Results for 'Expansion-contraction axioms'

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  1. Rational Choice on Non-Finite Sets by Means of Expansion-Contraction Axioms.M. Carmen Sánchez - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (1):1-17.
    The rationalization of a choice function, in terms of assumptions that involve expansion or contraction properties of the feasible set, over non-finite sets is analyzed. Schwartz's results, stated in the finite case, are extended to this more general framework. Moreover, a characterization result when continuity conditions are imposed on the choice function, as well as on the binary relation that rationalizes it, is presented.
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  2. Volume 45, No. 1–August 1998 MC Sánchez/Rational Choice on Non-Finite Sets by Means of Expansion-Contraction Axioms 1–17 L. Sapir/The Optimality of the Expert and Majority Rules Under Exponentially Distributed Competence 19–35. [REVIEW]P. D. Thistle & Economic Performance Social Structure - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (2):303-304.
     
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  3.  41
    Semi-Contraction: Axioms and Construction.Eduardo Fermé & Ricardo Rodriguez - 1998 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 39 (3):332-345.
    Semi-contraction is a withdrawal operation defined by Fermé in "On the logic of theory change: Contraction without recovery." In this paper we propose: (1) an axiomatic characterization of semi-contraction; (2) an alternative construction for semi-contraction based on semi-saturatable sets, inspired by Levi's saturatable sets; (3) a special kind of semi-contraction that satisfies the Lindström and Rabinowicz interpolation thesis.
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  4.  81
    Expansion and Contraction of Finite States.Allard Tamminga - 2004 - Studia Logica 76 (3):427-442.
    We present a theory that copes with the dynamics of inconsistent information. A method is set forth to represent possibly inconsistent information by a finite state. Next, finite operations for expansion and contraction of finite states are given. No extra-logical element — a choice function or an ordering over (sets of) sentences — is presupposed in the definition of contraction. Moreover, expansion and contraction are each other's duals. AGM-style characterizations of these operations follow.
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  5.  39
    Mild Contraction: Evaluating Loss of Information Due to Loss of Belief.Isaac Levi - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Isaac Levi's new book develops further his pioneering work in formal epistemology, focusing on the problem of belief contraction, or how rationally to relinquish old beliefs. Levi offers the most penetrating analysis to date of this key question in epistemology, offering a completely new solution and explaining its relation to his earlier proposals. He mounts an argument in favor of the thesis that contracting a state of belief by giving up specific beliefs is to be evaluated in terms of (...)
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  6. Contraction: On the Decision-Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment.Horacio Arló-Costa & Isaac Levi - 2006 - Synthese 152 (1):129 - 154.
    We present a decision-theoretically motivated notion of contraction which, we claim, encodes the principles of minimal change and entrenchment. Contraction is seen as an operation whose goal is to minimize loses of informational value. The operation is also compatible with the principle that in contracting A one should preserve the sentences better entrenched than A (when the belief set contains A). Even when the principle of minimal change and the latter motivation for entrenchment figure prominently among the basic (...)
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  7.  25
    Replacement—A Sheffer Stroke for Belief Change.Sven Ove Hansson - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (2):127-149.
    By replacement is meant an operation that replaces one sentence by another in a belief set. Replacement can be used as a kind of Sheffer stroke for belief change, since contraction, revision, and expansion can all be defined in terms of it. Replacement can also be defined either in terms of contraction or in terms of revision. Close connections are shown to hold between axioms for replacement and axioms for contraction and revision. Partial meet (...)
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  8.  25
    Lambek Calculus with Restricted Contraction and Expansion.Andreja Prijatelj - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (1):125 - 143.
    This paper deals with some strengthenings of the non-directional product-free Lambek calculus by means of additional structural rules. In fact, the rules contraction and expansion are restricted to basic types. For each of the presented systems the usual proof-theoretic notions are discussed, some new concepts especially designed for these calculi are introduced reflecting their intermediate position between the weaker and the stronger sequent-systems.
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  9.  43
    The Scientific Field During Argentina’s Latest Military Dictatorship : Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research. [REVIEW]Fabiana Bekerman - 2013 - Minerva 51 (2):253-269.
    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina’s scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research Council (CONICET, for its Spanish acronym) during that period. The intention is to show how, by reallocating funds geared to Science and Technology, CONICET was made to expand and decentralize to the (...)
