Results for 'Evidence-based medicine'

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  1.  96
    Evidence-Based Medicine Must Be ..A. La Caze - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):509-527.
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) provide the “hierarchy of evidence” as a criterion for judging the reliability of therapeutic decisions. EBM's hierarchy places randomized interventional studies (and systematic reviews of such studies) higher in the hierarchy than observational studies, unsystematic clinical experience, and basic science. Recent philosophical work has questioned whether EBM's special emphasis on evidence from randomized interventional studies can be justified. Following the critical literature, and in particular the work of John Worrall, I (...)
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  2. The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine.Jeremy Howick - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell, Bmj Books.
    The philosophy of evidence-based medicine -- What is EBM? -- What is good evidence for a clinical decision? -- Ruling out plausible rival hypotheses and confounding factors : a method -- Resolving the paradox of effectiveness : when do observational studies offer the same degree of evidential support as randomized trials? -- Questioning double blinding as a universal methodological virtue of clinical trials : resolving the Philip's paradox -- Placebo controls : problematic and misleading baseline measures (...)
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  3.  91
    EvidenceBased Medicine Can’T Be….Adam La Caze - 2008 - Social Epistemology 22 (4):353 – 370.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) puts forward a hierarchy of evidence for informing therapeutic decisions. An unambiguous interpretation of how to apply EBM's hierarchy has not been provided in the clinical literature. However, as much as an interpretation is provided proponents suggest a categorical interpretation. The categorical interpretation holds that all the results of randomised trials always trump evidence from lower down the hierarchy when it comes to informing therapeutic decisions. Most of the critical replies to EBM (...)
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  4.  45
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Modernism: Still Better Than the Alternatives.Peter Zachar - 2012 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (4):313-316.
    Thomas, Bracken, and Timimi (2012) make an important contribution in critiquing the extent to which the profession of psychiatry can be so bureaucratic that patients are treated as problems to be solved in an ‘efficient’ assembly line fashion rather than as individual persons. The trouble with bureaucracies is that they promote a cold and impersonal accounting approach in which critical reflection on purposes is circumvented by decision-making algorithms (Zachar and Bartlett 2009). Psychotherapy treatment manuals definitely satisfy the bureaucratic instinct, and (...)
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  5.  30
    EvidenceBased Medicine and Epistemological Imperialism: Narrowing the Divide Between Evidence and Illness.Helen Crowther, Wendy Lipworth & Ian Kerridge - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):868-872.
    Evidence-based medicine has been rapidly and widely adopted because it claims to provide a method for determining the safety and efficacy of medical therapies and public health interventions more generally. However, as others have noted, EBM may be riven through with cultural bias, both in the generation of evidence and in its translation. We suggest that technological and scientific advances in medicine accentuate and entrench these cultural biases, to the extent that they may invalidate the (...)
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  6. On Evidence and Evidence-Based Medicine: Lessons From the Philosophy of Science.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2006 - Social Science and Medicine 62 (11):2621-2632.
    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term ‘‘evidence-based medicine’’ has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the (...)
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  7. Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  8. Corroborating EvidenceBased Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):915-920.
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches and (...)
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  9.  50
    The EvidenceBased Medicine Model of Clinical Practice: Scientific Teaching or Belief‐Based Preaching?Cathy Charles, Amiram Gafni & Emily Freeman - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):597-605.
  10.  26
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Quality of Care.Donna Dickenson & Paolo Vineis - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):243-259.
    In this paper we set out to examine thearguments for and against the claim thatEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) will improve thequality of care. In particular, we examine thefollowing issues.
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  11.  12
    Is Evidence-Based Medicine About Democratizing Medical Practice?Keld Thorgaard - 2014 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 15 (1):49-62.
    The authoritarian standpoint in medicine has been under challenge by various groups and researchers since the 1980s. The challenges have been ethical, political and medical, with patient movements at the forefront. Over the past decade, however, a deep challenge has been posed by evidence-based medicine (EBM), which has challenged the entire strategy of medical treatment from the point of view of a self-critical, anti-authoritarian and hereby also (it has been claimed) a more democratic medical practice. Previously, (...)
