Search results for 'Expectations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  33
    Federica Lucivero, Tsjalling Swierstra & Marianne Boenink (2011). Assessing Expectations: Towards a Toolbox for an Ethics of Emerging Technologies. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 5 (2):129-141.
    In recent years, several authors have argued that the desirability of novel technologies should be assessed early, when they are still emerging. Such an ethical assessment of emerging technologies is by definition focused on an elusive object. Usually promises, expectations, and visions of the technology are taken as a starting point. As Nordmann and Rip have pointed out in a recent article, however, ethicists should not take for granted the plausibility of such expectations and visions. In this paper, (...)
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  2.  87
    Barbara Tillmann (2012). Music and Language Perception: Expectations, Structural Integration, and Cognitive Sequencing. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):568-584.
    Music can be described as sequences of events that are structured in pitch and time. Studying music processing provides insight into how complex event sequences are learned, perceived, and represented by the brain. Given the temporal nature of sound, expectations, structural integration, and cognitive sequencing are central in music perception (i.e., which sounds are most likely to come next and at what moment should they occur?). This paper focuses on similarities in music and language cognition research, showing that music (...)
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  3.  44
    Robert L. McArthur (2001). Reasonable Expectations of Privacy. Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):123-128.
    Use of the concept of `areasonable person and his or her expectations'is widely found in legal reasoning. This legalconstruct is employed in the present article toexamine privacy questions associated withcontemporary information technology, especiallythe internet. In particular, reasonableexpectations of privacy while browsing theworld-wide-web and while sending and receivinge-mail are analyzed.
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  4.  34
    Robert Magneson Chiles (2013). If They Come, We Will Build It: In Vitro Meat and the Discursive Struggle Over Future Agrofood Expectations. Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):511-523.
    According to recent literature in the sociology of expectations, expectations about the future are “performative” in that they provide guidance for activities, attract attention, mobilize political and economic resources, coordinate between groups, link technical and social concerns, create visions, and enroll supporters. While this framework has blossomed over the past decade in science and technology studies, it has yet to be applied towards a more refined understanding of how the future of the modern agrofood system is being actively (...)
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  5.  16
    Joseph A. Petrick & Robert F. Scherer (2005). Management Educators' Expectations for Professional Ethics Development. Journal of Business Ethics 61 (4):301 - 314.
    Professional associations, like the Academy of Management, exist to foster and promote scholarship, exchange among faculty, and an environment conducive to member professional ethics development. However, this last purpose of such organizations has received the least amount of attention. Moreover, previous research has demonstrated that there are differences in perceived needs for professional ethics development between tenured and untenured faculty. In the current research 260 Academy of Management members were surveyed. The research identified differences between tenured and untenured management faculty (...)
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  6.  51
    Govind Persad (2015). On H. M. Oliver’s “Established Expectations and American Economic Policies”. Ethics 125 (3):829-832,.
    In this retrospective for Ethics, I discuss H.M. Oliver’s “Established Expectations and American Economic Policies.” This article, by a then-modestly-famous economist, has been ignored (no citations) since its 1940 publication. Yet it bears directly on a normative problem at the intersection of ethics and economics that challenges today’s policymakers but has received comparatively little philosophical attention: how should we balance potentially desirable institutional change against the disruption of established expectations? -/- Oliver details how the principle of fulfilling established (...)
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  7.  33
    Hagen Lindstädt (2007). Valuing Others' Information Under Imperfect Expectations. Theory and Decision 62 (4):335-353.
    Sometimes we believe that others receive harmful information. However, Marschak’s value of information framework always assigns non-negative value under expected utility: it starts from the decision maker’s beliefs – and one can never anticipate information’s harmfulness for oneself. The impact of decision makers’ capabilities to process information and of their expectations remains hidden behind the individual and subjective perspective Marschak’s framework assumes. By introducing a second decision maker as a point of reference, this paper introduces a way for evaluating (...)
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  8.  9
    Marjolein de Boer, René van der Hulst & Jenny Slatman (2015). The Surprise of a Breast Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Phenomenological Study to Women’s Expectations About Reconstructive Surgery. Human Studies 38 (3):409-430.
    While having a breast reconstruction, women have certain expectations about their future breasted bodies. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze these expectations in the process of reconstruction. By applying a qualitative, phenomenological study within a longitudinal research design, this paper acknowledges the temporarily complex, contextualized, embodied, and subjective nature of the phenomenon of expectations. The analysis identified expectations regarding three different aspects of women’s embodiment: their gazed body, their capable/practical body, and their (...)