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  10.  49
    Contraction and Informational Value.Isaac Levi - unknown
    According to the approach made famous by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (1985), revision is a transformation K*h of a potential belief state K by adding h yielding another potential belief state.1 This AGM revision transformation is a composition of two other transformations: contraction and expansion. K*h = [K-~h]+h. This is the expansion by adding h of the contraction K-~h of K by removing ~h.
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  11.  27
    The Origins of Length Contraction: I. The Fitzgerald-Lorentz Deformation Hypothesis.Harvey R. Brown - 2001 - American Journal of Physics 69:1044-1054.
    One of the widespread confusions concerning the history of the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment has to do with the initial explanation of this celebrated null result due independently to FitzGerald and Lorentz. In neither case was a strict, longitudinal length contraction hypothesis invoked, as is commonly supposed. Lorentz postulated, particularly in 1895, any one of a certain family of possible deformation effects for rigid bodies in motion, including purely transverse alteration, and expansion as well as contraction; FitzGerald may (...)
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  12.  17
    What We Choose, What We Prefer.Brian Kogelmann - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):3221-3240.
    This paper develops an account of what it is that rational agents choose and what it is that rational agents prefer. There are three desiderata to satisfy when offering such an account. First, the account should maintain canonical axioms of rational choice theory as intuitively plausible. Here I focus on contraction and expansion consistency properties. Second, the account should prevent canonical axioms of rational choice theory from becoming trivial—it should be possible to actually violate these (...), less rational choice theory becomes useless for many purposes. Third, the account should allow rational choice theory to be put to several different philosophical projects. I show that existing accounts of what we choose and prefer fail along at least one of these metrics. The account I develop does not fail across any of these metrics. (shrink)
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  13.  65
    Cut Elimination in the Presence of Axioms.Sara Negri & Jan Von Plato - 1998 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (4):418-435.
    A way is found to add axioms to sequent calculi that maintains the eliminability of cut, through the representation of axioms as rules of inference of a suitable form. By this method, the structural analysis of proofs is extended from pure logic to free-variable theories, covering all classical theories, and a wide class of constructive theories. All results are proved for systems in which also the rules of weakening and contraction can be eliminated. Applications include a system (...)
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  14.  4
    Admissibility of Structural Rules for Extensions of Contraction-Free Sequent Calculi.R. Dyckhoff & S. Negri - 2001 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 9 (4):541-548.
    The contraction-free sequent calculus G4 for intuitionistic logic is extended by rules following a general rule-scheme for nonlogical axioms. Admissibility of structural rules for these extensions is proved in a direct way by induction on derivations. This method permits the representation of various applied logics as complete, contraction- and cut-free sequent calculus systems with some restrictions on the nature of the derivations. As specific examples, intuitionistic theories of apartness and order are treated.
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  15.  47
    New Foundations for a Relational Theory of Theory-Revision.Neil Tennant - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (5):489-528.
    AGM-theory, named after its founders Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson, is the leading contemporary paradigm in the theory of belief-revision. The theory is reformulated here so as to deal with the central relational notions 'J is a contraction of K with respect to A' and 'J is a revision of K with respect to A'. The new theory is based on a principal-case analysis of the domains of definition of the three main kinds of theory-change (expansion, (...)
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  16.  30
    Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Wayne Wobcke - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based (...)
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  17.  28
    Descriptor Revision.Sven Ove Hansson - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (5):955-980.
    A descriptor is a set of sentences that are truth-functional combinations of expressions of the form \ , where \ is a metalinguistic belief predicate and p a sentence in the object language in which beliefs are expressed. Descriptor revision ) is an operation of belief change that takes us from a belief set K to a new belief set \ where \ is a descriptor representing the success condition. Previously studied operations of belief change are special cases of descriptor (...)
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  18.  13
    Logical Problems with Nonmonotonicity.Piotr Łukowski - 2014 - Logic and Logical Philosophy (2):171-188.
    A few years ago, believing that human thinking is nonmonotonic, I tried to reconstruct a nonmonotonic reasoning by application of two monotonic procedures. I called them “step forward” and “step backward” . The first procedure is just a consequence operation responsible for an extension of the set of beliefs. The second one, defined on the base of the logic of falsehood reconstructed for the given logic of truthfulness, is responsible for a reduction of the set of beliefs. Both procedures taken (...)
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  19. AGM-Like Paraconsistent Belief Change.Rafael R. Testa, Marcelo E. Coniglio & Marcio M. Ribeiro - 2017 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 25 (4):632-672.
