Results for 'Extensive Quantities'

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  1.  48
    Intensive and Extensive Quantities.Zee Perry - manuscript
    Quantities are properties and relations which exhibit "quantitative structure". For physical quantities, this structure can impact the non-quantitative world in different ways. In this paper I introduce and motivate a novel distinction between quantities based on the way their quantitative structure constrains the possible mereological structure of their instances. Specifically, I identify a category of “properly extensivequantities, which are a proper sub-class of the additive or extensive quantities. I present and motivate this (...)
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  2. Properly Extensive Quantities.Zee R. Perry - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):833-844.
    This article introduces and motivates the notion of a “properly extensive” quantity by means of a puzzle about the reliability of certain canonical length measurements. An account of these measurements’ success, I argue, requires a modally robust connection between quantitative structure and mereology that is not mediated by the dynamics and is stronger than the constraints imposed by “mere additivity.” I outline what it means to say that length is not just extensive but properly so and then briefly (...)
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  3.  36
    A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities.Patrick Suppes - 1951 - Portugaliae Mathematica 10 (4):163-172.
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  4. Explicating the Notion of Causation: The Role of Extensive Quantities.G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo & A. Saggion - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 502--525.
     
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  5.  36
    Alternative Combining Operations in Extensive Measurement.Dragana Bozin - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):136-150.
    This paper concerns the ways in which one can/cannot combine extensive quantities. Given a particular theory of extensive measurement, there can be no alternative ways of combining extensive quantities, where 'alternative' means that one combining operation can be used instead of another causing only a change in the number assigned to the quantity. As a consequence, rectangular concatenation cannot be an alternative combining operation for length as was suggested by Ellis and agreed by Krantz, Luce, (...)
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  6. Alternative Scales for Extensive Measurement: Combining Operations and Conventionalism.Dragana Bozin - 1993 - Dissertation, Rice University
    This thesis concerns alternative concatenating operations in extensive measurements and the degree to which concatenating operations are matter of convention. My arguments are directed against Ellis' claim that what prevents us from choosing alternative ways of combining extensive quantities is only convenience and simplicity and that the choice is not based on empirical reasons. ;My first argument is that, given certain relational theories of measurement, there can be no more than one concatenating operation per quantity; because combining (...)
     
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  7. Fine-Grained Type-Free Intensionality.George Bealer - 1989 - In Gennero Chierchia, Barbara H. Partee & Raymond Turner (eds.), Properties, Types, and Meaning, Volume 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 177-230.
    Commonplace syntactic constructions in natural language seem to generate ontological commitments to a dazzling array of metaphysical categories - aggregations, sets, ordered n-tuples, possible worlds, intensional entities, ideal objects, species, intensive and extensive quantities, stuffs, situations, states, courses of events, nonexistent objects, intentional and discourse objects, general objects, plural objects, variable objects, arbitrary objects, vague kinds and concepts, fuzzy sets, and so forth. But just because a syntactic construction in some natural language appears to invoke a new category (...)
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  8.  2
    A Hundred Years Of Numbers. An Historical Introduction To Measurement Theory 1887–1990: Part I: The Formation Period. Two Lines of Research: Axiomatics and Real Morphisms, Scales and Invariance. [REVIEW]José Díez - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (1):167-185.
    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the historical evolution of the so-called Measurement Theory. MT has two clearly different periods, the formation period and the mature theory, whose borderline coincides with the publication in 1951 of Suppes' foundational work, ‘A set of independent axioms for extensive quantities’. In this paper two previous research traditions on the foundations of measurement, developed during the formation period, come together in the appropriate way. These traditions correspond, on the one hand, (...)
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  9. Kant on Negative Quantities, Real Opposition and Inertia.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Kant's obscure essay entitled An Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Quantities into Philosophy has received virtually no attention in the Kant literature. The essay has been in English translation for over twenty years, though not widely available. In his original 1983 translation, Gordon Treash argues that the Negative Quantities essay should be understood as part of an ongoing response to the philosophy of Christian Wolff. Like Hoffmann and Crusius before him, the Kant of 1763 is at (...)
