Results for 'Exploration–exploitation'

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  1.  20
    Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin’s Reading Notebooks.Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen & Simon DeDeo - 2017 - Cognition 159:117-126.
    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (...)
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  2.  17
    Exploration Versus Exploitation in Space, Mind, and Society.Thomas T. Hills, Peter M. Todd, David Lazer, A. David Redish & Iain D. Couzin - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (1):46-54.
  3.  14
    Exploitation, Altruism, and Social Welfare An Economic Exploration.Matthias Doepke - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):375-391.
    Child labor is often condemned as a form of exploitation. I explore how the notion of exploitation, as used in everyday language, can be made precise in economic models of child labor. Exploitation is defined relative to a specific social welfare function. I first show that under the standard dynastic social welfare function, which is commonly applied to intergenerational models, child labor is never exploitative. In contrast, under an inclusive welfare function, which places additional weight on the welfare of children, (...)
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  4.  6
    Cartographie de la controverse d’exploration et d’exploitation du gaz de schiste en Algérie.Neila Zerguini - 2016 - Éthique Publique 18 (1).
    En Algérie, la nouvelle loi sur les hydrocarbures autorise l’exploitation des hydrocarbures non conventionnels, incluant le gaz de schiste, dont les réserves ont récemment été réévaluées à la hausse. Ces rebondissements ont suscité autant l’intérêt que l’inquiétude de l’opinion publique. Très sommairement, le débat est perçu comme opposant les « pour » l’exploitation qui mettent en avant des gains économiques aux « contre », écologistes s’opposant à la fracturation hydraulique. Cette dualité ne rend pas justice à la complexité de la (...)
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  5.  5
    Exploitation, Altruism, and Social Welfare: An Economic Exploration.Matthias Doepke - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):375-391.
    Child labor is often condemned as a form of exploitation. I explore how the notion of exploitation, as used in everyday language, can be made precise in economic models of child labor. Exploitation is defined relative to a specific social welfare function. I first show that under the standard dynastic social welfare function, which is commonly applied to intergenerational models, child labor is never exploitative. In contrast, under an inclusive welfare function, which places additional weight on the welfare of children, (...)
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  6. Should I Stay or Should I Go? How the Human Brain Manages the Trade-Off Between Exploitation and Exploration.Jonathan D. Cohen, Samuel M. McClure & Yu & J. Angela - 2008 - In Jon Driver, Patrick Haggard & Tim Shallice (eds.), Mental Processes in the Human Brain. Oxford University Press.
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  7.  2
    The Central Executive as a Search Process: Priming Exploration and Exploitation Across Domains.Thomas T. Hills, Peter M. Todd & Robert L. Goldstone - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (4):590-609.
  8.  7
    Balancing Exploitation and Exploration in Particle Swarm Optimization: Velocity-Based Reinitialization.Kevin J. Binkley & Masafumi Hagiwara - 2008 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 23:27-35.
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  9. Cognitive Distance in and Between CoP's and Firms: Where Do Exploitation and Exploration Take Place, and How Are They Connected?Bart Nooteboom - 2008 - In Ash Amin & Joanne Roberts (eds.), Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization. Oxford University Press.
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  10.  14
    Exploration and Exploitation During Sequential Search.Gregory Dam & Konrad Körding - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (3):530-541.
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  11.  12
    Re-Engineering Tertiary Education for Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Shell Petroleum Development Company Intensive Training Programme 1998-2005.A. O. Gabriel - 2008 - Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 10 (1).
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  12.  9
    Technological Strategies: Influences of Exploration and Exploitation on Relational Capital.Juan G. Cegarra Navarro & Ramon Sabater Sanchez - 2005 - International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy 1 (2):99.
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  13.  2
    Leah Ceccarelli. On the Frontier of Science: An American Rhetoric of Exploration and Exploitation. Viii + 210 Pp., Bibl., Index. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2013. $59.95. [REVIEW]Thomas Lessl - 2015 - Isis 106 (1):215-216.
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  14.  1
    The Russians in the Arctic: Aspects of Soviet Exploration and Exploitation of the Far North 1937-1957 by Terence Armstrong. [REVIEW]Erwin Hiebert - 1963 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 54:513-513.
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  15. From Theory Choice to Theory Search: The Essential Tension Between Exploration and Exploitation in Science.Peter Rubbens & Rogier De Langhe - 2015 - In Alisa Bokulich & William J. Devlin (eds.), Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer Verlag.
     
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  16.  26
    Uncertainty and Exploration in a Restless Bandit Problem.Maarten Speekenbrink & Emmanouil Konstantinidis - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):351-367.
    Decision making in noisy and changing environments requires a fine balance between exploiting knowledge about good courses of action and exploring the environment in order to improve upon this knowledge. We present an experiment on a restless bandit task in which participants made repeated choices between options for which the average rewards changed over time. Comparing a number of computational models of participants’ behavior in this task, we find evidence that a substantial number of them balanced exploration and exploitation by (...)