    Two systems of belief change based on paraconsistent logics are introduced in this article by means of AGM-like postulates. The first one, AGMp, is defined over any paraconsistent logic which extends classical logic such that the law of excluded middle holds w.r.t. the paraconsistent negation. The second one, AGMo , is specifically designed for paraconsistent logics known as Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs), which have a formal consistency operator that allows to recover all the classical inferences. Besides the three usual (...)
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  20. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory.J. Nicolas Kaufmann - 1998 - Principia: Revista Internacional de Epistemologia 2 (1):3-21.
    Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, (...)
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  21.  20
    Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory.J. Nicolas Kaufmann - 1998 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 2 (1):3-20.
    Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, (...)
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  22. Parthood.Theodore Sider - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (1):51-91.
    There will be a few themes. One to get us going: expansion versus contraction. About an object, o, and the region, R, of space(time) in which o is exactly located,1 we may ask: i) must there exist expansions of o: objects in filled superregions2 of R? ii) must there exist contractions of o: objects in filled subregions of..
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  23.  84
    Meaningfulness and Order-Invariance: Two Fundamental Principles for Scientific Laws.Jean-Claude Falmagne - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1341-1384.
    The first invariance principle, called “meaningfulness,” is germane to the common practice requiring that the form of a scientific law must not be altered by a change of the units of the measurement scales. By itself, meaningfulness does not put any constraint on the possible data. The second principle requires that the output variable is “order-invariant” with respect to any transformation (of one of the input variables) belonging to a particular family or class of such transformations which are characteristic of (...)
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  24. Paths to Triviality.Tore Øgaard - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (3):237-276.
    This paper presents a range of new triviality proofs pertaining to naïve truth theory formulated in paraconsistent relevant logics. It is shown that excluded middle together with various permutation principles such as A → (B → C)⊩B → (A → C) trivialize naïve truth theory. The paper also provides some new triviality proofs which utilize the axioms ((A → B)∧ (B → C)) → (A → C) and (A → ¬A) → ¬A, the fusion connective and the Ackermann constant. (...)
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  25. Ordinal Conditional Functions. A Dynamic Theory of Epistemic States.Wolfgang Spohn - 1988 - In W. L. Harper & B. Skyrms (eds.), Causation in Decision, Belief Change, and Statistics, vol. II. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    It is natural and important to have a formal representation of plain belief, according to which propositions are held true, or held false, or neither. (In the paper this is called a deterministic representation of epistemic states). And it is of great philosophical importance to have a dynamic account of plain belief. AGM belief revision theory seems to provide such an account, but it founders at the problem of iterated belief revision, since it can generally account only for one step (...)
     
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  26.  18
    Shifting Priorities: Simple Representations for Twenty-Seven Iterated Theory Change Operators.Hans Rott - 2006 - In David Makinson, Jacek Malinowski & Heinrich Wansing (eds.), Towards Mathematical Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 269–296.
    Prioritized bases, i.e., weakly ordered sets of sentences, have been used for specifying an agent’s ‘basic’ or ‘explicit’ beliefs, or alternatively for compactly encoding an agent’s belief state without the claim that the elements of a base are in any sense basic. This paper focuses on the second interpretation and shows how a shifting of priorities in prioritized bases can be used for a simple, constructive and intuitive way of representing a large variety of methods for the change of belief (...)
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  27.  24
    Deep Sequent Systems for Modal Logic.Kai Brünnler - 2009 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 48 (6):551-577.
    We see a systematic set of cut-free axiomatisations for all the basic normal modal logics formed by some combination the axioms d, t, b, 4, 5. They employ a form of deep inference but otherwise stay very close to Gentzen’s sequent calculus, in particular they enjoy a subformula property in the literal sense. No semantic notions are used inside the proof systems, in particular there is no use of labels. All their rules are invertible and the rules cut, weakening (...)
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  28.  25
    Adding Involution to Residuated Structures.Nikolaos Galatos & James G. Raftery - 2004 - Studia Logica 77 (2):181 - 207.
    Two constructions for adding an involution operator to residuated ordered monoids are investigated. One preserves integrality and the mingle axiom x 2x but fails to preserve the contraction property xx 2. The other has the opposite preservation properties. Both constructions preserve commutativity as well as existent nonempty meets and joins and self-dual order properties. Used in conjunction with either construction, a result of R.T. Brady can be seen to show that the equational theory of commutative distributive residuated lattices (without (...)