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  10.  14
    Conditional Random Quantities and Compounds of Conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):709-729.
    In this paper we consider conditional random quantities (c.r.q.’s) in the setting of coherence. Based on betting scheme, a c.r.q. X|H is not looked at as a restriction but, in a more extended way, as \({XH + \mathbb{P}(X|H)H^c}\) ; in particular (the indicator of) a conditional event E|H is looked at as EH + P(E|H)H c . This extended notion of c.r.q. allows algebraic developments among c.r.q.’s even if the conditioning events are different; then, for instance, we can give (...)
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  11.  65
    Extensive Games as Process Models.Johan van Benthem - 2002 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (3):289-313.
    We analyze extensive games as interactive process models, using modallanguages plus matching notions of bisimulation as varieties of gameequivalences. Our technical results show how to fit existing modalnotions into this new setting.
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  12.  38
    Measurement Without Archimedean Axioms.Louis Narens - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (4):374-393.
    Axiomatizations of measurement systems usually require an axiom--called an Archimedean axiom--that allows quantities to be compared. This type of axiom has a different form from the other measurement axioms, and cannot--except in the most trivial cases--be empirically verified. In this paper, representation theorems for extensive measurement structures without Archimedean axioms are given. Such structures are represented in measurement spaces that are generalizations of the real number system. Furthermore, a precise description of "Archimedean axioms" is given and it is (...)
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  13.  1
    The Office of Ordnance and the Instrument-Making Trade in the Mid-Eighteenth Century.John R. Millburn - 1988 - Annals of Science 45 (3):221-293.
    Records of certain Government Departments known to have purchased scientific instruments from designated suppliers over long periods are potentially important sources of information on both instruments and their makers. The Office of Ordnance was one such Department. Investigation of its financial and administrative records has shown that the appointment ‘Mathematical Instrument Maker to his Majesty's Office of Ordnance’ brought the holder a substantial trade in instruments for drawing, surveying, and military purposes. Detailed entries in the Bill Books enable not only (...)
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  14.  42
    A Reformulation of the Social Brain Theory for Schizophrenia The Case for Out-Group Intolerance.Riadh T. Abed & Mohammed J. Abbas - 2011 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):132-151.
    The etiology of schizophrenia remains heavily contested despite extensive research, huge quantities of data, and heavy investment in time and material resources around the world. Not only is there little agreement about the causes of this most devastating of psychiatric conditions, but there is disagreement as to whether the condition exists at all as a coherent entity (Bentall 2006). Evolutionary theorists have had the added problem of explaining how a severe mental illness that causes a significant reproductive disadvantage (...)
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  15.  17
    An Exploration Into the Elegant Tastes of Chinese Tea Culture.Hongliang Du - 2013 - Asian Culture and History 5 (2):p44.
    China was the first to produce tea and consumed the largest quantities and its craftsmanship was the finest. During the development of Chinese history, Chinese Tea culture came into being. In ancient China, drinking tea is not only a very common phenomenon but also an elegant taste for men of letters and officials. Chinese tea culture is extensive and profound and it is necessary for foreigners to understand Chinese tea culture for the purpose of smooth and deepen the (...)
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  16.  11
    An Alternative "Fundamental" Axiomatization of Multiplicative Power Relations Among Three Variables.A. A. J. Marley - 1968 - Philosophy of Science 35 (2):185-186.
    Suppose that the axioms of conjoint measurement hold for quantities having two independent components and that the axioms of extensive measurement hold for each of these components separately. In a recent paper, Luce shows that if a certain axiom relates the two measurement systems, then the conjoint measure on each component is a power function of the extensive measure on that component. Luce supposes that each component set contains all "rational fractions" of each element in that set; (...)
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  17. Returns of Conjecture Out of Such a Trifling Investment of Fact.Mark Wilson - unknown
    The extensive philosophical literature devoted to "reduction to basic quantities" and "supervenience" generally trades upon a tacit looseness with respect to basic logical issues. Specifically, working physics commonly traffics in quantities pegged to different length scales whose interrelationships conceal a good deal of logical and structural complexity. So let us begin with a somewhat pedantic warning about the subtleties of scale dependent location attributions. Let us presume — and this is an assumption we shall want to revisit (...)
