop evolutionary research on art. (shrink)
The author gives an analysis of the strategic manoeuvring in the justification of legal decisions from a pragma-dialectical perspective by showing how a judge tries to reconcile dialectical and rhetorical aims. On the basis of an analysis and evaluation of the argumentation given by the US Supreme Court in the famous Holy Trinity case, it is shown how in a case in which the judge wants to make an exception to a legal rule for the concrete case tries to meet (...) the dialectical reasonableness norm by seeing to it that his standpoint is sufficiently defended according to the requirements of the burden of proof of a judge in a rational critical discussion and how he tries at the same time to be rhetorically convincing for the legal audience by presenting the decision as a choice that is in line with the argumentation schemes and starting points that can be considered as accepted by the legal community in the US and by the US community as a whole. (shrink)
In this article the author develops a framework for a pragma-dialectical reconstruction of teleological argumentation in a legal context. Ideas taken from legal theory are integrated in a pragma-dialectical model for analyzing and evaluating argumentation, thus providing a more systematic and elaborate framework for assessing the quality of teleological arguments in a legal context. Teleological argumentation in a legal context is approached as a specific form of pragmatic argumentation. The legal criteria that are relevant for the evaluation of teleological argumentation (...) are discussed and translated in terms of critical questions that are relevant for the evaluation of the various forms of teleological argumentation. (shrink)
This article describes a case study on the Machiguenga, a remote Indigenous tribe affected by the Camisea Gas Project in the Peru. We introduce the anthropological concept of 'glocalization' and integrate this with organizational knowledge of 'identity work'. Our findings demonstrate that identity work is a multi-faceted and boundary spanning process that significantly affects stakeholder relations and contributes to conflict between local communities and oil and gas companies. Indigenous identity can be both threatened and strengthened in response to natural gas (...) development and is related to how individuals, communities and the Machiguenga (as a collective) engage in identity work. We also discuss broader implications for management ethics, including a discussion of how Indigenous self-identify processes create a challenge for stakeholder theory. (shrink)
In this paper, the author describes a dialogical approach tolegal argumentation from the perspective of argumentationtheory. In a pragma-dialectical approach of legalargumentation, the argumentation is considered to be part of acritical discussion aimed at the rational resolution of thedispute. The author describes how a pragma-dialecticalanalysis and evaluation of legal argumentation can be carriedout.
In legal theory, it is widely claimed that decisions in hard cases are based on weighing and balancing. However no reconstructions are given of the deep structure of the complex argumentation underlying the justification of these decisions. The author develops a model for the analysis of weighing and balancing of arguments in the justification of judicial decisions that are based on teleological-evaluative considerations. The justification is reconstructed as a complex argumentation that consists of different levels of argumentation and it is (...) explained how these levels of argumentation relate to the burden of proof of a judge who gives a decision that is based on a weighing and balancing in which teleological-evaluative considerations are invoked. (shrink)
This article describes a case study on the Machiguenga, a remote Indigenous tribe affected by the Camisea Gas Project in the Peru. We introduce the anthropological concept of ‘glocalization’ and integrate this with organizational knowledge of ‘identity work’. Our findings demonstrate that identity work is a multi-faceted and boundary spanning process that significantly affects stakeholder relations and contributes to conflict between local communities and oil and gas companies. Indigenous identity can be both threatened and strengthened in response to natural gas (...) development and is related to how individuals, communities and the Machiguenga engage in identity work. We also discuss broader implications for management ethics, including a discussion of how Indigenous self-identify processes create a challenge for stakeholder theory. (shrink)
In this contribution the author develops an argumentation model for the reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations. The model is intended as a heuristic and critical tool for the rational reconstruction of the justification of judicial decisions. From the perspective of a rational discussion, it makes explicit the choices underlying the weighing and balancing on the basis of goals and values so that they can be made explicit and submitted to rational critique.
In this paper, I show how a concept of ethics can be derived from Hannah Arendt’s theory of action in The Human Condition , which contains from her call for action. When she looks at the ‘political actor’, as well as at the concept of ‘political situation’, her ethical claim is first of all the need to take initiative, to act. Hence, ‘political situations’ as she defines them are discussed as common responsibilities. But common responsibility is rooted in the in-between (...) of human beings, rather than in individual human nature and is determined by Arendt’s principle of humanity. Therefore, at the centre of an implicit Arendtian ethics stands the world and the in-between of human beings. (shrink)
In this contribution I characterize the role of the judge in the context of the argumentative activity of legal proceeding. I describe the role of the judge from a pragma-dialectical perspective and explain in which way this role promotes a rational resolution of the dispute. I specify how a critical discussion in accordance with the ideal model is implemented in legal procedure to accomplish the institutional point, a resolution of the dispute in accordance with the Rule of Law.
