Results for 'Expectancy Theory'

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  1.  85
    Motivating Employees to Act Ethically: An Expectancy Theory Approach. [REVIEW]Robert S. Fudge & John L. Schlacter - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (3):295 - 304.
    Employees face an array of moral issues in their everyday decision making. Environmental concerns, employee and community welfare, and the interests of other companies (competitors, customers, and suppliers) are only a few examples. Yet, businesses do not always address the issue of how employees should assess the moral import of their actions and incorporate these considerations into their decisions. As a result, moral considerations are often ignored, leading to unethical practices which may hurt the long-term interests of the company. In (...)
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  2.  59
    Scalar Expectancy Theory and Weber's Law in Animal Timing.John Gibbon - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (3):279-325.
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  3.  7
    Scalar Expectancy Theory and Choice Between Delayed Rewards.John Gibbon, Russell M. Church, Stephen Fairhurst & Alejandro Kacelnik - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (1):102-114.
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  4.  5
    Some Methodological Comments Concerning Expectancy Theory.Paul E. Meehl & Kenneth MacCorquodale - 1951 - Psychological Review 58 (3):230-233.
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  5.  5
    Preliminary Suggestions as to a Formalization of Expectancy Theory.Kenneth MacCorquodale & Paul E. Meehl - 1953 - Psychological Review 60 (1):55-63.
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  6.  8
    What is the Critical Evidence Favoring Expectancy Bias Theory, and Where is It?Andrew J. Tomarken - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):313-314.
  7.  4
    Mowrer's Revised Two-Factor Theory and the Motive-Expectancy-Value Model.N. T. Feather - 1963 - Psychological Review 70 (6):500-515.
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  8.  1
    The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness Between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach.Jian Xu - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  9.  7
    Life Expectancy and the Timing of Life History Events in Developing Countries.Kermyt G. Anderson - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (2):103-123.
    Life history theory predicts that greater extrinsic mortality will lead to earlier and higher fertility. To test this prediction, I examine the relationship between life expectancy at birth and several proxies for life history traits (ages at first sex and first marriage, total fertility rate, and ideal number of children), measured for both men and women. Data on sexual behaviors come from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Two separate samples are analyzed: a cross-sectional sample of 62 countries (...)
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  10.  36
    Toward a General Psychobiological Theory of Emotions.Jaak Panksepp - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):407-422.
  11.  39
    Behavioral Factors Affecting Students' Intentions to Enroll in Business Ethics Courses: A Comparison of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory Using Self-Identity as a Moderator.Pi-Yueh Cheng & Mei-Chin Chu - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (1):1-12.
    The current study used both Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Bandura’s social cognitive theory (SCT) to examine the intentions of business undergraduate students toward taking elective ethics courses and investigated the role of self-identity in this process. The study was prospective in design; data on predictors and intentions were obtained during the first collection of data, whereas the actual behavior was assessed 10 days later. Our results indicated that the TPB was a better predictor of behavioral (...)
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  12.  9
    Motivators of Mobilization: Influences of Inequity, Expectancy, and Resource Dependence on Stakeholder Propensity to Take Action Against the Firm.Sefa Hayibor & Colleen Collins - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (2):351-374.
    Although the possibility that a firm’s stakeholders may take damaging measures against it in response to its activities has been an underlying assumption of stakeholder theory from inception, the conditions that predispose stakeholders to act against firms remain largely unexplored in the literature. Based on work in equity theory, expectancy theory, and resource dependence theory, we present and test hypotheses concerning stakeholders’ propensities to impose sanctions upon—or to support—firms. Using a vignette-based experiment, we found strong (...)
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  13.  39
    Studies in Spatial Learning. I. Orientation and the Short-Cut.E. C. Tolman, B. F. Ritchie & D. Kalish - 1946 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (1):13.
  14.  6
    Psychological Refractory Phase and the Functional Significance of Signals.Raymond S. Nickerson - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):303.
  15.  21
    The Role of Moral Judgments Within Expectancy-Value-Based Attitude-Behavior Models.Richard Shepherd & Paul Sparks - 2002 - Ethics and Behavior 12 (4):299-321.