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  12. Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-Medical Phenomenon.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2012 - In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters (...)
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  13. From Evidence-Based Medicine to Marketing-Based Medicine: Evidence From Internal Industry Documents. [REVIEW]Glen I. Spielmans & Peter I. Parry - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):13-29.
    While much excitement has been generated surrounding evidence-based medicine, internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry suggest that the publicly available evidence base may not accurately represent the underlying data regarding its products. The industry and its associated medical communication firms state that publications in the medical literature primarily serve marketing interests. Suppression and spinning of negative data and ghostwriting have emerged as tools to help manage medical journal publications to best suit product sales, while disease mongering (...)
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  14.  19
    Beyond Evidence-Based Medicine: Bridge-Building a Medicine of Meaning.S. Buetow - 2002 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):103-108.
    Contesting that a debate on evidence-based health care has taken place, this article charts three paths to the future: continuing avoidance of debate by proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM); conflict, which the EBM movement courts and critics have espoused, and dialogue. The last portal allows for integration, which would end the disagreement between EBM and its critics and make a debate unnecessary. In search of integration, I sketch a bridge whose construction requires not compromise but (...)
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  15. Does Evidence-Based Medicine Apply to Psychiatry?Mona Gupta - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (2):103.
    Evidence-based psychiatry (EBP) has arisen through the application of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to psychiatry. However, there may be aspects of psychiatric disorders and treatments that do not conform well to the assumptions of EBM. This paper reviews the ongoing debate about evidence-based psychiatry and investigates the applicability, to psychiatry, of two basic methodological features of EBM: prognostic homogeneity of clinical trial groups and quantification of trial outcomes. This paper argues that EBM may not (...)
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  16.  31
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Progress in the Medical Sciences.Leen De Vreese - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):852-856.
    The question what scientific progress means for a particular domain such as medicine seems importantly different from the question what scientific progress is in general. While the latter question received ample treatment in the philosophical literature, the former question is hardly discussed. I argue that it is nonetheless important to think about this question in view of the methodological choices we make. I raise specific questions that should be tackled regarding scientific progress in the medical sciences and demonstrate their (...)
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  17. Rationalism, Empiricism, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Call for a New Galenic Synthesis.William Webb - 2018 - Medicines 5 (2).
    Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method of (...)
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  18.  14
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Patient Autonomy.Robyn Bluhm - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):134-151.
    Evidence-based medicine was developed to ensure that health-care decisions are based on the best available research evidence. Making this evidence available to patients is supposed to increase their autonomy by putting them in a position to make better-informed choices. In this paper, I draw on work in feminist bioethics to critique EBM’s approach to involving patients in decision making, in which patients are asked merely to select their preferences among various possible treatment outcomes but (...)
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  19.  24
    The Challenges of Evidence-Based Medicine: A Philosophical Perspective.Abhaya V. Kulkarni - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (2):255-260.
    Although evidence-based medicine has gained prominence in current medical practice and research, it has also had to deal with a number of problems and inconsistencies. For example, how do clinicians reconcile discordant results of randomized trials or how do they apply results of randomized trials to individual patients? In an attempt to examine such problems in a structured way, this essay describes EBM within a philosophical framework of science. Using this approach, some of the problems and challenges (...)
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  20.  39
    EvidenceBased Medicine: The Need for a New Definition.S. Buetow & T. Kenealy - 2000 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):85-92.
  21.  40
    Evidence-Based Medicine as an Instrument for Rational Health Policy.Nikola Biller-Andorno, Reidar K. Lie & Ruud Ter Meulen - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):261-275.
    This article tries to present a broad view on the values and ethicalissues that are at stake in efforts to rationalize health policy on thebasis of economic evaluations (like cost-effectiveness analysis) andrandomly controlled clinical trials. Though such a rationalization isgenerally seen as an objective and `value free' process, moral valuesoften play a hidden role, not only in the production of `evidence', butalso in the way this evidence is used in policy making. For example, thedefinition of effectiveness of medical (...)