     
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  18.  12
    Four Futures and a History.Ronald A. Rensink - unknown
    Stephen Few provides a nice overview of the reasons why we should design data visualizations to be effective, and why it’s important to understand human perception when doing so. In fact, he’s done this so well that I can’t add much to his arguments. But I can, however, push the basic message a bit further, out into the times before and after those he discusses. Out into areas that are not as well known, or not really developed, where new opportunities (...)
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  19. Armstrong on Quantities and Resemblance.M. Eddon - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (3):385-404.
    Resemblances obtain not only between objects but between properties. Resemblances of the latter sort - in particular resemblances between quantitative properties - prove to be the downfall of a well-known theory of universals, namely the one presented by David Armstrong. This paper examines Armstrong's efforts to account for such resemblances within the framework of his theory and also explores several extensions of that theory. All of them fail.
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  20.  74
    The Revolution Will Not Be Optimised: Radical Enactivism, Extended Functionalism and the Extensive Mind.Michael Wheeler - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):457-472.
    Optimising the 4E revolution in cognitive science arguably requires the rejection of two guiding commitments made by orthodox thinking in the field, namely that the material realisers of cognitive states and processes are located entirely inside the head, and that intelligent thought and action are to be explained in terms of the building and manipulation of content-bearing representations. In other words, the full-strength 4E revolution would be secured only by a position that delivered externalism plus antirepresentationalism. I argue that one (...)
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  21. Aristotle’s Prohibition Rule on Kind-Crossing and the Definition of Mathematics as a Science of Quantities.Paola Cantù - 2010 - Synthese 174 (2):225-235.
    The article evaluates the Domain Postulate of the Classical Model of Science and the related Aristotelian prohibition rule on kind-crossing as interpretative tools in the history of the development of mathematics into a general science of quantities. Special reference is made to Proclus’ commentary to Euclid’s first book of Elements , to the sixteenth century translations of Euclid’s work into Latin and to the works of Stevin, Wallis, Viète and Descartes. The prohibition rule on kind-crossing formulated by Aristotle in (...)
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  22.  20
    Extensive Enactivism: Why Keep It All In?Daniel D. Hutto, Michael D. Kirchhoff & Erik Myin - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Radical enactive and embodied approaches to cognitive science oppose the received view in the sciences of the mind in denying that cognition fundamentally involves contentful mental representation. This paper argues that the fate of representationalism in cognitive science matters significantly to how best to understand the extent of cognition. It seeks to establish that any move away from representationalism toward pure, empirical functionalism fails to provide a substantive “mark of the cognitive” and is bereft of other adequate means for individuating (...)
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  23.  22
    Is There a Humean Account of Quantities?Phillip Bricker - 2017 - Philosophical Issues 27 (1):26-51.
    Humeans have a problem with quantities. A core principle of any Humean account of modality is that fundamental entities can freely recombine. But determinate quantities, if fundamental, seem to violate this core principle: determinate quantities belonging to the same determinable necessarily exclude one another. Call this the problem of exclusion. Prominent Humeans have responded in various ways. Wittgenstein, when he resurfaced to philosophy, gave the problem of exclusion as a reason to abandon the logical atomism of the (...)
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  24. Zero-Value Physical Quantities.Yuri Balashov - 1999 - Synthese 119 (3):253-286.
    To state an important fact about the photon, physicists use such expressions as (1) “the photon has zero (null, vanishing) mass” and (2) “the photon is (a) massless (particle)” interchangeably. Both (1) and (2) express the fact that the photon has no non-zero mass. However, statements (1) and (2) disagree about a further fact: (1) attributes to the photon the property of zero-masshood whereas (2) denies that the photon has any mass at all. But is there really a difference between (...)
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  25.  7
    Laue's Theorem Revisited: Energy-Momentum Tensors, Symmetries, and the Habitat of Globally Conserved Quantities.Domenico Giulini - 2018 - International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 15 (10).
