Results for 'Explanation Evidence Free Association Bayes' Theorm Suggestion'

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  1. Psychoanalysis, Philosophical Issues.Jim Hopkins - 2014 - In SAGE Reference project Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage Publications.
    This paper briefly addresses questions of confirmation and disconfirmation in psychoanalysis. It argues that psychoanalysis enjoys Bayesian support as an interpretive extension of commonsense psychology that provides the best explanation of a large range of empirical data. Suggestion provides no such explanation, and recent work in attachment, developmental psychology, and neuroscience accord with this view.
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  2.  32
    The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning.Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  3.  24
    Inference to the Best Explanation Versus Bayes’s Rule in a Social Setting.Igor Douven & Sylvia Wenmackers - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv025.
    This article compares inference to the best explanation with Bayes’s rule in a social setting, specifically, in the context of a variant of the Hegselmann–Krause model in which agents not only update their belief states on the basis of evidence they receive directly from the world, but also take into account the belief states of their fellow agents. So far, the update rules mentioned have been studied only in an individualistic setting, and it is known that in such (...)
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  4.  71
    Causation, Association and Confirmation.Gregory Wheeler & Richard Scheines - 2011 - In Stephan Hartmann, Marcel Weber, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Dennis Dieks & Thomas Uebe (eds.), Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation: New Trends and Old Ones Reconsidered. Springer. pp. 37--51.
    Many philosophers of science have argued that a set of evidence that is "coherent" confirms a hypothesis which explains such coherence. In this paper, we examine the relationships between probabilistic models of all three of these concepts: coherence, confirmation, and explanation. For coherence, we consider Shogenji's measure of association (deviation from independence). For confirmation, we consider several measures in the literature, and for explanation, we turn to Causal Bayes Nets and resort to causal structure and its (...)
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  5.  22
    Old Evidence and New Explanation III.Carl G. Wagner - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (3):S165 - S175.
    Garber (1983) and Jeffrey (1991, 1995) have both proposed solutions to the old evidence problem. Jeffrey's solution, based on a new probability revision method called reparation, has been generalized to the case of uncertain old evidence and probabilistic new explanation in Wagner 1997, 1999. The present paper reformulates some of the latter work, highlighting the central role of Bayes factors and their associated uniformity principle, and extending the analysis to the case in which an hypothesis bears on (...)
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  6. Philosophical Criticisms of the Unconscious in Psychoanalysis.Donald Levy - 1980 - Dissertation, Cornell University
    Chapter three shows that MacIntyre's misunderstanding of what psychoanalysis means by the unconscious leads him to treat it as unobservable. In any intelligible sense, the unconscious is not absolutely unobservable, or else being unobservable is no stigma unique to it; conscious ideas, wishes, e.g., will have to be classed as unobservable, too. MacIntyre's central error is his failing to see that free-association makes the unconscious observable. The chapter concludes with an examination of the concepts of absolute unobservability and (...)
     
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  7. Evidence, Explanation, and Experience: On the Harder Problem of Consciousness.Jakob Hohwy - 2004 - Journal of Philosophy 101 (5):242-254.
    Creatures that have different physical realizations than human beings may or may not be conscious. Ned Block’s ‘harder problem of consciousness’ is that naturalistic phenomenal realists have no conception of a rational ground for belief that they have or have not discovered consciousness in such a creature. Drawing on the notion of inference to the best explanation, it appears the arguments to these conclusions beg the question and ignore that explanation may be a guide to discovery. Thus, best (...)
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  8.  22
    Modeling Corroborative Evidence: Inference to the Best Explanation as Counter–Rebuttal.David Godden - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (2):187-220.
    Corroborative evidence has a dual function in argument. Primarily, it functions to provide direct evidence supporting the main conclusion. But it also has a secondary, bolstering function which increases the probative value of some other piece of evidence in the argument. This paper argues that the bolstering effect of corroborative evidence is legitimate, and can be explained as counter–rebuttal achieved through inference to the best explanation. A model (argument diagram) of corroborative evidence, representing its (...)