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  22.  51
    Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Tool for Resource Allocation?Rui Nunes - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):297-301.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscious, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The greater the level of evidence the greater the grade of recommendation. This pioneering explicit concept of EBM is embedded in a particular view of medical practice namely the singular nature of the patient-physician relation and the commitment of the latter towards a specific goal: the treatment and the well being of (...)
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  23.  36
    EvidenceBased Medicine and its Role in Ethical Decision‐Making.Pascal Borry, Paul Schotsmans & Kris Dierickx - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):306-311.
  24. Evidence-Based Medicine: Quantitatively Moving From the Universal to the Particular.D. Chelmow - 2005 - In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger. pp. 139--158.
     
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  25. Evidence Based Medicine: Philosophical.Donald Stanley & S. Sehon - 2003 - PLOS.
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  26. Philosophy of Evidence Based Medicine (Oxford Bibliography: Http://Www.Oxfordbibliographies.Com/View/Document/Obo-9780195396577/Obo-9780195396577-0253.Xml).Jeremy Howick, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Oxford Bibliography.
    Since its introduction just over two decades ago, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to dominate medical practice, teaching, and policy. There are a growing number of textbooks, journals, and websites dedicated to EBM research, teaching, and evidence dissemination. EBM was most recently defined as a method that integrates best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and circumstances in the treatment of patients. There have been debates throughout the early 21st century about what counts (...)
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  27.  32
    Evidence Based Medicine Guidelines: A Solution to Rationing or Politics Disguised as Science?S. I. Saarni - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):171-175.
    Evidence based medicine” is often seen as a scientific tool for quality improvement, even though its application requires the combination of scientific facts with value judgments and the costing of different treatments. How this is done depends on whether we approach the problem from the perspective of individual patients, doctors, or public health administrators. Evidence based medicine exerts a fundamental influence on certain key aspects of medical professionalism. Since, when clinical practice guidelines are created, (...)
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  28.  59
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Power Shifts in Health Care Systems.Rein Vos, Rob Houtepen & Klasien Horstman - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):319-328.
    It is important and urgent to question therelationship between evidence-based medicineand power shifts in health care systems.Although definitions of EBM are phrased as ascientific approach to medicine, EBM is anormative concept: it aims to improve medicineand health care. Both proponents and opponentsuse a normative concept. More particularly,they provide particular views on positions,responsibilities, possibilities, norms andrelationships between professionals, patientgroups, governments and other parties in healthcare and society. From this perspective, wewant to analyse the role of EBM in modernwestern (...)
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  29. A Perfect Storm : Non-Evidence-Based Medicine in the Fertility Clinic.Emily Jackson - 2021 - In G. T. Laurie (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of health research regulation. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  30.  58
    The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - 2020 - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science (...)
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  31. EvidenceBased Medicine and Clinical Experience.Jaywant J. P. Patil - 1999 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (4):423-425.
     
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  32.  89
    Epistemic Causality and Evidence-Based Medicine.Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).
    Causal claims in biomedical contexts are ubiquitous albeit they are not always made explicit. This paper addresses the question of what causal claims mean in the context of disease. It is argued that in medical contexts causality ought to be interpreted according to the epistemic theory. The epistemic theory offers an alternative to traditional accounts that cash out causation either in terms of “difference-making” relations or in terms of mechanisms. According to the epistemic approach, causal claims tell us about which (...)
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  33.  21
    EvidenceBased Medicine Training in Graduate Medical Education: Past, Present and Future.Michael L. Green - 2000 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):121-138.
  34.  26
    EvidenceBased Medicine: A Kuhnian Perspective of a Transvestite Non‐Theory.Joaquim S. Couto Md - 1998 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (4):267-275.
  35.  62
    The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - unknown
    According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of (...)