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  9.  8
    Birutė Pranevičienė & Kristina Mikalauskaitė-Šostakienė (2012). Guarantee of Principles of Legitimate Expectations, Legal Certainty and Legal Security in the Territorial Planning Process. Jurisprudence 19 (2):643-656.
    The article discusses the issue of realisation of the principles of legitimate expectations, legal certainty and legal security in the specific area of administrative activity – detailed territorial planning process. During this long and complex process, it is very important to ensure the protection of personal constitutional rights and guarantee the security of legitimate expectations, legal certainty and other essential principles. The article analyses the circumstances conditioning violation of the principles of legitimate expectations, legal security and legal (...)
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  10.  2
    Sebastián Figueroa Rubio (2015). Expectations and Attribution of Responsibility. Revus 26:111-128.
    Under the hypothesis that every attribution of responsibility rests on the fact that an expectation has been breached, the author proposes to understand expectations as standards adopted by a community to evaluate specific events and allow the members of the community to search for an explanation of the events which breach expectations. After presenting this way of understanding expectations, their relationship with responsibility is analyzed, having in mind the mentioned hypothesis. To close the paper, the relationship between (...)
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  11.  54
    Nell Adkins & Robin R. Radtke (2004). Students' and Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Importance of Business Ethics and Accounting Ethics Education: Is There an Expectations Gap? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):279-300.
    Despite a wealth of prior research, little consensus has arisen about the goals and effectiveness of business ethics education. Additionally, accounting academics have recently been questioned as to their commitment to accounting ethics education. The current study examines whether accounting students' perceptions of business ethics and the goals of accounting ethics education are fundamentally different from the perceptions of accounting faculty members. The study uses a survey instrument to elicit student and faculty responses to various questions concerning the importance of (...)
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  12.  38
    Jens Beckert (2013). Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations in the Economy. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 42 (3):219-240.
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  13.  75
    Sandra Pellanda Dieci, Laura Weise & Anne Monnier (2012). Analyse contrastée des attentes et des représentations d’étudiants en formation initiale à l’enseignement secondaire en fonction de leur engagement ou non dans un établissement scolaireComparative analysis of the students’ expectations and representations in pre-service teacher training for secondary school depending on whether they have a student teaching placement or not. Phronesis 1 (2):63-81.
    In Geneva, since the beginning of pre-service secondary teacher training at university, two different types of students in teacher preparation coexist: some of them have got part-time classes, others have no teaching assignment. In an introduction to the teaching profession, students from different disciplines of the two types take a course on the same sources of professional knowledge. By analyzing the representations of the teaching profession, we find that the process of construction of their professional identity varies according to whether (...)
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  14.  33
    André Lapied & Pascal Toquebeuf (2013). A Note on “Re-Examining the Law of Iterated Expectations for Choquet Decision Makers”. Theory and Decision 74 (3):439-445.
  15.  17
    Jasperien E. Van Doormaal, Peter G. M. Mol, Rianne J. Zaal, Patricia M. L. A. Van Den Bemt, Jos G. W. Kosterink, Karin M. Vermeulen & Flora M. Haaijer‐Ruskamp (2010). Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) System: Expectations and Experiences of Users. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):738-743.
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  16.  3
    L. G. Humphreys (1939). Acquisition and Extinction of Verbal Expectations in a Situation Analogous to Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (3):294.
  17.  4
    G. Dowswell, T. Dowswell, J. Lawler, J. Green & J. Young (2002). Patients' and Caregivers' Expectations and Experiences of a Physiotherapy Intervention 1 Year Following Stroke: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (3):361-365.
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  18.  2
    L. G. Humphreys, J. Miller & D. G. Ellson (1940). The Effect of the Inter-Trial Interval on the Acquisition, Extinction, and Recovery of Verbal Expectations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (2):195-202.
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  19. Nathaniel Sharadin (2015). How You Can Reasonably Form Expectations When You're Expecting. Res Philosophica 92 (2):1-12.
    L.A. Paul has argued that an ordinary, natural way of making a decision -- by reflecting on the phenomenal character of the experiences one will have as a result of that decision -- cannot yield rational decision in certain cases. Paul's argument turns on the (in principle) epistemically inaccessible phenomenal character of certain experiences. In this paper I argue that, even granting Paul a range of assumptions, her argument doesn't work to establish its conclusion. This is because, as I argue, (...)