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  9.  1
    The View From Princeton: American Perspectives on Environmental Values.Dale Jamieson - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (3):273-276.
    The origin of this special issue is in my experience as Laurence S. Rockefeller Visiting Professor for Distinguished Teaching in the University Center for Human Values at Princeton University. Since one of my duties at Princeton was to teach an undergraduate class, I decided to teach a course on Ethics and the Environment. The class was taught in the Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs, and also cross-listed with the Philosophy Department. My suggestion that the course also (...)
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  10.  3
    Free Association Reliability as a Function of Response Strength.David C. Howell - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):431.
  11.  3
    Complex Signs in Diagnostic Free Association.C. L. Hull & L. S. Lugoff - 1921 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 4 (2):111.
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    Mediated Generalization and the Interpretation of Verbal Behavior: V. 'Free Association' as Related to Differences in Professional Training.J. P. Foley Jr & Z. L. Macmillan - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (4):299.
  13.  2
    Effects of Free Association Training, Retraining, and Information on Creativity.Barbara J. Miller, Darlene Russ, Carol Gibson & Alfred E. Hall - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):226.
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  14.  2
    Increasing Creativity by Free-Association Training.Jonathan L. Freedman - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):89.
  15.  1
    Paired-Associate Response Latencies as a Function of Free Association Strength.S. I. Shapiro - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):223.
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  16.  2
    Emanuele Serrelli and Nathalie Gontier, Eds., Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation and Evidence.. Reviewed By.McCall Bradford Lee - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (6):276-277.
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  17.  6
    Lehrer on Determinism, Free Will, and Evidence.Peter van Inwagen - 1972 - Philosophical Studies 23 (October):351-357.
  18.  3
    Prediction of Free Recall From Word-Association Measures: A Replication.Arthur M. Bodin, Lewis A. Crapsi, Marilyn R. Deak, Theobold R. Morday & Laurence D. Rust - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):103.
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  19.  2
    The Prediction of Free Recall From Word Association Measures.Ernst Z. Rothkopf & Esther U. Coke - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (5):433.
  20.  1
    Free Recall of Numbers with High- and Low-Rated Association Values.Stefan Slak - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):184.
  21. The Ontic Account of Scientific Explanation.Carl F. Craver - 2014 - In Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver R. Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.), Explanation in the Special Sciences: The Case of Biology and History. Springer Verlag. pp. 27-52.
    According to one large family of views, scientific explanations explain a phenomenon (such as an event or a regularity) by subsuming it under a general representation, model, prototype, or schema (see Bechtel, W., & Abrahamsen, A. (2005). Explanation: A mechanist alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 36(2), 421–441; Churchland, P. M. (1989). A neurocomputational perspective: The nature of mind and the structure of science. Cambridge: MIT Press; Darden (2006); Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of (...)
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  22. The Explanation-Based Taxonomy of Free-Will Views [Temporarily Unavailable].Kristin Mickelson - manuscript
    The standard definitions of terms such as ‘incompatibilism’ and ‘compatibilism’ are problematic because these definitions do not capture the robust metaphysical and explanatory commitments of the historical views associated with these terms. As a result of equivocation on such terms is commonplace and the dialectic of the free-will debate has been obscured. In this essay, I defend a new and more exhaustive taxonomy of free-will views, the “Explanation-based Taxonomy.” This new taxonomy avoids the problems of its predecessors, (...)
     
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  23.  27
    Evidence, Explanation and Enhanced Indispensability.Daniele Molinini - 2016 - Synthese 193 (2):403-422.
    In this paper I shall adopt a possible reading of the notions of ‘explanatory indispensability’ and ‘genuine mathematical explanation in science’ on which the Enhanced Indispensability Argument proposed by Alan Baker is based. Furthermore, I shall propose two examples of mathematical explanation in science and I shall show that, whether the EIA-partisans accept the reading I suggest, they are easily caught in a dilemma. To escape this dilemma they need to adopt some account of explanation and offer (...)