Normal 0 0 1 91 520 .. 4 1 638 11.1280 0 14 0 0 Moving among historical material and contemporary debates on xenophobia and war, this paper is an exploration of the self-representation “ Italiani Brava Gente ”, an image claiming the intrinsic goodness of the Italian people. Originated during the first Italian colonial enterprises, it has been used also for overcoming the horrors of Fascism and is evoked in contemporary Italy too for justifying traumatic and violent events. Functioning (...) as an ideological laundry for reformulating and then setting aside disquieting moments of national shame, “ Italiani Brava Gente ” is central to the construction of a modern Italian identity. (shrink)
A Lei de Diretrizes e Bases 9.394/96 inseriu a Filosofia nos currículos do Ensino Médio com o indicativo de interdisciplinaridade, permanecendo em aberto questões acerca de como fazer com que a Filosofia potencialize a experiência interdisciplinar. Com o objetivo de correlacionar interdisciplinaridade e Filosofia, o artigo resulta de uma análise hermenêutica que confronta reflexões de Hannah Arendt sobre a crise na educação e a proposta da comunidade de investigação de Lipman. Parte da noção de que em meados do século XX, (...) a educação tradicional foi substituída pela pedagogia progressista e a educação passou a ser pensada como ciência do ensino em geral, a fim de atender à dinâmica do avanço científico e tecnológico. A visão analítica e linear das especialidades não responde satisfatoriamente às demandas atuais de uma ciência complexa, articulada e em rápida transformação. Diante do requisito interdisciplinar da ciência, o específico da Filosofia é a problematização e a sistematização do filosofar; de mediação entre as disciplinas, em virtude da dimensão holística de seus conteúdos, e de vigilância epistemológica como recurso de revisão e atualização dos saberes. Palavras-chave: Interdisciplinaridade. Filosofia. Ciência. Crise na educação. Comunidade de investigação. (shrink)
Walter Benjamin fala da experiência como sendo o tipo de sabedoria que resulta do encontro de práticas individuais com o horizonte de sentido fornecido pela vida comunitária. Mas esse encontro tem se tornado mais difícil a partir do desenvolvimento da sociedade capitalista moderna. As novas dinâmicas de trabalho, somadas ao ritmo acelerado da vida urbana, favorecem o isolamento dos indivíduos e deturpam sua capacidade de filtrar, significativamente, os eventos que se acumulam no cotidiano. Muitas coisas acontecem, mas muito pouco permanece (...) desses acontecimentos. A experiência dá lugar, assim, à mera vivência. Diferentemente da experiência, que se articula a partir do fundo significativo de uma comunidade e se torna significativa em relação a ela, a vivência se constitui como um momento privado. A vivência não conecta os indivíduos à vida da comunidade, à tradição, e nisso reside sua pobreza. Pobreza de experiência é, portanto, pobreza cultural, carência de perspectivas mais amplas que possam apoiar uma avaliação significativa das vivências; em suma, incapacidade de aprender. Diante desse contexto, o presente ensaio busca enfatizar o impacto negativo da pobreza de experiência à constituição da subjetividade do indivíduo contemporâneo e assinalar a possibilidade de fazer frente a esse quadro de empobrecimento a partir de uma ideia de educação voltada à formação integral, que, mesmo diante do apelo crescente do conhecimento técnico-científico especializado, não abra mão do ensino das humanidades. Nessa linha, defende-se a tese de que as disciplinas de formação humanística, como Artes, Literatura, Filosofia, cumprem um papel de destaque no desenvolvimento das condições necessárias à realização de experiências, no sentido específico descrito por Benjamin. O ensaio, de cunho bibliográfico-hermenêutico, se apresenta como uma contribuição para pensar nos atuais desafios educacionais. Palavras-chave: Experiência. Pobreza de experiência. Walter Benjamin. Educação. Educação humanística. (shrink)
This paper argues that Habermas's conception of the rationality of moral and legal discussions has import for argumentation theorists interested in the rationality of public deliberations in politics and law. I begin with a survey of Haber mas's discourse theory and his criteria of rationality for moral and legal discourse. I then explain why, in his view, the forms of rational discourse in morality and law complement each other. My aim is to show how Habermas's account of this complementary relationship (...) opens up fruitful perspectives for argumentation theory. Specifically, his thought can stimulate research regarding, on the one hand, the ways in which legal procedures provide for presumptively rational resolutions of moral disputes and, on the other hand, the applicability of ideal argumentation-theoretic models to the legal field. I conclude with a proposal for integrating Habermas's ideas in a research program for legal argumentation. (shrink)