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  20. Murray Webster & Joseph M. Whitmeyer (2002). Modeling Second-Order Expectations. Sociological Theory 20 (3):306-327.
    Theory-building is a continual, collective enterprise in which success is judged by logical consistency and successful explanation and prediction of specified empirical facts from a minimal set of assumptions. We describe some new attempts to develop Interactionist ideas on how communicated opinions from others can affect face-to-face interaction patterns and definitions of a social situation, including identities of the interactants. Our attempts take the form of developing theoretical models of how others' evaluative opinions are incorporated into existing performance expectations. (...)
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  21.  42
    Jenny Dawkins & Stewart Lewis (2003). CSR in Stakeholder Expectations: And Their Implication for Company Strategy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2-3):185 - 193.
    Recent years have seen dramatic changes in the attitudes and expectations brought to bear on companies. Over ten years of research at MORI has shown the increasing prominence of corporate responsibility for a wide range of stakeholders, from consumers and employees to legislators and investors.
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  22. Elin Palm (2009). Privacy Expectations at Work—What is Reasonable and Why? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (2):201-215.
    Throughout the longstanding debate on privacy, the concept has been framed in various ways. Most often it has been discussed as an area within which individuals rightfully may expect to be left alone and in terms of certain data that they should be entitled to control. The sphere in which individuals should be granted freedom from intrusion has typically been equated with the indisputably private domestic sphere. Privacy claims in the semi-public area of work have not been sufficiently investigated. In (...)
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  23.  3
    Matthew K. Wynia, Deborah Cummins, David Fleming, Kari Karsjens, Amber Orr, James Sabin, Inger Saphire-Bernstein & Renee Witlen (2004). Improving Fairness in Coverage Decisions: Performance Expectations for Quality Improvement. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):87-100.
    Patients and physicians often perceive the current health care system to be unfair, in part because of the ways in which coverage decisions appear to be made. To address this problem the Ethical Force Program, a collaborative effort to create quality improvement tools for ethics in health care, has developed five content areas specifying ethical criteria for fair health care benefits design and administration. Each content area includes concrete recommendations and measurable expectations for performance improvement, which can be used (...)
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  24.  36
    J. Sprenger & R. Heesen (2011). The Bounded Strength of Weak Expectations. Mind 120 (479):819-832.
    The rational price of the Pasadena and Altadena games, introduced by Nover and Hájek (2004 ), has been the subject of considerable discussion. Easwaran (2008 ) has suggested that weak expectations — the value to which the average payoffs converge in probability — can give the rational price of such games. We argue against the normative force of weak expectations in the standard framework. Furthermore, we propose to replace this framework by a bounded utility perspective: this shift renders (...)
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  25.  14
    Juli Murphy, Joan Scott, David Kaufman, Gail Geller, Lisa LeRoy & Kathy Hudson (2008). Public Expectations for Return of Results From Large-Cohort Genetic Research. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (11):36 – 43.
    The National Institutes of Health and other federal health agencies are considering establishing a national biobank to study the roles of genes and environment in human health. A preliminary public engagement study was conducted to assess public attitudes and concerns about the proposed biobank, including the expectations for return of individual research results. A total of 141 adults of different ages, incomes, genders, ethnicities, and races participated in 16 focus groups in six locations across the country. Focus group participants (...)
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  26.  23
    Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies, Terri J. Halleen & Martin Davies (2010). Tactile Expectations and the Perception of Self-Touch: An Investigation Using the Rubber Hand Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):505-519.
    The rubber hand paradigm is used to create the illusion of self-touch, by having the participant administer stimulation to a prosthetic hand while the Examiner, with an identical stimulus , administers stimulation to the participant’s hand. With synchronous stimulation, participants experience the compelling illusion that they are touching their own hand. In the current study, the robustness of this illusion was assessed using incongruent stimuli. The participant used the index finger of the right hand to administer stimulation to a prosthetic (...)
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  27.  20
    K. Easwaran (2014). Principal Values and Weak Expectations. Mind 123 (490):517-531.
    This paper evaluates a recent method proposed by Jeremy Gwiazda for calculating the value of gambles that fail to have expected values in the standard sense. I show that Gwiazda’s method fails to give answers for many gambles that do have standardly defined expected values. However, a slight modification of his method (based on the mathematical notion of the ‘Cauchy principal value’ of an integral), is in fact a proper extension of both his method and the method of ‘weak (...)’. I show that this method gives an appropriate value when the ‘tails’ of the gambles that are eliminated in the truncation are ‘stable’, but that the value is not appropriate when the tails are not stable. I do not attempt to give an argument for the use of this method, but just note that it is more general than Gwiazda’s method, and is mathematically quite natural. (shrink)
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  28.  4
    Arthur Paul Pedersen (2014). Comparative Expectations. Studia Logica 102 (4):811-848.