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  24.  65
    Experimental Evidence for Free Will Revisionism.Chris Weigel - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 16 (1):31 - 43.
    Philosophers who theorize about whether free will is compatible with causal determinism often rely on ordinary intuitions to bolster their theory. A revisionist theory of free will takes a different approach, saying that the best philosophical theory of what we ought to think about free will conflicts with what we ordinarily do think about free will. I contend that revisionism has not been taken as seriously as should be because philosophers have not realized the extent to (...)
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  25.  8
    Association by Movement: Evidence From NPI-Licensing. [REVIEW]Michael Wagner - 2006 - Natural Language Semantics 14 (4):297-324.
    ‘Only’ associates with focus and licenses NPIs. This paper looks at the distributional pattern of NPIs under ‘only’ and presents evidence for the movement theory of focus association and against an in situ approach. NPIs are licensed in the ‘scope’ (or the second argument) of ‘only’, but not in the complement (or its first argument), which I will call the ‘syntactic restrictor’. While earlier approaches argued that ‘only’ licenses NPIs in the unfocused part of the sentence it occurs (...)
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  26.  43
    Libet's Experiment Provides No Evidence Against Strong Libertarian Free Will Because Readiness Potentials Do Not Cause Our Actions.Daniel von Wachter - manuscript
    This article argues against Benjamin Libet’s claim that his experiment has shown that our actions are caused by brain events which begin before we decide and before we even think about the action. It assumes, contra the com- patibilists and pro Libet, that this claim is incompatible with free will. It clarifies what exactly should be meant by saying that the readiness potential causes, initiates, or pre- pares an action. It shows why Libet’s experiment does not support his claim (...)
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  27.  29
    Equivalent Explanations and Mathematical Realism. Reply to “Evidence, Explanation, and Enhanced Indispensability”.Andrea Sereni - 2016 - Synthese 193 (2):423-434.
    The author of “Evidence, Explanation, Enhanced Indispensability” advances a criticism to the Enhanced Indispensability Argument and the use of Inference to the Best Explanation in order to draw ontological conclusions from mathematical explanations in science. His argument relies on the availability of equivalent though competing explanations, and a pluralist stance on explanation. I discuss whether pluralism emerges as a stable position, and focus here on two main points: whether cases of equivalent explanations have been actually offered, (...)
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  28. Can Free Evidence Be Bad? Value of Information for the Imprecise Probabilist.Seamus Bradley and Katie Steele - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):1-28.
    This paper considers a puzzling conflict between two positions that are each compelling: it is irrational for an agent to pay to avoid `free' evidence before making a decision, and rational agents may have imprecise beliefs and/or desires. Indeed, we show that Good's theorem concerning the invariable choice-worthiness of free evidence does not generalise to the imprecise realm, given the plausible existing decision theories for handling imprecision. A key ingredient in the analysis, and a potential source (...)
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  29. COI Stories: Explanation and Evidence in the History of Science.Michel Janssen - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (4):457-522.
    This paper takes as its point of departure two striking incongruities between scientiªc practice and trends in modern history and philosophy of science. (1) Many modern historians of science are so preoccupied with local scientiªc practices that they fail to recognize important non-local elements. (2) Many modern philosophers of science make a sharp distinction between explanation and evidence, whereas in scientiªc practice explanatory power is routinely used as evidence for scientiªc claims. I draw attention to one speciªc (...)
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  30. Did Epicurus Discover the Free-Will Problem?Susanne Bobzien - 2000 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 19:287-337.
    ABSTRACT: I argue that there is no evidence that Epicurus dealt with the kind of free-will problem he is traditionally associated with; i.e. that he discussed free choice or moral responsibility grounded on free choice, or that the "swerve" was involved in decision processes. Rather, for Epicurus, actions are fully determined by the agent's mental disposition at the outset of the action. Moral responsibility presupposes not free choice but that the person is unforced and causally (...)
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  31.  23
    Can Free Evidence Be Bad? Value of Information for the Imprecise Probabilist.Seamus Bradley & Katie Steele - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):1-28.