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  36.  10
    EvidenceBased Medicine and the Real World: Understanding the Controversy.William A. Ghali, Richard Saitz, Peter M. Sargious & Warren Y. Hershman - 1999 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (2):133-138.
  37.  34
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Women: Do the Principles and Practice of EBM Further Women's Health?Wendy Rogers - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):50-71.
    Clinicians and policy makers the world over are embracing evidence-based medicine. The promise of EBM is to use summaries of research evidence to determine which healthcare interventions are effective and which are not, so that patients may benefit from effective interventions and be protected from useless or harmful ones. EBM provides an ostensibly rational and objective means of deciding whether or not an intervention should be provided on the basis of its effectiveness, in theory leading to (...)
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  38.  28
    EvidenceBased Medicine in General Practice: Beliefs and Barriers Among Australian GPs.Jane M. Young & Jeanette E. Ward - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):201-210.
  39.  9
    EvidenceBased Medicine: A New Paradigm or the Emperor's New Clothes?Eyal Shahar Md Mph - 1998 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (4):277-282.
  40. Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic (...)
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  41.  22
    Evidence Based Medicine and Justice: A Framework for Looking at the Impact of EBM Upon Vulnerable or Disadvantaged Groups.W. A. Rogers - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):141-145.
    This article examines the implicit promises of fairness in evidence based medicine , namely to avoid discrimination through objective processes, and to distribute effective treatments fairly. The relationship between EBM and vulnerable groups is examined. Several aspects of EBM are explored: the way evidence is created , and the way evidence is applied in clinical care and health policy. This analysis suggests that EBM turns our attention away from social and cultural factors that influence health (...)
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  42.  14
    EvidenceBased Medicine: We Ought to Practise It, but We Still Do Not Know Why.Mona Gupta - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1111-1112.
  43.  31
    EvidenceBased Medicine: Why All the Fuss? This is Why.A. Miles, P. Bentley, A. Polychronis & J. Grey - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):83-86.
  44.  33
    EvidenceBased Medicine and Philosophy of Science.Robyn Bluhm - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):363-364.
  45.  76
    Epistemology and Ethics of Evidence-Based Medicine: Putting Goal-Setting in the Right Place.Piersante Sestini - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):301-305.
    While evidence-based medicine (EBM) is often accused on relying on a paradigm of 'absolute truth', it is in fact highly consistent with Karl Popper's criterion of demarcation through falsification. Even more relevant, the first three steps of the EBM process are closely patterned on Popper's evolutionary approach of objective knowledge: (1) recognition of a problem; (2) generation of solutions; and (3) selection of the best solution. This places the step 1 of the EBM process (building an answerable (...)
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  46.  32
    Evidence Based Medicine and Ethics.T. Hope - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):259-260.
  47.  16
    EvidenceBased Medicine and Limits to the Literature Search.Robin Nunn - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):672-678.
  48.  25
    EvidenceBased Medicine, Practice Variations and Clinical Freedom.J. R. Hampton - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):123-131.
  49.  96
    The Role of Basic Science in Evidence-Based Medicine.Adam La Caze - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):81-98.
    Proponents of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) do not provide a clear role for basic science in therapeutic decision making. Of what they do say about basic science, most of it is negative. Basic science resides on the lower tiers of EBM's hierarchy of evidence. Therapeutic decisions, according to proponents of EBM, should be informed by evidence from randomised studies (and systematic reviews of randomised studies) rather than basic science. A framework of models explicates the links between (...)
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  50.  25
    Evidence-Based Medicine in Context: A Pragmatist Approach to Psychiatric Practice.Jorid Moen - 2015 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 22 (1):53-62.
    The increased demand for evidence-based medicine has proven much more challenging for psychiatry to accept than for medicine in general. Among the concerns is a perception that EBM does not respond appropriately to the character and complexity of psychiatric disorders and treatments, that the concept of ‘evidence’ is too narrowly construed, and that it may encourage a false sense of competence. It has also been claimed that EBM may encourage a kind of ‘cookbook medicine,’ (...)
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