    I introduce a mathematical account of expectation based on a qualitative criterion of coherence for qualitative comparisons between gambles (or random quantities). The qualitative comparisons may be interpreted as an agent’s comparative preference judgments over options or more directly as an agent’s comparative expectation judgments over random quantities. The criterion of coherence is reminiscent of de Finetti’s quantitative criterion of coherence for betting, yet it does not impose an Archimedean condition on an agent’s comparative judgments, it does not require the (...)
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  29.  21
    Erin K. Cressman, Melanie Y. Lam, Ian M. Franks, James T. Enns & Romeo Chua (2013). Unconscious and Out of Control: Subliminal Priming is Insensitive to Observer Expectations. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):716-728.
    We asked whether the influence of an invisible prime on movement is dependent on conscious movement expectations. Participants reached to a central target, which triggered a directional prime–mask arrow sequence. Participants were instructed that the visible arrows would most often signal a movement modification in a specific direction. Kinematic analyses revealed that responses to the visible mask were influenced by participants’ intentional bias, as movements were fastest when the more probable mask was displayed. In addition, responses were influenced by (...)
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  30.  37
    Tineke A. Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy Am Widdershoven, Minke Goldsteen & Marian A. Verkerk (2005). Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers: Conflicting Normative Expectations. Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
    It is not uncommon that nurses are unable to meet the normative expectations of chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate Walker’s expressive-collaborative view of morality to interpret the normative expectations of two women with multiple sclerosis. Both women present themselves as autonomous persons who make their own choices, but who also have to rely on others for many aspects of their lives, for example, to find a new balance between work and (...)
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  31.  6
    Roman Frydman & Michael D. Goldberg (2013). Change and Expectations in Macroeconomic Models: Recognizing the Limits to Knowability. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (2):118-138.
    This paper argues that contemporary macroeconomic and finance models suffer from insuperable epistemological flaws and that their empirical difficulties – which are particularly apparent in modeling market participants' expectations – can be traced to economists' core premise that they can adequately specify in probabilistic terms how individuals alter the way they make decisions and how the processes underpinning market outcomes unfold over time. We refer to such accounts of change as determinate. The first part examines how this core premise (...)
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  32.  19
    Randi L. Sims & Thomas L. Keon (2000). The Influence of Organizational Expectations on Ethical Decision Making Conflict. Journal of Business Ethics 23 (2):219 - 228.
    This study considers the ethical decision making of individual employees and the influence their perception of organizational expectations has on employee feelings about the decision making process. A self-administered questionnaire design was used for gathering data in this study, with a sample size of 245 full-time employees. The match between the ethical alternative chosen by the respondent and that alternative perceived to be encouraged by his/her organization was found to be significantly related to both feelings of discomfort and feelings (...)
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  33.  22
    Sandra C. Vera-Muñoz (2005). Corporate Governance Reforms: Redefined Expectations of Audit Committee Responsibilities and Effectiveness. Journal of Business Ethics 62 (2):115-127.
    Comprehensive regulatory changes brought on by recent corporate governance reforms have broadly redefined and re-emphasized the roles and responsibilities of all the participants in a public company’s financial reporting process. Most notably, these reforms have intensified scrutiny of corporate audit committees, whose role as protectors of investors’ interests now attracts substantially higher visibility and expectations. As a result, audit committees face the formidable challenge of effectively overseeing the company’s financial reporting process in a dramatically changed – and highly charged (...)
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  34.  54
    Z. Gyenis, G. Hofer-Szabó & M. Rédei (2016). Conditioning Using Conditional Expectations: The Borel–Kolmogorov Paradox. Synthese:1-36.
    The Borel–Kolmogorov Paradox is typically taken to highlight a tension between our intuition that certain conditional probabilities with respect to probability zero conditioning events are well defined and the mathematical definition of conditional probability by Bayes’ formula, which loses its meaning when the conditioning event has probability zero. We argue in this paper that the theory of conditional expectations is the proper mathematical device to conditionalize and that this theory allows conditionalization with respect to probability zero events. The conditional (...)