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  17.  34
    Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search.Simon M. Reader - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):451-468.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential net payoffs of exploration versus the (...)
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  18.  30
    Optimality and Some of Its Discontents: Successes and Shortcomings of Existing Models for Binary Decisions.Philip Holmes & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):258-278.
    We review how leaky competing accumulators (LCAs) can be used to model decision making in two-alternative, forced-choice tasks, and we show how they reduce to drift diffusion (DD) processes in special cases. As continuum limits of the sequential probability ratio test, DD processes are optimal in producing decisions of specified accuracy in the shortest possible time. Furthermore, the DD model can be used to derive a speed–accuracy trade-off that optimizes reward rate for a restricted class of two alternative forced-choice decision (...)
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  19.  16
    Evaluating Philosophy as Exploratory Research.Rogier De Langhe & Eric Schliesser - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (3):227-244.
    This article addresses the question how philosophy should be evaluated in a research-grant funding environment. It offers a new conception of philosophy that is inclusive and builds on familiar elements of professional, philosophical practice. Philosophy systematically questions the questions we ask, the concepts we use, and the values we hold. Its product is therefore rarely conclusive but can be embodied in everything we do. This is typical of explorative research and differentiates it from exploitative research, which constitutes the bulk of (...)
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  20.  31
    Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning.Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):391-415.
    In reinforcement learning, a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model and (...)
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  21.  33
    Interfacing Mind and Environment: The Central Role of Search in Cognition.Wai‐Tat Fu, Thomas Hills & Peter M. Todd - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):384-390.
    Search can be found in almost every cognitive activity, ranging across vision, memory retrieval, problem solving, decision making, foraging, and social interaction. Because of its ubiquity, research on search has a tendency to fragment into multiple areas of cognitive science. The proposed topic aims at providing integrative discussion of the central role of search from multiple perspectives. We focus on controlled search processes, which require a goal, uncertainty about the nature, location, or acquisition method of the objects to be searched (...)
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  22. Generalization and Search in Risky Environments.Eric Schulz, Charley M. Wu, Quentin J. M. Huys, Andreas Krause & Maarten Speekenbrink - forthcoming - Cognitive Science.
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  23. Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues.Jeremy Snyder - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative fails (...)
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  24.  4
    Private Property Rights and the Public Interest in Exploration of Outer Space.Frans G. Von der Dunk - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (2):142-151.
    The impending missions to exploit natural resources of celestial bodies may at some point start interfering with the scientific interests, including those of astrobiology, in these bodies. While the legal status of celestial bodies at the highest level is clear, uncertainty has arisen as to the extent private property rights over such objects or over their resources are legally acceptable, legally impossible, or potentially legal. This also provides for a considerable amount of uncertainty regarding how the legal framework could or (...)
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  25.  11
    Centralized Funding and Epistemic Exploration.Shahar Avin - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axx059.
    Computer simulation of an epistemic landscape model, modified to include explicit representation of a centralized funding body, show the method of funding allocation has significant effects on communal trade-off between exploration and exploitation, with consequences for the community’s ability to generate significant truths. The results show this effect is contextual, and depends on the size of the landscape being explored, with funding that includes explicit random allocation performing significantly better than peer-review on large landscapes. The paper proposes a way of (...)
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  26.  6
    Private Property Rights and the Public Interest in Exploration of Outer Space.Frans G. Von der Dunk - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (2):142-151.
    The impending missions to exploit natural resources of celestial bodies may at some point start interfering with the scientific interests, including those of astrobiology, in these bodies. While the legal status of celestial bodies at the highest level is clear, uncertainty has arisen as to the extent private property rights over such objects or over their resources are legally acceptable, legally impossible, or potentially legal. This also provides for a considerable amount of uncertainty regarding how the legal framework could or (...)
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  27. What Does It Take to Establish That a World is Uninhabited Prior to Exploitation? – A Question of Ethics as Well as Science.Erik Persson - 2014 - Challenges 5:224-238.
    If we find life on another world, it will be an extremely important discovery and we will have to take great care not to do anything that might endanger that life. If the life we find is sentient we will have moral obligations to that life. Whether it is sentient or not, we have a duty to ourselves to preserve it as a study object, and also because it would be commonly seen as valuable in its own right. In addition (...)
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  28.  40
    Space Exploration and Environmental Issues.William K. Hartmann - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (3):227-239.
    New discoveries about materials and solar energy raise the possibility of a long-tenn shift of mining, refining, and manufacturing from Earth’s surface to locations outside Earth’s ecosphere, allowing Earth to begin to relax back toward its natural state. A little-discussed ambivalence toward the potential of space exploration exists among environmentalists. One camp sees it as a human adventure that may allow a bold initiative to improve Earth; another camp shies away from “heavy technology” and thus distrusts efforts as massive as (...)