    This paper considers a puzzling conflict between two positions that are each compelling: it is irrational for an agent to pay to avoid `free' evidence before making a decision, and rational agents may have imprecise beliefs and/or desires. Indeed, we show that Good's theorem concerning the invariable choice-worthiness of free evidence does not generalise to the imprecise realm, given the plausible existing decision theories for handling imprecision. A key ingredient in the analysis, and a potential source (...)
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  32. Old Evidence and New Explanation II.Carl G. Wagner - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (2):283-288.
    Additional results are reported on the author's earlier generalization of Richard Jeffrey's solution to the problem of old evidence and new explanation.
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  33.  3
    Inference to the Best Explanation as a Theory for the Quality of Mechanistic Evidence in Medicine.Stefan Dragulinescu - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-20.
    Inference to the Best Explanation is usually employed in the Scientific Realism debates. As far as particular scientific theories are concerned, its most ready usage seems to be that of a theory of confirmation. There are however more uses of IBE, namely as an epistemological theory of testimony and as a means of categorising and justifying the sources of evidence. In this paper, I will present, develop and exemplify IBE as a theory of the quality of evidence (...)
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  34.  20
    Is Theism a Simple, and Hence Probable, Explanation for the Universe?J. Ostrowick - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):354-368.
    Richard Swinburne, in his The Existence of God (2004), presents a cosmological argument in defence of theism (Swinburne 1991: 119, 135). God, Swinburne argues, is more likely to bring about an ordered universe than other states (ibid.: 144, 299). To defend this view, Swinburne presents the following arguments: (1) That this ordered universe is a priori improbable (2004: 49, 150, 1991: 304 et seq.), given the stringent requirements for life (cf. also Leslie 2000: 12), and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (...)
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  35.  1
    Evidence, Explanation and Predictive Data Modelling.Steve T. Mckinlay - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-13.
    Predictive risk modelling is a computational method used to generate probabilities correlating events. The output of such systems is typically represented by a statistical score derived from various related and often arbitrary datasets. In many cases, the information generated by such systems is treated as a form of evidence to justify further action. This paper examines the nature of the information generated by such systems and compares it with more orthodox notions of evidence found in epistemology. The paper (...)
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  36. Aristotle on Necessity, Chance and Explanation.Lindsay Judson - 1986 - Dissertation, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. ; Aristotle endorses a very striking doctrine connecting necessity with what seems to be a non-modal notion--that of 'being or happening always'. He also forges a connection between the idea of 'happening by chance' and 'happening neither always nor for the most part'. These two connections form the subject of this essay. My guiding aim is to provide an account of what the 'always/necessary' doctrine involves and of (...)
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  37. Free Will and Action Explanation: A Non-Causal, Compatibilist Account.Scott Sehon - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Do we have free will and moral responsibility? Is free will compatible with determinism? Scott Sehon argues that we can make progress on these questions by focusing on an underlying issue: the nature of action explanation. When a person acts, or does something on purpose, we explain the behavior by citing the agent's reasons. The dominant view in philosophy of mind has been to construe such explanations as a species of causal explanation. Sehon proposes and defends (...)
     
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  38.  2
    Complex Signs in Diagnostic Free Association.L. M. Hubbard - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (5):342.
  39.  20
    Causal Bayes Nets as Psychological Theories of Causal Reasoning: Evidence From Psychological Research.York Hagmayer - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4):1107-1126.
    Causal Bayes nets have been developed in philosophy, statistics, and computer sciences to provide a formalism to represent causal structures, to induce causal structure from data and to derive predictions. Causal Bayes nets have been used as psychological theories in at least two ways. They were used as rational, computational models of causal reasoning and they were used as formal models of mental causal models. A crucial assumption made by them is the Markov condition, which informally states that variables are (...)