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  35.  23
    Zalán Gyenis, Gabor Hofer-Szabo & Miklós Rédei, Conditioning Using Conditional Expectations: The Borel-Kolmogorov Paradox.
    The Borel-Kolmogorov Paradox is typically taken to highlight a tension between our intuition that certain conditional probabilities with respect to probability zero conditioning events are well defined and the mathematical definition of conditional probability by Bayes’ formula, which loses its meaning when the conditioning event has probability zero. We argue in this paper that the theory of conditional expectations is the proper mathematical device to conditionalize and that this theory allows conditionalization with respect to probability zero events. The conditional (...)
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  36. J. McKenzie Alexander (2011). Expectations and Choiceworthiness. Mind 120 (479):803-817.
    The Pasadena game is an example of a decision problem which lacks an expected value, as traditionally conceived. Easwaran (2008) has shown that, if we distinguish between two different kinds of expectations, which he calls ‘strong’ and ‘weak’, the Pasadena game lacks a strong expectation but has a weak expectation. Furthermore, he argues that we should use the weak expectation as providing a measure of the value of an individual play of the Pasadena game. By considering a modified version (...)
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  37.  2
    Jenny R. Saffran & Casey Lew-Williams (2012). All Words Are Not Created Equal: Expectations About Word Length Guide Infant Statistical Learning. Cognition 122 (2):241-246.
    Infants have been described as 'statistical learners' capable of extracting structure (such as words) from patterned input (such as language). Here, we investigated whether prior knowledge influences how infants track transitional probabilities in word segmentation tasks. Are infants biased by prior experience when engaging in sequential statistical learning? In a laboratory simulation of learning across time, we exposed 9- and 10-month-old infants to a list of either disyllabic or trisyllabic nonsense words, followed by a pause-free speech stream composed of a (...)
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  38.  26
    Alan G. Sanfey (2009). Expectations and Social Decision-Making: Biasing Effects of Prior Knowledge on Ultimatum Responses. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 8 (1):93-107.
    Psychological studies have long demonstrated effects of expectations on judgment, whereby the provision of information, either implicitly or explicitly, prior to an experience or decision can exert a substantial influence on the observed behavior. This study extended these expectation effects to the domain of interactive economic decision-making. Prior to playing a commonly-used bargaining task, the Ultimatum Game, participants were primed to expect offers that would be either relatively fair or unfair. A third group played the Game without receiving any (...)
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  39.  28
    Pascal Boyer (2011). Intuitive Expectations and the Detection of Mental Disorder: A Cognitive Background to Folk-Psychiatries. Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):95-118.
    How do people detect mental dysfunction? What is the influence of cultural models of dysfunction on this detection process? The detection process as such is not usually researched as it falls between the domains of cross-cultural psychiatry and anthropological ethno-psychiatry . I provide a general model for this “missing link” between behavior and cultural models, grounded in empirical evidence for intuitive psychology. Normal adult minds entertain specific intuitive expectations about mental function and behavior, and by implication they infer that (...)
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  40. Dan Cavedon-Taylor (2011). Perceptual Content and Sensorimotor Expectations. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (243):383-391.
    I distinguish between two kinds of sensorimotor expectations: agent- and object-active ones. Alva Noë's answer to the problem of how perception acquires volumetric content illicitly privileges agent-active expectations over object-active expectations, though the two are explanatorily on a par. Considerations which Noë draws upon concerning how organisms may ‘off-load’ internal processes onto the environment do not support his view that volumetric content depends on our embodiment; rather, they support a view of experience which is restrictive of the (...)
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  41.  26
    Maya U. Shankar, Carmel A. Levitan & Charles Spence (2010). Grape Expectations: The Role of Cognitive Influences in Color–Flavor Interactions. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):380-390.
    Color conveys critical information about the flavor of food and drink by providing clues as to edibility, flavor identity, and flavor intensity. Despite the fact that more than 100 published papers have investigated the influence of color on flavor perception in humans, surprisingly little research has considered how cognitive and contextual constraints may mediate color–flavor interactions. In this review, we argue that the discrepancies demonstrated in previously-published color–flavor studies may, at least in part, reflect differences in the sensory expectations (...)
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  42. Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy (1997). The Two Envelope Paradox and Infinite Expectations. Analysis 57 (1):42–50.
    The two envelope paradox can be dissolved by looking closely at the connection between conditional and unconditional expectation and by being careful when summing an infinite series of positive and negative terms. The two envelope paradox is not another St. Petersburg paradox and that one does not need to ban talk of infinite expectation values in order to dissolve it. The article ends by posing a new puzzle to do with infinite expectations.
