As opposed to overdemanding principles which ask individuals to sacrifice too much, there are overpermissive principles which ask individuals to sacrifice too little. Determining the extent to which one should sacrifice often comes with the need of understanding what is of moral significance. By analysing different readings of moral significance, and singling out one specific interpretation of moral significance which links moral significance to gaining or losing a considerable amount of welfare, I demonstrate that one of the well-known principles of (...) Peter Singer, the Weaker Principle of Sacrifice, is overpermissive as it exempts deliberately cultivated morally significant lavish pursuits from the domain of sacrifice. Overpermissiveness not only renders moral principles unreasonably broad but also causes burdens to be distributed unjustifiably in a comparative sense, where some parties are assigned a moral obligation whereas others are not. (shrink)
Effective altruism is a movement which aims to maximise good. Effective altruists are concerned with extreme poverty and many of them think that individuals have an obligation to donate to effective charities to alleviate extreme poverty. Their reasoning, which I will scrutinise, is as follows: -/- Premise 1. Extreme poverty is very bad. -/- Premise 2. If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything else morally significant, we ought, morally, to do (...) it. -/- Premise 3. Individuals ought to choose the effective option in preventing very bad things. -/- Premise 4. Donating to effective charities is one of the best ways to alleviate extreme poverty. -/- Conclusion. Individuals ought to donate to effective charities working towards extreme poverty alleviation where doing so does not require them to give up anything of moral significance. -/- I will scrutinise each of these premises in turn. -/- For Premise 1, I focus on hedonistic utilitarianism and criticise its outlook on extreme poverty. I claim that hedonistic utilitarianism might be problematic for effective altruism. -/- Premise 2 is Peter Singer's Weaker Principle of Sacrifice. I introduce several possible interpretations of it, and press several objections to it by stressing overpermissiveness, luck, and rights. I defend strengthening the Weaker Principle of Sacrifice without making it overdemanding. -/- I claim that Premise 3 can be attractive to both consequentialists and non-consequentialists. Nevertheless, by showing that effectiveness sometimes violates fairness, I propose a method which avoids always helping the greater number and always giving everyone equal chances of being helped, which is compatible with effective altruism. -/- Against Premise 4, I assess the systemic change objection, which states that effective altruism unjustifiably distracts individuals from systemic change. By considering risk and the moral standing of the future extremely poor, I claim that the systemic change objection is partially successful, but cannot undermine effective altruism. -/- After analysing all of these, I argue that individuals have an obligation to donate to effective charities to alleviate extreme poverty where doing so does not require them to give up anything of moral significance. (shrink)
We discover geometric properties of certain definable sets over non-Archimedean valued fields with analytic structures. Results include a parameterized smooth stratification theorem and the existence of a bound on the piece number of fibers for these sets. In addition, we develop a dimension theory for these sets and also for the formulas which define them.
Sosyal bilimlerde sosyo-kültürel ve etno-sosyolojik araştırmalar geniş bir yer tutar. Bir grubun sosyo-kültürel ve etno-sosyolojik değişkenler özelinde kendisini nasıl tanımladığı araştırılan bir husustur. Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerinde yaşayan alt kültür grupları bu değişkenler bağlamında incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma Türkiye’de yaygın bir şekilde yaşayan gruplardan biri olan Karakeçililerden, Siverek Karakeçilerini incelemiştir. Siverek Karakeçilileri; etnografik bir alan araştırmasıyla, kendi yaşam alanlarına katılım sağlanarak elde edilen verilerle incelenmiştir. Veriler MAXQDA nitel veri analiz programı aracılığıyla değerlendirmiştir. Mehmet Eröz 1982’de aynı grubu aynı alanda incelemiştir. Makalede; Eröz’ün (...) tespitleri ile araştırmacının tespitleri karşılaştırmalı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır. Böylelikle iki çalışma arasındaki uzun süre zarfı göz önüne alınarak, Siverek Karakeçililerinin yaşadığı değişim ve dönüşüm değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışma bu yönüyle özgünlük arz etmektedir. (shrink)
: A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation-rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.
Mature rats were kept on protein-deficient diets to test the hypothesis that late-onset protein restriction results in deficits and to determine the feasibility of doing nutrition-behavior research with old naive animals. A 3% low-protein (LP) group and a 24% adequate-protein (AP) pair-fed control were used. Body weights and plasma protein concentrations were lower and exploratory behavior and motor coordination were poorer for LP rats. Both groups preferred the 24% protein diet. LP rats habituated slower and failed to overcome an initial (...) black preference on an oddity discrimination learning task. Nutrition-behavioral research with older rats is feasible, and late-onset protein restriction produces psychobiological deficits. (shrink)
Signals to the brain from the flows of energy around the body, varied primarily by declining amounts of food energy in the stomach, can explain the pattern of meals in the laboratory rat, the differences between dark and light phases, and the development of obesity ion the rat wioth VMH lesions but normal sating.