    Rational choice models are characterized by the image of the self-interested Homo economicus. The role of moral concerns, which may involve a concern for others' welfare in people's judgments and choices, questions the descriptive validity of such models. Increasing evidence of a role for perceived moral obligation within the expectancy-value-based theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior indicates the importance of moral-normative influences in social behavior. In 2 studies, the influence of moral judgments on (...)
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  16. Expectancy and Rational Action Prior to Personal Fission.Paul Tappenden - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (2):299-306.
    According to Sider’s stage theory a subject about to undergo personal fission should expect to experience each outcome simultaneously as distinct persons. How is the subject to make sense of this ? I argue that their most paradigmatically self-interested future-directed behaviour, betting for personal gain, ought to be exactly the same as in equivalent games of chance where the possible outcomes correspond to the fission output branches. So this novel form of expectancy, albeit strange, can be a reliable (...)
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  17.  12
    Examining the Relationship Between Life Expectancy, Reproduction, and Educational Attainment.Nicola L. Bulled & Richard Sosis - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (3):269-289.
    Life history theory aims to explain the relationship between life events, recognizing that the fertility and growth schedules of organisms are dependent on environmental conditions and an organism’s ability to extract resources from its environment. Using models from life history theory, we predict life expectancy to be positively correlated with educational investments and negatively correlated with adolescent reproduction and total fertility rates. Analyses of UN data from 193 countries support these predictions and demonstrate that, although variation is (...)
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  18.  53
    The Distribution of Life-Saving Medical Resources: Equality, Life Expectancy, and Choice Behind the Veil.Mark S. Stein - 2002 - Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):212-245.
    In this essay, I survey egalitarian and utilitarian approaches to the distribution of scarce life-saving medical resources. In my view, the major criterion for the distribution of scarce life-saving medical resources should be life expectancy: we should distribute life so as to maximize life-years. In Section II, I discuss the life-year maximization approach and situate it within utilitarian theory.
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  19.  5
    Intending and Acting: Toward a Naturalized Action Theory[REVIEW]J. L. A. Garcia - 1987 - Review of Metaphysics 41 (2):375-376.
    Myles Brand's rather audacious goal in his new book is nothing less than "to usher in the next... stage of philosophical action theory," which stage he understands as its "naturalization". Hence the subtitle. Naturalization will consist, he explains, in showing that action theory is "continuous with scientific theory", especially with cognitive science and motivational psychology. One familiar with Stich's view that one moves from "folk psychology" to cognitive science by eliminating such mentalistic concepts as belief might think (...)
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  20.  16
    Engineering Life Expectancy and Non-Identity Cases.Tatjana Višak - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):281-293.
    In his paper “Eating Animals the Nice Way” McMahan : 66–76, 2008) explores whether there are ways of routinely using non-human animals for human consumption that are morally acceptable. He dismisses a practice of benign animal husbandry, in which animals are killed prematurely and believes that a practice in which animals were engineered to drop down dead instantaneously at the same age would be equally wrong, even though it would not involve killing. Yet, McMahan considers his intuition that both practices (...)
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  21. Rāgabodha: A Śābdabodha-Based Framework for a Theory of Rāga.Vidya Jayaraman & Lakshmi Sreeram - 2019 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 36 (3):417-429.
    In Indian knowledge traditions, Vyākaraṇa describes the rules for the formation and use of correct words. The Vākya is postulated as the primary unit of communication. “śābdabodha” deals with the cognition of sentential meaning. Similarly, in Indian music, every rāga has a lexicon and grammar : a rāga only allows some notes and not others, and it has rules for constructing phrases—notes to be highlighted, notes to end phrases on, ornamentation, etc. These phrases of the rāga are comparable to “vākya” (...)
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  22.  19
    The Role of Future Unpredictability in Human Risk-Taking.Elizabeth M. Hill, Lisa Thomson Ross & Bobbi S. Low - 1997 - Human Nature 8 (4):287-325.
  23.  27
    A Parsimonious Model of Subjective Life Expectancy.A. Ludwig & A. Zimper - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (4):519-541.