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  43.  2
    Cars Hommes (2013). Reflexivity, Expectations Feedback and Almost Self-Fulfilling Equilibria: Economic Theory, Empirical Evidence and Laboratory Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (4):406-419.
    We discuss recent work on bounded rationality and learning in relation to Soros' principle of reflexivity and stress the empirical importance of non-rational, almost self-fulfilling equilibria in positive feedback systems. As an empirical example, we discuss a behavioral asset pricing model with heterogeneous expectations. Bubble and crash dynamics is triggered by shocks to fundamentals and amplified by agents switching endogenously between a mean-reverting fundamental rule and a trend-following rule, based upon their relative performance. We also discuss learning-to-forecast laboratory experiments, (...)
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  44.  81
    Thomas Foreman (2014). Ethics, Rhetoric, and Expectations: Responsibilities and Obligations of Health Care Systems. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):295-299.
    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm’s length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments (...)
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  45.  6
    Paul F. A. Bartha (2016). Making Do Without Expectations. Mind 125 (499):799-827.
    The Pasadena game invented by Nover and Hájek raises a number of challenges for decision theory. The basic problem is how the game should be evaluated: it has no expectation and hence no well-defined value. Easwaran has shown that the Pasadena game does have a weak expectation, raising the possibility that we can eliminate the value gap by requiring agents to value gambles at their weak expectations. In this paper, I first prove a negative result: there are gambles like (...)
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  46.  24
    Stephan Dickert, Daniel Västfjäll, Janet Kleber & Paul Slovic (2012). Valuations of Human Lives: Normative Expectations and Psychological Mechanisms of (Ir)Rationality. Synthese 189 (S1):95-105.
    A central question for psychologists, economists, and philosophers is how human lives should be valued. Whereas egalitarian considerations give rise to models emphasizing that every life should be valued equally, empirical research has demonstrated that valuations of lives depend on a variety of factors that often do not conform to specific normative expectations. Such factors include emotional reactions to the victims and cognitive considerations leading to biased perceptions of lives at risk (e.g., attention, mental imagery, pseudo-inefficacy, and scope neglect). (...)
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  47.  10
    Mark Colyvan & Alan Hájek (2016). Making Ado Without Expectations. Mind 125 (499):829-857.
    This paper is a response to Paul Bartha’s ‘Making Do Without Expectations’. We provide an assessment of the strengths and limitations of two notable extensions of standard decision theory: relative expectation theory and Paul Bartha’s relative utility theory. These extensions are designed to provide intuitive answers to some well-known problems in decision theory involving gaps in expectations. We argue that both RET and RUT go some way towards providing solutions to the problems in question but neither extension solves (...)
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    Alexander Zimper (2011). Re-Examining the Law of Iterated Expectations for Choquet Decision Makers. Theory and Decision 71 (4):669-677.
    Yoo (Economic Letters 37:145–149, 1991) argues that the law of iterated expectations must be violated if the probability measure of a Choquet decision maker is non-additive. In this article, we prove the positive result that the law of iterated expectations is satisfied for Choquet decision makers whenever they update their non-additive beliefs in accordance with the Sarin and Wakker (Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 16:223–250, 1998) update rule. The formal key to this result is the act-dependence of the (...)
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    Roberto Casati & Elena Pasquinelli (2007). How Can You Be Surprised? The Case for Volatile Expectations. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (1-2):171-183.
    Surprise has been characterized has an emotional reaction to an upset belief having a heuristic role and playing a criterial role for belief ascription. The discussion of cases of diachronic and synchronic violations of coherence suggests that surprise plays an epistemic role and provides subjects with some sort of phenomenological access to their subpersonal doxastic states. Lack of surprise seems not to have the same epistemic power. A distinction between belief and expectation is introduced in order to account for some (...)
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  50.  39
    N. Berlinger (2005). Subtracting Insult From Injury: Addressing Cultural Expectations in the Disclosure of Medical Error. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):106-108.
    Next SectionThis article proposes that knowledge of cultural expectations concerning ethical responses to unintentional harm can help students and physicians better to understand patients’ distress when physicians fail to disclose, apologise for, and make amends for harmful medical errors. While not universal, the Judeo-Christian traditions of confession, repentance, and forgiveness inform the cultural expectations of many individuals within secular western societies. Physicians’ professional obligations concerning truth telling reflect these expectations and are inclusive of the disclosure of medical (...)
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