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  29. Parallel Experimentation: A Basic Scheme for Dynamic Efficiency.David Ellerman - 2014 - Journal of Bioeconomics 16 (3):259–287.
    Evolutionary economics often focuses on the comparison between economic competition and the process of natural selection to select the fitter members of a given population. But that neglects the other "half" of an evolutionary process, the mechanism for the generation of new possibilities that is key to dynamic efficiency. My topic is the process of parallel experimentation which I take to be a process of multiple experiments running concurrently with some form of common goal, with some semi-isolation between the experiments, (...)
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  30.  55
    To Specialize or to Innovate? An Internalist Account of Pluralistic Ignorance in Economics.Rogier De Langhe - 2014 - Synthese 191 (11).
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  31.  13
    Applying Weak Equivalence of Categories Between Partial Map and Pointed Set Against Changing the Condition of 2‐Arms Bandit Problem.Takayuki Niizato & Yukio-Pegio Gunji - 2011 - Complexity 16 (4):10-21.
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  32.  17
    To Perform the Layered Body—a Short Exploration of the Body in Performance.Helena De Preester - 2007 - Janus Head: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature, Continental Philosophy, Phenomenological Psychology, and the Arts 9 (2):349-383.
    The aim of this article is to focus on the body as instrument or means in performance-art. Since the body is no monolithic given, the body is approached in terms of its constitutive layers, and this may enable us to conceive of the mechanisms that make performances possible and operational, i.e. those bodily mechanisms that are implicitly or explicitly controlled or manipulated in performance. Of course, the exploitation of these bodily layers is not solely responsible for the generation of meaning (...)
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  33.  7
    Human Trafficking on Trial: Dissecting the Adjudication of Sex Trafficking Cases in Cyprus. [REVIEW]Angelo G. Constantinou - 2013 - Feminist Legal Studies 21 (2):163-183.
    The last decade or so the concept of female trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation has lent itself to rigorous analysis and exploration. A plethora of domestic and transnational studies and reports have attempted to address the aetiology of human trafficking, as well as its epidemiology, often drawing from sources such as statistics, narratives, documents, and observations. While the great majority of such studies are engaged, if not preoccupied, in ‘unmasking’ the particularities of sex trafficking by taking into account (...)
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  34. To Perform the Layered Body—A Short Exploration of the Body in Performance.Helena De Preester - 2007 - Janus Head 9 (2).
    The aim of this article is to focus on the body as instrument or means in performance-art. Since the body is no monolithic given, the body is approached in terms of its constitutive layers, and this may enable us to conceive of the mechanisms that make performances possible and operational, i.e. those bodily mechanisms that are implicitly or explicitly controlled or manipulated in performance. Of course, the exploitation of these bodily layers is not solely responsible for the generation of meaning (...)
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  35.  21
    Exploring the Heavens and the Heritage of Mankind.Robert Seddon - 2015 - In Jai Galliott (ed.), Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance. Ashgate. pp. 149-160.
    ‘The heavens’ are among the oldest and most enduring heritage of human cultures: a scene of ancient myths and modern space opera. That something is part of somebody’s cultural heritage implies that there may be ethical duties to conserve it or otherwise treat it with respect, and space is no exception to this principle: recent work by Tony Milligan asserts that the cultural significances of the Moon may count against any prospect of lunar mining on a significantly destructive scale. Current (...)
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  36. Epistemic Exploitation.Nora Berenstain - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3:569-590.
    Epistemic exploitation occurs when privileged persons compel marginalized persons to educate them about the nature of their oppression. I argue that epistemic exploitation is marked by unrecognized, uncompensated, emotionally taxing, coerced epistemic labor. The coercive and exploitative aspects of the phenomenon are exemplified by the unpaid nature of the educational labor and its associated opportunity costs, the double bind that marginalized persons must navigate when faced with the demand to educate, and the need for additional labor created by the default (...)
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  37. A Unified Model of the Division of Cognitive Labor.Rogier De Langhe - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (3):444-459.
    Current theories of the division of cognitive labor are confined to the “context of justification,” assuming exogenous theories. But new theories are made from the same labor that is used for developing existing theories, and if none of this labor is ever allocated to create new alternatives, then scientific progress is impossible. A unified model is proposed in which theories are no longer given but a function of the division of labor in the model itself. The interactions of individuals balancing (...)
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  38. Structural Exploitation.Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):154-179.
    It is commonly claimed that workers in sweatshops are wrongfully exploited by their employers. The economist's standard response to this claim is to point out that sweatshops provide their workers with tremendous benefits, more than most workers elsewhere in the economy receive and more than most of those who complain about sweatshop exploitation provide. Perhaps, though, the wrongfulness of sweatshop exploitation is to be found not in the discrete interaction between a sweatshop and its employees, but in the unjust political (...)