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  29.  33
    The Value of Truth and the Value of Information : On Isaac Levi's Epistemology.Hans Rott - 2006 - In Erik J. Olsson (ed.), Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on the Pragmatism of Isaac Levi. Cambridge University Press. pp. 179.
    The paper aims at a perspicuous representation of Isaac Levi's pragmatist epistemology, spanning from the 1967 classic "Gambling with Truth" to his 2004 book on "Mild Contraction". Based on a formal framework for Levi's notion of inquiry, I analyse his decision-theoretic approach with truth and information as basic cognitive values, and with Shackle measures as emerging structures. Both cognitive values figure prominently in Levi's model of inductive belief expansion, but only the value of information is employed in his (...)
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  30. The Nature of Possibility.D. M. Armstrong - 1986 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16 (4):575 - 594.
    I want to defend a Combinatorialtheory of possibility. Such a view traces the very idea of possibility to the idea of the combinations – all the combinations which respect a certain simple form – of given, actual, elements. Combination is to be understood widely enough to cover the notions of expansion and contraction. The combinatorial idea is not new, of course. Wittgenstein gave a classical exposition of it in the Tractatus. Perhaps its charter is 3.4: ‘A proposition determines (...)
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  31.  84
    Twist-Valued Models for Three-Valued Paraconsistent Set Theory.Walter Carnielli & Marcelo E. Coniglio - manuscript
    Boolean-valued models of set theory were independently introduced by Scott, Solovay and Vopěnka in 1965, offering a natural and rich alternative for describing forcing. The original method was adapted by Takeuti, Titani, Kozawa and Ozawa to lattice-valued models of set theory. After this, Löwe and Tarafder proposed a class of algebras based on a certain kind of implication which satisfy several axioms of ZF. From this class, they found a specific 3-valued model called PS3 which satisfies all the (...) of ZF, and can be expanded with a paraconsistent negation *, thus obtaining a paraconsistent model of ZF. The logic (PS3 ,*) coincides (up to language) with da Costa and D'Ottaviano logic J3, a 3-valued paraconsistent logic that have been proposed independently in the literature by several authors and with different motivations such as CluNs, LFI1 and MPT. We propose in this paper a family of algebraic models of ZFC based on LPT0, another linguistic variant of J3 introduced by us in 2016. The semantics of LPT0, as well as of its first-order version QLPT0, is given by twist structures defined over Boolean agebras. From this, it is possible to adapt the standard Boolean-valued models of (classical) ZFC to twist-valued models of an expansion of ZFC by adding a paraconsistent negation. We argue that the implication operator of LPT0 is more suitable for a paraconsistent set theory than the implication of PS3, since it allows for genuinely inconsistent sets w such that [(w = w)] = 1/2 . This implication is not a 'reasonable implication' as defined by Löwe and Tarafder. This suggests that 'reasonable implication algebras' are just one way to define a paraconsistent set theory. Our twist-valued models are adapted to provide a class of twist-valued models for (PS3,*), thus generalizing Löwe and Tarafder result. It is shown that they are in fact models of ZFC (not only of ZF). (shrink)
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  32. Death and Transfiguration: Kant, Schopenhauer and Heidegger on the Sublime.Julian Young - 2005 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 48 (2):131 – 144.
    The feeling of the sublime is, says Kant, the bitter-sweet combination of fear and utter security that one experiences in the face of, for instance, the night sky or the raging torrent. Fear of what? Fear of - this, I suggest, was Kant's seminal insight - death. But how can these feelings co-exist? Surely the one cancels the other out? Schopenhauer's great insight, I argue, was that the explanation of the sublime requires a division of the personality into two - (...)
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  33.  35
    Proof-Theoretical Analysis of Order Relations.Sara Negri, Jan von Plato & Thierry Coquand - 2004 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (3):297-309.
    A proof-theoretical analysis of elementary theories of order relations is effected through the formulation of order axioms as mathematical rules added to contraction-free sequent calculus. Among the results obtained are proof-theoretical formulations of conservativity theorems corresponding to Szpilrajn’s theorem on the extension of a partial order into a linear one. Decidability of the theories of partial and linear order for quantifier-free sequents is shown by giving terminating methods of proof-search.
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  34.  49
    Iterated Belief Change and the Recovery Axiom.Samir Chopra, Aditya Ghose, Thomas Meyer & Ka-Shu Wong - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (5):501-520.