    On average, “young” people underestimate whereas “old” people overestimate their chances to survive into the future. Such subjective survival beliefs violate the rational expectations paradigm and are also not in line with models of rational Bayesian learning. In order to explain these empirical patterns in a parsimonious manner, we assume that self-reported beliefs express likelihood insensitivity and can, therefore, be modeled as non-additive beliefs. In a next step we introduce a closed form model of Bayesian learning for non-additive beliefs which (...)
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  24.  8
    Extrinsic Risk.Dawn B. Neill - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (2):99-102.
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  25.  97
    Expectancy and Rational Action Prior to Personal Fission.Paul Tappenden - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (2):299 - 306.
    Some analyses of personal fission suggest that an informed subject should expect to have a distinct experience of each outcome simultaneously. Is rational provision for the future possible in such unfamiliar circumstances? I argue that, with some qualification, the subject can reasonably act as if faced with alternative possible outcomes with precise probabilities rather than multiple actual outcomes.
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  26.  38
    Integrating the Automatic and the Controlled: Strategies in Semantic Priming in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics.Itamar Lerner, Shlomo Bentin & Oren Shriki - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1562-1603.
    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming the rate of semantic (...)
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  27. Emotional Responses to Music: The Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms.Patrik N. Juslin & Daniel Västfjäll - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):559-575.
    Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the mechanism for emotion induction, a (...)
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  28. Musical Expectancy and Thrills.David Huron & Margulis & Elisabeth Hellmuth - 2011 - In Patrik N. Juslin & John Sloboda (eds.), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford University Press.
     
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  29. Implications of Placebo Theory for Clinical Research and Practice in Pain Management.Connie Peck & Grahame Coleman - 1991 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (3).
    We review three possible theoretical mechanisms for the placebo effect: conditioning, expectancy and endogenous opiates and consider the implications of the first two for clinical research and practice in the area of pain management. Methodological issues in the use of placebos as controls are discussed and include subtractive versus additive expectancy effects, no treatment controls, active placebo controls, the balanced placebo design, between- versus within-group designs, triple blind methodology and the double expectancy design. Therapeutically, the possibility of (...)
     
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  30.  9
    Ist Vertrauen eine rationale Erwartung?Bernd Lahno - 2000 - In Julian Nida-Rümelin (ed.), Rationalität, Realismus, Revision. Vorträge des 3. internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für analytische Philosophie vom 15. bis zum 18. September 1997 in München. de Gruyter. pp. 308-316.
    Within the rational choice approach trust is usually analysed as a problem of choice under uncertainty. In a standard social situation in which trust plays a role a trustor A has to choose between trusting or mistrusting a trustee B. If he chooses to trust, B can either honour the trust given which will be of some advantage to both or exploit it no matter what the consequences for A are. A can in general protect himself against being exploited by (...)
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  31.  6
    Why Gametes Are Not Like Enriched Uranium.Andrew Botterell - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):741-750.
    According to Rivka Weinberg, gametes are like enriched uranium: both are hazardous materials. Exposing human beings to enriched uranium can result in radioactivity and decreased life expectancy, while exposing sperm and ova to each other can result in the creation of needy innocent persons with full moral status. Weinberg argues that when we engage in activities that put our gametes at risk of joining with others and growing into persons, we assume the costs of that risky activity. She calls (...)
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  32.  3
    Ambiguous Life Expectancy and the Demand for Annuities.Hippolyte D’Albis & Emmanuel Thibault - 2018 - Theory and Decision 85 (3-4):303-319.
    In this paper, ambiguity aversion to uncertain survival probabilities is introduced in a static life-cycle model with a bequest motive to study the optimal demand for annuities. Provided that annuities’ return is sufficiently large, and notably when it is fair, positive annuitization is known to be the optimal strategy of ambiguity neutral individuals. Conversely, we show that the demand for annuities decreases with ambiguity aversion and that there exists a finite degree of aversion above which the demand is non-positive: the (...)
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  33. The Opacity of Mind: An Integrative Theory of Self-Knowledge.Peter Carruthers - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Do we have introspective access to our own thoughts? Peter Carruthers challenges the consensus that we do: he argues that access to our own thoughts is always interpretive, grounded in perceptual awareness and sensory imagery. He proposes a bold new theory of self-knowledge, with radical implications for understanding of consciousness and agency.
