I present the scope andcharacteristics of Marx''s interest in Russiaand review its evolution. Initially, Marx''sattitudes were marked by russophobia,pronounced anti-panslavism, assessments ofRussia as an outpost of European reaction andcounterrevolution, and even as the head of aconspiracy to block the world revolution. Withtime, however, Marx came to consider Russia asthe country in which the outbreak of theRevolution was most likely. In his research forsucessive volumes of Capital, he readRussian theoretical works by, among others, V.Bervi-Flerovskij and A. Koshelev. Marx''sattitudes to the anticipated (...) peasant revolutionin Russia remained ambivalent; to a certaindegree he feared its occurrence suspecting thatit could take on an `asiatic'' hue. (shrink)
The article presents findings derived from questionnaires administrated to 150 randomly selected inhabitants of Warsaw in November and early December of 1981. They were asked about their preferences concerning different rules of distributing basic supplies in time of crisis. The authors begin by saying that controlled distribution corresponds to a principle that is considered fundamental in the socialist country, namely the principle of redistribution. It determines all sorts of social exchange that may be governed elsewhere by the principle of reciprocity (...) or by market. Deteriorating Polish economy made it necessary after the Agreements of 198O and 1981 to introduce rationing of meat and fat initially and various other commodities later. This rationing is called “universal” by the authors to distinguish it from “situational” rationing that had existed earlier whenever particular sorts of commodities were in short supply and only first in line were served or whenever particular groups of people were given special entitlements to buy things that were not generally available. The authors point out that a complete collapse of the economic system, whether now in Poland or in any other case, leads to a wide acceptance of different forms of rationing. It is not expected that rationing may help to better the general level of individual needs; it is hoped only that it may ensure more equitable distribution of those goods that are supplied in minimum quantities. Just distribution stands in this case for limited egalitarianism which primarily provides for equal distribution but makes allowances for different levels of needs and endorses exclusion of certain categories of people from the distribution system. In case of grave impoverishment the rules of charity ad mutual help are called upon, or the respondents express their trust in the existence of widespread benevolent attitudes in society. (shrink)
It is a study of the discursive construction of high achievers’ identities in American culture. A corpus of 100 commencement speeches delivered during 2016 and 2017 graduation ceremonies in American universities has been used to analyse how commencement speakers, as a rule highly successful individuals, construct their identities through discourse. Besides celebrating academic achievements, one of the communicative purposes of the commencement speech is giving the graduates advice for the future. It has been investigated how the speakers legitimize their qualifications (...) as a role model and the source of life wisdom. Due to the specificity of the discourse to be investigated, based on the foundations of American ethos of hard work and drive for success, Critical Discourse Analysis has been chosen as a methodological approach which can most adequately help analyze the discursive formation of identity. As the discourse to be analyzed is agentive discourse, culture-specific both in its form and content, I have decided to combine Critical Discourse Analysis with cultural studies. (shrink)
This essay examines the work of Ewa Lipska, who, since the publication of her first book in 1967, has been among the most acclaimed of recent Polish poets but less well known in the West than Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska, or Adam Zagajewski. She is a philosophical poet, making frequent reference to the tradition of the Frankfurt School, in order to ironize the Enlightenment, Marxism, and Critical Theory, but also in order to assess the dangers of globalization. The focus of (...) the analysis is Lipska’s volume 1999, the linchpin of a poetic project that engages centuries of social systems (political, economic, scientific, technological, artistic) and their vocabularies in order to examine the viability of human knowledge and the motivations underlying its creation. (shrink)
In this chapter the life, education, scientific path, and research of Ewa Orłowska are presented. Information on her service for the logic community, in particular on activities in scientific organisations, councils, and committees, on membership of editorial boards, and on participation in national and international projects is also mentioned.
The chapter is a transcription of editors’ discussion with Ewa Orłowska. It reveals some extracurricular flavors of Ewa Orłowska’s biography, brings to light a difficult historical context of her academic career and life, and shows how much internal fortitude she demonstrated while overcoming these difficulties.
Author: Starzyńska-Kościuszko Ewa Title: BRONISŁAW F. TRENTOWSKI – “POLISH HEGEL”, “POLISH SCHELLING” OR “POLISH KRAUSE” (Bronisław F. Trentowski – „polski Hegel”, „polski Schelling”, „polski Krause”) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2005, vol:.5, number: 2005/1, pages: 125-138 Keywords: TRENTOWSKI, HEGEL, SCHELING, KRAUSE Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:In this article author wanted to answer a question: Is Trentowski an original thinker or Polish imitator of Hegel’s, Schelling’s and Krause’s philosophy? Referring to existing settlements (...) and analyses, author finds that Trentowski was the original thinker. He criticized and carried on a controversy with Hegel, Schelling and Krause. What is more, Trentowski always modified their ideas in a very creative way. (shrink)
Author: Bogusz-Bołtuć Ewa Title: WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ’S DISJUNCTIVE DEFINITION OF ART. IN ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY OF ART (Władysława Tatarkiewicza alternatywna definicja sztuki a analityczna filozofia sztuki) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.13/14, number: 2011/2-3, pages: 591-600 Keywords: WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ, ALTERNATIVE DEFINITION OF ART, DISJUNCTIVE DEFINITION OF ART, BERYS GAUT Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:As a historian of ideas, Władysław Tatarkiewicz sought to introduce order to the meanders of philosophical debates of the past, (...) but as a philosopher, he tried to determine what a given thing is. In this essay I will attempt to show that the voice of Tatarkiewicz was significant for the philosophical debate about ‘what art is?’. In the fifties of the twentieth century, Morris Weitz concluded that defining art through describing the necessary and sufficient conditions for something to be a work of art, is unfounded. His thesis not only began the anti-essentialist trend in analytic aesthetics, but also prompted attempts to define art by drawing attention to its relational properties. In the disjunctive definition of art, which he formulated in the late 1960s, Władysław Tatarkiewicz opened a new option, where to get something regarded as a work; it is enough to set certain minimal sufficient conditions. What’s more, this way of defining art seems to be one of the more promising projects. The latest version of the disjunctive definition of art, the cluster definition of art by Berys Gaut, is also part of a trend set by the Tatarkiewicz’s definition. (shrink)
Popyt na zawody i kompetencje na podlaskim rynku pracy a potrzeby pracodawców w zakresie kształcenia ustawicznego pracowników w wieku 45 lat i więcej Katarzyna Baczyńska-Koc, Magdalena Borys, Andrzej Klimczuk, Iwona Pietrzak, Bogusław Plawgo, Katarzyna Radziewicz, Ewa Rollnik-Sadowska, Cecylia Sadowska-Snarska & Justyna Żynel-Etel .