    The energy-momentum tensor for a particular matter component summarises its local energy-momentum distribution in terms of densities and current densities. We re-investigate under what conditions these local distributions can be integrated to meaningful global quantities. This leads us directly to a classic theorem by Max von Laue concerning integrals of components of the energy-momentum tensor, whose statement and proof we recall. In the first half of this paper we do this within the realm of Special Relativity and in the (...)
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  26. On the Nature of Continuous Physical Quantities in Classical and Quantum Mechanics.Hans Halvorson - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (1):27-50.
    Within the traditional Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics, it is not possible to describe a particle as possessing, simultaneously, a sharp position value and a sharp momentum value. Is it possible, though, to describe a particle as possessing just a sharp position value (or just a sharp momentum value)? Some, such as Teller, have thought that the answer to this question is No - that the status of individual continuous quantities is very different in quantum mechanics than in (...)
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  27. Finite Quantities.Daniel Nolan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt1):23-42.
    Quantum Mechanics, and apparently its successors, claim that there are minimum quantities by which objects can differ, at least in some situations: electrons can have various “energy levels” in an atom, but to move from one to another they must jump rather than move via continuous variation: and an electron in a hydrogen atom going from -13.6 eV of energy to -3.4 eV does not pass through states of -10eV or -5.1eV, let along -11.1111115637 eV or -4.89712384 eV.
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  28.  92
    On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.Jeremy Butterfield - unknown
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's ``first theorem'', in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem's main ``ingredient'', apart from cyclic (...)
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  29.  52
    Memory and Perfect Recall in Extensive Games.Giacomo Bonanno - 2004 - Games and Economic Behavior 47 (2):237-256.
    The notion of perfect recall in extensive games was introduced by Kuhn (1953), who interpreted it as "equivalent to the assertion that each player is allowed by the rules of the game to remember everything he knew at previous moves and all of his choices at those moves''. We provide a characterization and axiomatization of perfect recall based on two notions of memory: (1) memory of past knowledge and (2) memory of past actions.
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  30. Extensive Measurement and Ratio Functions.Brent Mundy - 1988 - Synthese 75 (1):1 - 23.
    Extensive measurement theory is developed in terms of theratio of two elements of an arbitrary (not necessarily Archimedean) extensive structure; thisextensive ratio space is a special case of a more general structure called aratio space. Ratio spaces possess a natural family of numerical scales (r-scales) which are definable in non-representational terms; ther-scales for an extensive ratio space thus constitute a family of numerical scales (extensive r-scales) for extensive structures which are defined in a non-representational manner. (...)
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  31.  96
    An Additive Representation on the Product of Complete, Continuous Extensive Structures.Yutaka Matsushita - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (1):1-16.
    This article develops an axiom system to justify an additive representation for a preference relation ${\succsim}$ on the product ${\prod_{i=1}^{n}A_{i}}$ of extensive structures. The axiom system is basically similar to the n-component (n ≥ 3) additive conjoint structure, but the independence axiom is weakened in the system. That is, the axiom exclusively requires the independence of the order for each of single factors from fixed levels of the other factors. The introduction of a concatenation operation on each factor A (...)
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  32.  56
    Common Knowledge of Rationality in Extensive Games.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2008 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 49 (3):261-280.
    We develop a logical system that captures two different interpretations of what extensive games model, and we apply this to a long-standing debate in game theory between those who defend the claim that common knowledge of rationality leads to backward induction or subgame perfect (Nash) equilibria and those who reject this claim. We show that a defense of the claim à la Aumann (1995) rests on a conception of extensive game playing as a one-shot event in combination with (...)
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  33.  60
    What Are Quantities?Joongol Kim - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):792-807.
    ABSTRACTThis paper presents a view of quantities as ‘adverbial’ entities of a certain kind—more specifically, determinate ways, or modes, of having length, mass, speed, and the like. In doing so, it will be argued that quantities as such should be distinguished from quantitative properties or relations, and are not universals but are particulars, although they are not objects, either. A main advantage of the adverbial view over its rivals will be found in its superior explanatory power with respect (...)
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  34.  8
    Symmetry, Reference Frames, and Relational Quantities in Quantum Mechanics.Leon Loveridge, Takayuki Miyadera & Paul Busch - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):135-198.