     
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  34.  62
    Modeling the Relationship Among Perceived Corporate Citizenship, Firms' Attractiveness, and Career Success Expectation.Chieh-Peng Lin, Yuan-Hui Tsai, Sheng-Wuu Joe & Chou-Kang Chiu - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):83-93.
    Drawing on propositions from the signaling theory and expectancy theory, this study hypothesizes that the perceived corporate citizenship of job seekers positively affects a firm’s attractiveness and career success expectation. This study’s proposed research hypotheses are empirically tested using a survey of graduating MBA students seeking a job. The empirical findings show that a firm’s corporate citizenship provides a competitive advantage in attracting job seekers and fostering optimistic career success expectation. Such findings substantially complement the growing literature (...)
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  35.  24
    Modeling Corporate Social Performance and Job Pursuit Intention: Mediating Mechanisms of Corporate Reputation and Job Advancement Prospects. [REVIEW]Rong-Tsu Wang - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):569-582.
    An important issue for successful recruitment is to increase the pursuit intention of job seekers. This study discusses such issue by proposing a research model based on the signaling theory and the expectancy theory. In the model, this study hypothesizes that the perceived corporate social performance of job seekers positively affects their job pursuit intention and recommendation intention indirectly via the mediation of corporate reputation and job advancement prospects. The proposed hypotheses of this research are empirically tested (...)
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  36.  77
    Ethical Decision-Making in Business: Behavioral Issues and Concerns. [REVIEW]Stephen B. Knouse & Robert A. Giacalone - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (5-6):369 - 377.
    This article examines selected behavioral aspects of ethical decision making within a business context. Three categories of antecedents to ethical decision behaviors (individual differences, interpersonal variables, and organizational variables) are examined and propositions are offered. Moral development theory and expectancy theory are then explored as possible bases for a theory of ethical decision making. Finally, means of improving ethical decision making in firms are explored.
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  37.  37
    A Phenomenology of the 'Placebo Effect': Taking Meaning From the Mind to the Body.O. Frenkel - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (1):58-79.
    Most mainstream attempts to understand the “placebo effect” invoke expectancy theory, arguing that expecting certain outcomes from a treatment or intervention can manifest those outcomes. Expectancy theory is incompatible with the phenomena of placebo responses, more appropriately named “meaning responses.” The expectancy account utilizes reflexive consciousness to connect a world of conceptual representations to mechanical physiology. An alternative account based upon Merleau-Ponty's motor intentionality argues that the body understands and is capable of responding to meanings (...)
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  38.  70
    The Moderating Effect of Impression Management on the Organizational Politics–Performance Relationship.Yei-Yi Chen & WenChang Fang - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (3):263-277.
    This study investigates the complexities in the relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and performance ratings by examining the moderating effect of impression management on that relationship. Expectancy theory was employed to better understand the moderating effect. We proposed that two kinds of impression management tactics occurred: supervisor-focused and job-focused, respectively. It was hypothesized that increased exercise of impression management would mitigate the negative effects of perceptions of organizational politics and performance ratings. Data were collected from 290 full-time (...)
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  39.  40
    The Will to Care: Performance, Expectation, and Imagination.Maurice Hamington - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):675 - 695.
    This article addresses the world's contemporary crisis of care, despite the abundance of information about distant others, by exploring motivations for caring and the rok of imagination. The ethical significance of caring is found in performance. Applying Victor Vroom's expectancy theory, caring performances are viewed as extensions of rational expectations regarding the efficacy of actions. The imagination creates these positive or negative expectations regarding the ability to effectively care. William James s notion of the will to believe offers (...)
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  40.  10
    Towards a Psychological Model of Teacher–Parent Communication in Hong Kong Primary Schools.I.-Wah Pang & David Watkins - 2000 - Educational Studies 26 (2):141-163.
    Teacher attitudes and practices are considered as essential in fostering parental involvement in school education. In Hong Kong, amongst possible types of home–school links, teacher–parent communication about children’s learning has been agreed to be the primary concern of both schools and parents. This paper reports a test of a psychological model of teacher–parent communication in Hong Kong primary schools. The model has taken into account the theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy theory, expectancy theory and theories of (...)
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  41. The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory.David Bohm - 1993 - Routledge.