Toda e qualquer didática possui uma epistemologia subjacente e sua identificação ou taxionomia nos possibilita elaborar chaves de leitura para compreender certos tensionamentos produzidos na forma como ensinamos e/ou aprendemos. No presente estudo, de cunho hermenêutico , buscamos compreender a epistemologia da complexidade e as decorrências para os processos didáticos. Primeiramente, analisamos as limitações da epistemologia da simplificação, que caracteriza grande parte do pensamento didático moderno, e a emergência da epistemologia da complexidade. Posteriormente, exploramos os princípios da complexidade-sistêmico-organizacional, hologramático, organização (...) recursiva, dialógico, auto-eco-organização e a reintrodução do sujeito cognoscente –, analisando, por fim, as decorrências para a didática numa perspectiva complexa. (shrink)
RESUMO A crítica de Hume ao contrato social admite um alcance para além do debate com o contratualismo de Locke: nosso autor tem em vista, sobretudo, desconstruir os princípios filosóficos que são a base da prática política dos Whigs. Uma vez que o contrato original organiza esses princípios, Hume se dedicará a analisá-lo em termos filosóficos e históricos, na tentativa de modernizar o pensamento político de sua época. ABSTRACT Hume's criticism of the social contract allows a range beyond the debate (...) with Locke's theory: our author aims mainly to deconstruct the philosophical principles that are the basis of the political practice of the Whigs. Since the original contract organizes these principles, Hume will be devoted to evaluating it in philosophical and historical terms, in an attempt to modernize the political thought of his time. (shrink)
Een van de recente ontwikkelingen binnen evolutiepsychologie is het onderzoek naar evolutionaire esthetica, of darwinistisch geïnspireerd onderzoek naar de kwalitatieve beoordeling van natuurlijke en artificiële stimuli. Esthetica wordt in de westerse traditie echter traditioneel vanuit filosofisch en speculatief oogpunt benaderd. Ik illustreer de ontwikkeling van evolutionaire esthetica binnen een groter kader van wetenschappelijk en empirisch onderzoek, en argumenteer dat schijnbare tegenstellingen zoals deze tussen objectiviteit en subjectiviteit in esthetische oordelen geen stand houden. De kritieken die ten aanzien van evolutionaire esthetica (...) worden geuit, gaan verkeerdelijk uit van de vermeende onverzoenbaarheid van de filosofische en wetenschappelijke studie van esthetica. One of the more recent developments in the field of evolutionary psychology is research on evolutionary aesthetics, otherwise stated: darwinian inspired inquiries into qualitative judgements of natural and aesthetic stimuli. Western thought traditionally approaches aesthetics from a philosophical and conjectural point of view. I illustrate the development of evolutionary aesthetics within a broader framework of scientific and empirical research, and argue that apparent contrasts such as objectivity and subjectivity in aesthetic judgement do not turn out to be valid. Critiques of evolutionary aesthetics wrongly assume the conflicting nature of philosophical and evolutionary aesthetics. (shrink)
In this essay, some approaches towards the interpretation of language in the early thought of Heidegger are discussed, especially in Being and Time. Heidegger’s language can be understood by pointing out that he saw life as the main interest of philosophy, and questioned philosophy with regard to how it can determine itself. In contrast to Heidegger’s later writings, language is not the primary issue of discussion in the earlier period of his thinking. Therefore, different approaches to language need to be (...) taken. Language can be understood by following the existential analysis of Dasein , namely the interpretation of Rede . Further, the interpretations of Heidegger on Aristotle need to be discussed. As the Greeks had no word for language, the misleading interpretations of logos, dominating the history of philosophy, had an influence on the theory of language. Finally, taking account of prudence as a way to discover beings, another view on language can be found. In this approach to an understanding of language in the early thought of Heidegger, the manner of thinking about language is different to later approaches through poetry. There are traces of thinking about language in Being and Time and Heidegger’s earlier lectures. However, first of all, they have to be found. (shrink)
In this paper I will present Arendt’s concept of judging as related to imagination. Her concept of judging is rooted in Kant’s philosophy, yet bears the potential for the political account of the particular. Inserted in the ongoing debate in intercultural philosophy, as of how to take into account particular circumstances, this paper offers an insight into moral judgment as a possible corrective to normative politics. Reflecting on lived politics through moral judgment in particular situations, this paper highlights the importance (...) of imagination and experience for individual decisions. Bearing as a horizon the intercultural debates it refers only to the question as of how particulars can be taken into account in a political intercultural debate. (shrink)