    We propose that observables in quantum theory are properly understood as representatives of symmetry-invariant quantities relating one system to another, the latter to be called a reference system. We provide a rigorous mathematical language to introduce and study quantum reference systems, showing that the orthodox “absolute” quantities are good representatives of observable relative quantities if the reference state is suitably localised. We use this relational formalism to critique the literature on the relationship between reference frames and superselection (...)
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  35.  2
    Against Reducing Newtonian Mass to Kinematical Quantities.Niels C. M. Martens - unknown
    It is argued that Newtonian mass cannot be reduced to kinematical quantities---distance, velocity and acceleration---without losing the explanatory and predictive power of Newtonian Gravity.
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  36.  55
    Quantities, Magnitudes, and Numbers.Henry E. Kyburg Jr - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (3):377-410.
    Quantities are naturally viewed as functions, whose arguments may be construed as situations, events, objects, etc. We explore the question of the range of these functions: should it be construed as the real numbers (or some subset thereof)? This is Carnap's view. It has attractive features, specifically, what Carnap views as ontological economy. Or should the range of a quantity be a set of magnitudes? This may have been Helmholtz's view, and it, too, has attractive features. It reveals the (...)
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  37.  58
    Real Numbers, Quantities, and Measurement.Bob Hale - 2002 - Philosophia Mathematica 10 (3):304-323.
    Defining the real numbers by abstraction as ratios of quantities gives prominence to then- applications in just the way that Frege thought we should. But if all the reals are to be obtained in this way, it is necessary to presuppose a rich domain of quantities of a land we cannot reasonably assume to be exemplified by any physical or other empirically measurable quantities. In consequence, an explanation of the applications of the reals, defined in this way, (...)
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  38. Generalizing the Algebra of Physical Quantities.Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    In this paper, I define and study an abstract algebraic structure, the dimensive algebra, which embodies the most general features of the algebra of dimensional physical quantities. I prove some elementary results about dimensive algebras and suggest some directions for future work.
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  39.  45
    Faithful Representation, Physical Extensive Measurement Theory and Archimedean Axioms.Brent Mundy - 1987 - Synthese 70 (3):373 - 400.
    The formal methods of the representational theory of measurement (RTM) are applied to the extensive scales of physical science, with some modifications of interpretation and of formalism. The interpretative modification is in the direction of theoretical realism rather than the narrow empiricism which is characteristic of RTM. The formal issues concern the formal representational conditions which extensive scales should be assumed to satisfy; I argue in the physical case for conditions related to weak rather than strong extensive (...)
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  40.  22
    Dynamic Consistency in Extensive Form Decision Problems.Nicola Dimitri - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (4):345-354.
    In a stimulating paper, Piccione and Rubinstein (1997) argued how a decision maker could undertake dynamically inconsistent choices when, in an extensive form decision problem, she has a particular type of imperfect recall named absentmindedness. Such memory limitation obtains whenever information sets include decision histories along the same decision path. Starting from work focusing on the absentminded driver example, and independently developed by Segal (2000) and Dimitri (1999), the main theorem of this article provides a general result of dynamically (...)
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  41.  7
    Extensive Benevolence.John P. Reeder - 1998 - Journal of Religious Ethics 26 (1):47-70.
    In order to sketch an account of a moral commitment to persons as such, the essay examines empathy, sympathy, and benevolence as they arise first in special relations and then are reconstructed to include the stranger under the rubric of "extensive benevolence" or "universal love." The account, the author argues, must deal with conceptual empowerment and authorizing reasons, weakness and evil, normative conflict, and the relation of benevolence to justice.
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  42. On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.I. Pitowsky - unknown
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether’s “first theorem”, in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics’ grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem’s main “ingredient”, apart from cyclic (...)
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  43.  22
    When Normal and Extensive Form Decisions Differ.Teddy Seidenfeld - 1994 - In Dag Prawitz, Brian Skyrms & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Elsevier. pp. 451-463.
    The "traditional" view of normative decision theory, as reported (for example) in chapter 2 of Luce and RaiÃa's [1957] classic work, Games and Decisions, proposes a reduction of sequential decisions problems to non-sequential decisions: a reduction of extensive forms to normal forms. Nonetheless, this reduction is not without its critics, both from inside and outside expected utility theory, It islay purpose in this essay to join with those critics by advocating the following thesis.