    In the The Undivided Universe, David Bohn and Basil Hiley present a radically different approach to quantum theory.
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  42. Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory.Pablo Gilabert - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56.
    What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory (...)
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  43. The Doctrinal Paradox, the Discursive Dilemma, and Logical Aggregation Theory.Philippe Mongin - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):315-355.
    Judgment aggregation theory, or rather, as we conceive of it here, logical aggregation theory generalizes social choice theory by having the aggregation rule bear on judgments of all kinds instead of merely preference judgments. It derives from Kornhauser and Sager’s doctrinal paradox and List and Pettit’s discursive dilemma, two problems that we distinguish emphatically here. The current theory has developed from the discursive dilemma, rather than the doctrinal paradox, and the final objective of the paper is (...)
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  44. Gestalt Theory: An Essay in Philosophy.Barry Smith - 1988 - In Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Vienna: Philosophia Verlag. pp. 11-81.
    The Austrian philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels published his essay "On 'Gestalt Qualities'" in 1890. The essay initiated a current of thought which enjoyed a powerful position in the philosophy and psychology of the first half of this century and has more recently enjoyed a minor resurgence of interest in the area of cognitive science, above all in criticisms of the so-called 'strong programme' in artificial intelligence. The theory of Gestalt is of course associated most specifically with psychologists of the (...)
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  45. On the People's Terms: A Republican Theory and Model of Democracy.Philip Pettit - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    According to republican theory, we are free persons to the extent that we are protected and secured in the same fundamental choices, on the same public basis, as one another. But there is no public protection or security without a coercive state. Does this mean that any freedom we enjoy is a superficial good that presupposes a deeper, political form of subjection? Philip Pettit addresses this crucial question in On the People's Terms. He argues that state coercion will not (...)
  46. We Can Believe the Error Theory.Hallvard Lillehammer & Niklas Möller - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (3):453-459.
    Bart Streumer argues that it is not possible for us to believe the error theory, where by ‘error theory’ he means the claim that our normative beliefs are committed to the existence of normative properties even though such properties do not exist. In this paper, we argue that it is indeed possible to believe the error theory. First, we suggest a critical improvement to Streumer’s argument. As it stands, one crucial premise of that argument—that we cannot have (...)
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  47. Utility Theory and Ethics.Mongin Philippe & D'Aspremont Claude - 1998 - In Salvador Barbera, Paul Hammond & Christian Seidl (eds.), Handbook of Utility Theory Volume1: Principles. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 371-481.
    This chapter of the Handbook of Utility Theory aims at covering the connections between utility theory and social ethics. The chapter first discusses the philosophical interpretations of utility functions, then explains how social choice theory uses them to represent interpersonal comparisons of welfare in either utilitarian or non-utilitarian representations of social preferences. The chapter also contains an extensive account of John Harsanyi's formal reconstruction of utilitarianism and its developments in the later literature, especially when society faces uncertainty (...)
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  48. Theory of Knowledge.Keith Lehrer - 1990 - Westview Press.
    In this impressive second edition of Theory of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief, and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge,the work of Platinga, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories, contextualism, and recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes (...)
  49. Kant, the Transcendental Designation of I, and the Direct Reference Theory.Luca Forgione - 2019 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 34 (1): 31-49.
    The aim of this paper is to address the semantic issue of the nature of the representation I and of the transcendental designation, i.e., the self-referential apparatus involved in transcendental apperception. The I think, the bare or empty representation I, is the representational vehicle of the concept of transcendental subject; as such, it is a simple representation. The awareness of oneself as thinking is only expressed by the I: the intellectual representation which performs a referential function of the spontaneity of (...)
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  50. Cultural Attractor Theory and Explanation.Andrew Buskell - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (13).
    Cultural attractor theory (CAT) is a highly visible and audacious approach to studying human cultural evolution. However, the explanatory aims and some central explanatory concepts of CAT remain unclear. Here I remedy these problems. I provide a reconstruction of CAT that recasts it as a theory of forces. I then demonstrate how this reinterpretation of CAT has the resources to generate both cultural distribution and evolvability explanations. I conclude by examining the potential benefits and drawbacks of this reconstruction.
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