    The axiom of recovery, while capturing a central intuition regarding belief change, has been the source of much controversy. We argue briefly against putative counterexamples to the axiom—while agreeing that some of their insight deserves to be preserved—and present additional recovery-like axioms in a framework that uses epistemic states, which encode preferences, as the object of revisions. This makes iterated revision possible and renders explicit the connection between iterated belief change and the axiom of recovery. We provide a representation (...)
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  35.  43
    Capacity Updating Rules and Rational Belief Change.Matthew J. Ryan - 2001 - Theory and Decision 51 (1):73-87.
    Choquet expected utility substitutes capacities for subjective probabilities to explain uncertainty aversion and related phenomena. This paper studies capacities as models of belief. The notions of inner and outer acceptance context are defined. These are shown to be the natural acceptance contexts when belief expansion is described by naïve Bayesian and Dempster–Shafer updating of capacities respectively. We also show that Eichberger and Kelsey's use of Dempster–Shafer updating as a model of belief revision may lead to violations of the AGM (...)
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  36.  47
    Depth as an Extra Spatial Dimension and its Implications for Cosmology and Gravity Theory.A. Alyushin - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (4):469-507.
    Abstract I develop the idea that there exists a special dimension of depth, or of scale. The depth dimension is physically real and extends from the bottom micro-level to the ultimate macro-level of the Universe. The depth dimension, or the scales axis, complements the standard three spatial dimensions. I discuss the tentative qualities of the depth dimension and the universal arrangement of matter along this dimension. I suggest that all matter in the Universe, at least in the present cosmological epoch, (...)
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  37.  23
    Classroom Video Data and the Time-Image: An-Archiving the Student Body.Elizabeth de Freitas - 2015 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 9 (3):318-336.
    Video data has now become the most common form of data for educational researchers studying classroom interaction and school culture. Software protocols for analysing vast archives of video data are deployed regularly, allowing researchers to annotate, code and sort images. These protocols are often applied by researchers without reflection or reference to the extensive philosophical work in film and media studies. Without exception, this research treats the video image as movement-image or picture, a recording of ‘raw data’, indexical of a (...)
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  38.  36
    Contracting From Epistemic Hell is Routine.Isaac Levi - 2003 - Synthese 135 (1):141-164.
    I respond to Erik Olsson's critique of my account of contraction from inconsistent belief states, by admitting that such contraction cannot be rationalized as a deliberate decision problem. It can, however, be rationalized as a routine designed prior to inadvertent expansion into inconsistency when the deliberating agent embraces a consistent point of view.
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  39.  22
    Extensive Questions.Emmanuel Genot - 2009 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5378:131--145.
    Olsson and his collaborators have proposed an extension of Belief Revision Theory where an epistemic state is modeled as a triple S=⟨K_,E,A_⟩ , where A_ is a research agenda, i.e. a set of research questions. Contraction and expansion apply to states, and affect the agenda. We propose an alternative characterization of the problem of agenda updating, where research questions are viewed as blueprints for research strategies. We offer a unified solution to this problem, and prove it equivalent to (...)
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  40.  17
    Entities on a Temporal Scale.Christopher M. Murray & Brian I. Crother - 2016 - Acta Biotheoretica 64 (1):1-10.
    Ontological understanding of biological units is crucial to their use in experimental design, analysis, and interpretation. Conceptualizing fundamental units in biology as individuals or classes is important for subsequent development of discovery operations. While the criteria for diagnosing individuals are acknowledged, temporal boundedness is often misinterpreted and temporal minima are applied to units in question. This results in misdiagnosis or abandonment of ontological interpretation altogether. Biological units such as areas of endemism in biogeography and species in evolutionary biology fall victim (...)
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  41.  34
    On Tait on Kant and Finitism.W. Sieg - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (5/6):274-285.
    In his “Kant and Finitism” Tait attempts to connect his analysis of finitist arithmetic with Kant’s perspective on arithmetic. The examination of this attempt is the basis for a distinctive view on the dramatic methodological shift from Kant to Dedekind and Hilbert. Dedekind’s 1888 essay “Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen?” gives a logical analysis of arithmetic, whereas Hilbert’s 1899 book “Grundlagen der Geometrie” presents such an analysis of geometry or, as Hilbert puts it, of our spatial intuition. This (...)
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  42.  11
    Google Embryo for Building Quantitative Understanding of an Embryo As It Builds Itself. II. Progress Toward an Embryo Surface Microscope.Richard Gordon - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (4):396-412.