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  44.  46
    Four-Dimensional Geometric Quantities Versus the Usual Three-Dimensional Quantities: The Resolution of Jackson's Paradox. [REVIEW]Tomislav Ivezić - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (10):1511-1534.
    In this paper we present definitions of different four-dimensional (4D) geometric quantities (Clifford multivectors). New decompositions of the torque N and the angular momentum M (bivectors) into 1-vectors Ns, Nt and Ms, Mt, respectively, are given. The torques Ns, Nt (the angular momentums Ms, Mt), taken together, contain the same physical information as the bivector N (the bivector M). The usual approaches that deal with the 3D quantities $\varvec{E,\,B,\,F,\,L,\,N}$ etc. and their transformations are objected from the viewpoint of (...)
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  45.  36
    Synchronic Information, Knowledge and Common Knowledge in Extensive Games.Giacomo Bonanno - 1999 - Research in Economics 53 (1):77-99.
    Restricting attention to the class of extensive games defined by von Neumann and Morgenstern with the added assumption of perfect recall, we specify the information of each player at each node of the game-tree in a way which is coherent with the original information structure of the extensive form. We show that this approach provides a framework for a formal and rigorous treatment of questions of knowledge and common knowledge at every node of the tree. We construct a (...)
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  46.  3
    Bolzano’s Infinite Quantities.Kateřina Trlifajová - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-24.
    In his Foundations of a General Theory of Manifolds, Georg Cantor praised Bernard Bolzano as a clear defender of actual infinity who had the courage to work with infinite numbers. At the same time, he sharply criticized the way Bolzano dealt with them. Cantor’s concept was based on the existence of a one-to-one correspondence, while Bolzano insisted on Euclid’s Axiom of the whole being greater than a part. Cantor’s set theory has eventually prevailed, and became a formal basis of contemporary (...)
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  47.  12
    Policy Schemes and Targeted Technologies in an Extensive Cereal–Sheep Farming System.Rafael Caballero - 2002 - Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):63-74.
    Many commentators and experts arguethat extensive agricultural systems across theEuropean Union (EU) should be supported toreach the two main functions of the EuropeanModel of Agriculture (EMA): lively economicsystems and environmental awareness. We arguethat the main current policy instrument of theEMA, the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy),should be targeted to take advantage ofexisting regional diversity in social realitiesand agricultural structures. Community-basedresearch work has been carried out throughoutthe 1990s in the cereal–sheep farming system ofCastile-La Mancha (south-central Spain), wherea system of land-use operates (...)
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  48.  10
    Extensive Measurement in Semiorders.David H. Krantz - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (4):348-362.
    In both axiomatic theories and the practice of extensive measurement, it is assumed that a series of replicas of any given object can be found. The replicas give rise to a standard series, the "multiples" of the given object. The numerical value assigned to any object is determined, approximately, by comparisons with members of a suitable standard series. This prescription introduces unspecified errors, if the comparison process is somewhat insensitive, so that "replicas" are not really equivalent. In this paper, (...)
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  49.  33
    The Transformation of the State Extensive Growth Model in Cuba's Sugarcane Agriculture.Lázaro Peña Castellanos & Jose Alvarez - 1996 - Agriculture and Human Values 13 (1):59-68.
    The high levels of land use, inputs, and investment, along with the specific forms of organization and management that characterized Cuba's state extensive growth model during the 1980s, could not overcome the challenges posed by the integrated care required by the sugarcane crop and corresponding industrial activities. Starting in 1993, large state farms have been converted into Basic Units of Cooperative Production with some degree of autonomy. Although first-year production results are not satisfactory, it is too early to evaluate (...)
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    On Weak Extensive Measurement.Hans Colonius - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (2):303-308.
    Extensive measurement is called weak if the axioms allow two objects to have the same scale value without being indifferent with respect to the order. Necessary and/or sufficient conditions for such representations are given. The Archimedean and the non-Archimedean case are dealt with separately.
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