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  39. Exploitation.Allen W. Wood - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.
    It is commonly thought that exploitation is unjust; some think it is part of the very meaning of the word 'exploitation' that it is unjust. Those who think this will suppose that the just society has to be one in which people do not exploit one another, at least on a large scale. I will argue that exploitation is not unjust by definition, and that a society (such as Our own) might be fundamentally just while nevertheless being pervasively exploitative. I (...)
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  40.  24
    Protecting Communities in Health Research From Exploitation.Segun Gbadegesin & David Wendler - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (5):248-253.
    Guidelines for health research focus on protecting individual research subjects. It is also vital to protect the communities involved in health research. In particular, a number of studies have been criticized on the grounds that they exploited host communities. The present paper attempts to address these concerns by providing an analysis of community exploitation and, based on this analysis, determining what safeguards are needed to protect communities in health research against exploitation. (edited).
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  41.  76
    'Fair Benefits' Accounts of Exploitation Require a Normative Principle of Fairness: Response to Gbadegesin and Wendler, and Emanuel Et Al.Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):239–244.
    In 2004 Emanuel et al. published an influential account of exploitation in international research, which has become known as the 'fair benefits account'. In this paper I argue that the thin definition of fairness presented by Emanuel et al, and subsequently endorsed by Gbadegesin and Wendler, does not provide a notion of fairness that is adequately robust to support a fair benefits account of exploitation. The authors present a procedural notion of fairness – the fair distribution of the benefits of (...)
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  42.  26
    Vocations, Exploitation, and Professions in a Market Economy.Daniel Koltonski - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (3):323-347.
    In a market economy, members of professions—or at least those for whom their profession is a vocation—are vulnerable to a distinctive kind of objectionable exploitation, namely the exploitation of their vocational commitment. That they are vulnerable in this way arises out of central features both of professions and of a market economy. And, for certain professions—the care professions—this exploitation is particularly objectionable, since, for these professions, the exploitation at issue is not only exploitation of the professional’s vocational commitment but also (...)
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  43. How to Be Sure: Sensory Exploration and Empirical Certainty.Mohan Matthen - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (1):38-69.
    I can be wrong about things I seem to perceive; the conditions might lead me to be mistaken about them. Since I can't rule out the possibility that the conditions are misleading, I can't be sure that I am perceiving this thing in my hand correctly. But suppose that I am able to examine it actively—handling it, looking closer, shining a light on it, and so on. Then, my level of uncertainty goes down; in the limit it is eliminated entirely. (...)
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  44.  36
    Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research?Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Bebe Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):18-26.
    It has been suggested that community advisory boards can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings – namely, where individuals join with a (...)
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  45. Justice and Beneficence.Pablo Gilabert - 2016 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19 (5):508-533.
    What is a duty of justice? And how is it different from a duty of beneficence? We need a clear account of the contrast. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the philosophical literature as to how to characterize it. Different articulations of it have been provided, but it is hard to identify a common core that is invariant across them. In this paper, I propose an account of how to understand duties of justice, explain how it contrasts with several proposals (...)
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  46.  41
    Exploitation in Payments to Research Subjects.Trisha Phillips - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (4):209-219.
    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method but there is significant debate about whether and in what amount such payments are appropriate. This paper is concerned with exploitation and whether there should be a lower limit on the amount researchers can pay their subjects. When subjects participate in research as a way to make money, fairness requires that researchers pay them a fair wage. This call for the establishment of a lower limit meets resistance in two (...)
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  47.  32
    Experiential Limitation in Judgment and Decision.Ulrike Hahn - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):229-244.
    The statistics of small samples are often quite different from those of large samples, and this needs to be taken into account in assessing the rationality of human behavior. Specifically, in evaluating human responses to environmental statistics, it is the effective environment that matters; that is, the environment actually experienced by the agent needs to be considered, not simply long-run frequencies. Significant deviations from long-run statistics may arise through experiential limitations of the agent that stem from resource constraints and/or information-processing (...)
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  48.  47
    Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials.Jeremy Snyder - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.
    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial.Many commentators have argued (...)
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  49. Non-Identity, Sufficiency and Exploitation.Matthew Rendall - 2011 - Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (2):229-247.
    This paper argues that we hold two key duties to future people: to leave them enough in an absolute sense, and to leave them their fair share. Even if we benefit people by bringing them into existence, we can wrongly exploit our position to take more than our share of benefits. As in paradigm cases of exploitation, just because future people might agree to the ‘bargain’, this does not mean that they receive enough.
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  50.  74
    Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.Danielle M. Wenner - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):36-44.
    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research (...)
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