    Embryos start out as tiny globes, on which many important events occur, including cell divisions, shape changes and changes of neighbors, waves of contraction and expansion, motion of cell sheets, extension of filopodia, shearing of cell connections, and differentiation and morphogenesis of tissues such as skin and brain. I propose to build a robotic microscope that would enable a new way to look at embryos: Google Embryo. This is akin to sending a space probe to Jupiter and its (...)
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  43. Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics: The Theory–Experiment Connection.Paul Benioff - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1825-1856.
    The problem of how mathematics and physics are related at a foundational level is of interest. The approach taken here is to work towards a coherent theory of physics and mathematics together by examining the theory experiment connection. The role of an implied theory hierarchy and use of computers in comparing theory and experiment is described. The main idea of the paper is to tighten the theory experiment connection by bringing physical theories, as mathematical structures over C, the complex numbers, (...)
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  44.  26
    Rationality and Value: The Epistemological Role of Indeterminate and Agent-Dependent Values.Horacio Arló Costa - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (1):7-48.
    An important trend in contemporary epistemology centers on elaborating an old idea of pragmatist pedigree: theory selection (and in general the process of changing view and fixing beliefs) presupposes epistemic values. This article focuses on analyzing the case where epistemic values are indeterminate or when the sources of valuation are multiple (epistemic values like coherence and simplicity need not order options in compatible ways). According to the theory that thus arises epistemic alternatives need not be fully ordered by an underlying (...)
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  45. Interrogative Belief Revision in Modal Logic.Sebastian Enqvist - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):527-548.
    The well known AGM framework for belief revision has recently been extended to include a model of the research agenda of the agent, i.e. a set of questions to which the agent wishes to find answers (Olsson & Westlund in Erkenntnis , 65 , 165–183, 2006 ). The resulting model has later come to be called interrogative belief revision . While belief revision has been studied extensively from the point of view of modal logic, so far interrogative belief revision has (...)
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  46.  63
    Scientific Discovery Based on Belief Revision.Eric Martin & Daniel Osherson - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1352-1370.
    Scientific inquiry is represented as a process of rational hypothesis revision in the face of data. For the concept of rationality, we rely on the theory of belief dynamics as developed in [5, 9]. Among other things, it is shown that if belief states are left unclosed under deductive logic then scientific theories can be expanded in a uniform, consistent fashion that allows inquiry to proceed by any method of hypothesis revision based on "kernel" contraction. In contrast, if belief (...)
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  47.  12
    Belief Sets and Commitment Stores.Roderic A. Girle - unknown
    In this paper we compare central elements of Dialogue Logic and Belief Revision theory. Dialogue Logic of the Hamblin/Mackenzie style, or Formal Dialectic, contains three main features. First, there is a rule governed interaction between dialogue participants—the minimal case being two participants. Second, each participant has a commitment store which changes as the dialogue progresses. Third, the changes in the commitment store are governed by rules for additions and withdrawals of material. Withdrawal of material is one major source of difficulty (...)
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  48. Ricoeur on Metaphor and Ideology.William C. Gay - unknown
    arguments concerning whether such changes are creative. [2] Less frequently addressed are questions about how to assess the perceptual implications of these linguistic innovations. [3] Using insights of Ricoeur and, to a lesser extent, M. Merleau Ponty and V. N. Volosinov, I will provide a model for evaluating a certain class of linguistic innovations, namely, new uses of language which rely upon distortion of typical perceptual associations. (Excluded from such new linguistic uses are, for example, analogical innovations, as presented by (...)
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  49.  16
    Particle Velocities Faster Than the Speed of Light.Gary R. Gruber - 1972 - Foundations of Physics 2 (1):79-82.
    In connection with another article by the author, we show how it might be possible to travel faster than the speed of light. We show that for clocks and rods moving faster than the speed of light, we get instead of “time dilation” and “Lorentz contraction,” respectively, “time contraction” and “Lorentz expansion,” respectively. It is shown that this paper is in confirmation with earlier articles dealing with this subject.
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  50.  23
    Omega‐ and Beta‐Models of Alternative Set Theory.Athanassios Tzouvaras - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (4):547-569.
    We present the axioms of Alternative Set Theory in the language of second-order arithmetic and study its ω- and β-models. These are expansions of the form , M ⊆ P, of nonstandard models M of Peano arithmetic such that ⊩ AST and ω ϵ M. Our main results are: A countable M ⊩ PA is β-expandable iff there is a regular well-ordering for M. Every countable β-model can be elementarily extended to an ω-model which is not a β-model. The (...)
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