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  40.  42
    Libet's Experiment Provides No Evidence Against Strong Libertarian Free Will Because It Investigates the Wrong Kind of Action.Daniel von Wachter - manuscript
    While other philosophers have pointed out that Libet’s experiment is compatible with compatibilist free will and also with some kinds of libertarian free will, this article ar- gues that it is even compatible with strong libertarian free will, i.e. a person’s ability to initiate causal processes. It is widely believed that Libet’s experiment has shown that all our actions have preceding unconscious causes. This article argues that Libet’s claim that the actions he invest- igated are voluntary is (...)
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  41.  13
    Causality, Mathematical Models and Statistical Association: Dismantling Evidence‐Based Medicine.R. Paul Thompson - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):267-275.
  42.  21
    Evidence and Association: Epistemic Confusion in Toxic Tort Law.Mark Parascandola - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):176.
    Attempts at quantification turn up in many areas within the modern courtroom, but nowhere more than in the realm of toxic tort law. Evidence, in these cases, is routinely presented in statistical form. The vagueness inherent in phrases such as 'balance of probabilities' and 'more likely than not' is reinterpreted to correspond to precise mathematical values. Standing alone these developments would not be a cause for great concern. But in practice courts and commentators have routinely mixed up incompatible quantities, (...)
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  43.  27
    The Free‐Radical Damage Theory: Accumulating Evidence Against a Simple Link of Oxidative Stress to Ageing and Lifespan.John R. Speakman & Colin Selman - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (4):255-259.
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  44. Evidence and Association: Epistemic Confusion in Toxic Tort Law.Mark Parascandola - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (5):S168-S176.
    Attempts at quantification turn up in many areas within the modern courtroom, but nowhere more than in the realm of toxic tort law. Evidence, in these cases, is routinely presented in statistical form. The vagueness inherent in phrases such as 'balance of probabilities' and 'more likely than not' is reinterpreted to correspond to precise mathematical values. Standing alone these developments would not be a cause for great concern. But in practice courts and commentators have routinely mixed up incompatible quantities, (...)
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  45.  60
    Free Will, Causes, and Decisions: Individual Differences in Written Reports.Adam Feltz, A. Perez & M. Harris - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (9-10):166-189.
    We present evidence indicating new individual differences with people's intuitions about the relation of determinism to freedom and moral responsibility. We analysed participants' written explanations of why a person acted. Participants offered one of either 'decision' or 'causal' based explanations of behaviours in some paradigmatic cases. Those who gave causal explanations tended to have more incompatibilist intuitions than those who gave decision explanations. Importantly, the affective content of a scenario influenced the type of explanation given. Scenarios containing highly (...)
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  46.  50
    How a Neural Correlate Can Function as an Explanation of Consciousness: Evidence From the History of Science Regarding the Likely Explanatory Value of the NCC Approach.Ilya B. Farber - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (4-5):77-95.
    A frequent criticism of the neuroscientific approach to consciousness is that its theories describe only 'correlates' or 'analogues' of consciousness, and so fail to address the nature of consciousness itself. Despite its apparent logical simplicity, this criticism in fact relies on some substantive assumptions about the nature and evolution of scientific explanations. In particular, it is usually assumed that, in expressing correlations, neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) theories must fail to capture the causal structure relating brain and mind. Drawing on (...)
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  47.  11
    Can Suggestion Obviate Reading? Supplementing Primary Stroop Evidence with Exploratory Negative Priming Analyses.Amir Raz & Natasha K. J. Campbell - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):312-320.
    Using the Stroop paradigm, we have previously shown that a specific suggestion can remove or reduce involuntary conflict and alter information processing in highly suggestible individuals . In the present study, we carefully matched less suggestible individuals to HSIs on a number of factors. We hypothesized that suggestion would influence HSIs more than LSIs and reduce the Stroop effect in the former group. As well, we conducted secondary post hoc analyses to examine negative priming – the apparent disruption (...)
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  48.  3
    A Remote Association Explanation of the Relative Difficulty of Learning Nonsense Syllables in a Serial List.B. R. Bugelski - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (3):336.
  49.  1
    Further Evidence for Organization by Modality in Immediate Free Recall.Lars-Goran Nilsson - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):948.
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  50. Explanation and Evidence.Peter Lipton - 1985
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